Ezequiel Treister - Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción

Ezequiel Treister
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Ezequiel Treister
Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción

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Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (26)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (17)
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (15)
Astrophysics (10)
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (2)

Publications Authored By Ezequiel Treister

We investigate the observed relationship between black hole mass ($M_{\rm BH}$), bolometric luminosity ($L_{\rm bol}$), and Eddington ratio (${\lambda}_{\rm Edd}$) with optical emission line ratios ([NII] {\lambda}6583/H{\alpha}, [SII] {\lambda}{\lambda}6716,6731/H{\alpha}, [OI] {\lambda}6300/H{\alpha}, [OIII] {\lambda}5007/H{\beta}, [NeIII] {\lambda}3869/H{\beta}, and HeII {\lambda}4686/H{\beta}) of hard X-ray-selected AGN from the BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS). We show that the [NII] {\lambda}6583/H{\alpha} ratio exhibits a significant correlation with ${\lambda}_{\rm Edd}$ ($R_{\rm Pear}$ = -0.44, $p$-value=$3\times10^{-13}$, {\sigma} = 0. Read More

This study explored the GALEX ultraviolet (UV) properties of optical red sequence galaxies in 4 rich Abell clusters at z \leq 0.1. In particular, we tried to find a hint of merger-induced recent star formation (RSF) in red sequence galaxies. Read More

Some reddened quasars appear to be transitional objects in the merger-induced black hole growth/galaxy evolution paradigm, where a heavily obscured nucleus starts to be unveiled by powerful quasar winds evacuating the surrounding cocoon of dust and gas. Hard X-ray observations are able to peer through this gas and dust, revealing the properties of circumnuclear obscuration. Here, we present NuSTAR and XMM-Newton/Chandra observations of FIRST-2MASS selected red quasars F2M 0830+3759 and F2M 1227+3214. Read More

We present deep Chandra X-ray observations of the core of IC 2497, the galaxy associated with Hanny's Voorwerp and hosting a fading AGN. We find extended soft X-ray emission from hot gas around the low intrinsic luminosity (unobscured) AGN ($L_{\rm bol} \sim 10^{42}-10^{44}$ erg s$^{-1}$). The temperature structure in the hot gas suggests the presence of a bubble or cavity around the fading AGN ($\mbox{E$_{\rm bub}$} \sim 10^{54} - 10^{55}$ erg). Read More

Capitalizing on the all-sky coverage of {\it WISE}, and the 35\% and 50\% sky coverage from SDSS and Pan-STARRS, respectively, we explore the efficacy of $m_{R}$ (optical) - $m_{3.4 \mu m}$ (mid-infrared), hereafter $R-W1$, as a color diagnostic to identify obscured supermassive black hole accretion in wide-area X-ray surveys. We use the $\sim$16. Read More

We present a NuSTAR, Chandra, and XMM--Newton survey of nine of the nearest ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). The unprecedented sensitivity of NuSTAR at energies above 10 keV enables spectral modeling with far better precision than was previously possible. Six of the nine sources observed were detected sufficiently well by NuSTAR to model in detail their broadband X-ray spectra, and recover the levels of obscuration and intrinsic X-ray luminosities. Read More

We investigated AGN activity in low-mass galaxies, an important regime that can shed light onto BH formation and evolution, and their interaction with their host galaxies. We identified 336 AGN candidates from a parent sample of $\sim 48,000$ nearby low-mass galaxies ($M_{\rm \star} \leq 10^{9.5}M_\odot$, $z < 0. Read More

We investigate the relationship between X-ray and optical line emission in 340 nearby AGN selected above 10 keV using Swift BAT. We find a weak correlation between the extinction corrected [O III] and hard X-ray luminosity (14-195 keV) with a [OIII] large scatter (R_Pear = 0.64, sigma = 0. Read More

Affiliations: 1Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich, 2Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich, 3Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, 4Physics Department and Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, 5Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich, 6Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich

We investigate early black hole (BH) growth through the methodical search for $z\gtrsim5$ AGN in the $Chandra$ Deep Field South. We base our search on the $Chandra$ 4-Ms data with flux limits of $9.1\times\ 10^{-18}$ (soft, 0. Read More

Affiliations: 1PUC-Chile, 2Valparaiso, 3JPL, 4ETH Zurich, 5ASDC-ASI, 6Southhampton, 7JPL, 8Durham, 9Durham, 10SSL-Berkeley, 11Penn State, 12Durham, 13DTU Space, 14INAF-Bologna, 15SSL-Berkeley, 16Durham, 17Columbia Univ, 18Durham, 19Dartmouth, 20Penn State, 21GSFC, 22Universita Roma Tre, 23Universita Roma Tre, 24GSFC, 25Durham, 26UMd, 27Concepcion, 28Yale, 29GSFC

We report on observations of NGC1068 with NuSTAR, which provide the best constraints to date on its $>10$~keV spectral shape. We find no strong variability over the past two decades, consistent with its Compton-thick AGN classification. The combined NuSTAR, Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Swift-BAT spectral dataset offers new insights into the complex reflected emission. Read More

We use SDSS+\textit{GALEX}+Galaxy Zoo data to study the quenching of star formation in low-redshift galaxies. We show that the green valley between the blue cloud of star-forming galaxies and the red sequence of quiescent galaxies in the colour-mass diagram is not a single transitional state through which most blue galaxies evolve into red galaxies. Rather, an analysis that takes morphology into account makes clear that only a small population of blue early-type galaxies move rapidly across the green valley after the morphologies are transformed from disk to spheroid and star formation is quenched rapidly. Read More


The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) mission, launched on 13 June 2012, is the first focusing high-energy X-ray telescope in orbit. NuSTAR operates in the band from 3 -- 79 keV, extending the sensitivity of focusing far beyond the ~10 keV high-energy cutoff achieved by all previous X-ray satellites. The inherently low-background associated with concentrating the X-ray light enables NuSTAR to probe the hard X-ray sky with a more than one-hundred-fold improvement in sensitivity over the collimated or coded-mask instruments that have operated in this bandpass. Read More

Affiliations: 1Washington University in St. Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, 2Universidad de Concepcion

In this paper we give a brief review of the astrophysics of active galactic nuclei (AGN). After a general introduction motivating the study of AGNs, we discuss our present understanding of the inner workings of the central engines, most likely accreting black holes with masses between a million and ten billion solar masses. We highlight recent results concerning the jets (collimated outflows) of AGNs derived from X-ray observations (Chandra) of kpc-scale jets and gamma-ray observations of AGNs (Fermi, Cherenkov telescopes) with jets closely aligned with the lines of sight (blazars), and discuss the interpretation of these observations. Read More

We present an analysis of broad emission lines observed in moderate-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs), typical of those found in X-ray surveys of deep fields, with the aim to test the validity of single-epoch virial black hole mass estimates. We have acquired near-infrared (NIR) spectra of AGNs up to z ~ 1.8 in the COSMOS and Extended Chandra Deep Field-South Survey, with the Fiber Multi-Object Spectrograph (FMOS) mounted on the Subaru Telescope. Read More

We present the first results of a wide area X-ray survey within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82, a 300 deg$^2$ region of the sky with a substantial investment in multi-wavelength coverage. We analyzed archival {\it Chandra} observations that cover 7.5 deg$^2$ within Stripe 82 ("Stripe 82 ACX"), reaching 4. Read More

We explore the nature of heavily obscured quasar host galaxies at z~2 using deep Hubble Space Telescope WFC3/IR imaging of 28 Dust Obscured Galaxies (DOGs) to investigate the role of major mergers in driving black hole growth. The high levels of obscuration of the quasars selected for this study act as a natural coronagraph, blocking the quasar light and allowing a clear view of the underlying host galaxy. The sample of heavily obscured quasars represents a significant fraction of the cosmic mass accretion on supermassive black holes as the quasars have inferred bolometric luminosities around the break of the quasar luminosity function. Read More

We present the results from a Chandra pilot study of 12 massive galaxy mergers selected from Galaxy Zoo. The sample includes major mergers down to a host galaxy mass of 10$^{11}$ $M_\odot$ that already have optical AGN signatures in at least one of the progenitors. We find that the coincidences of optically selected active nuclei with mildly obscured ($N_H \lesssim 1. Read More

Affiliations: 1Washington Univ. in St. Louis, 2GSFC, 3GSFC, 4GSFC, 5GSFC, 6Johns Hopkins Univ., 7Rice Univ., 8Univ. of Hawaii, 9Univ. of Maryland, 10Washington Univ. in St. Louis, 11Washington Univ. in St. Louis, 12Washington Univ. in St. Louis, 13Washington Univ. in St. Louis

In this white paper, we discuss the concept of a next-generation X-ray mission called BEST (Black hole Evolution and Space Time). The mission concept uses a 3000 square centimeter effective area mirror (at 6 keV) to achieve unprecedented sensitivities for hard X-ray imaging spectrometry (5-70 keV) and for broadband X-ray polarimetry (2-70 keV). BEST can make substantial contributions to our understanding of the inner workings of accreting black holes, our knowledge about the fabric of extremely curved spacetime, and the evolution of supermassive black holes. Read More

We study the fraction of dual AGN in a sample of 167 nearby (z<0.05), moderate luminosity, ultra hard X-ray selected AGN from the all-sky Swift BAT survey. Combining new Chandra and Gemini observations together with optical and X-ray observations, we find that the dual AGN frequency at scales <100 kpc is 10% (16/167). Read More

Significant progress has been made in the last few years on understanding how supermassive black holes form and grow. In this paper, we begin by reviewing the spectral signatures of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) ranging from radio to hard X-ray wavelengths. We then describe the most commonly used methods to find these sources, including optical/UV, radio, infrared and X-ray emission and optical emission lines. Read More

One of the key open questions in cosmology today pertains to understanding when, where and how super massive black holes form, while it is clear that mergers likely play a significant role in the growth cycles of black holes, how supermassive black holes form, and how galaxies grow around them. Here, we present Hubble Space Telescope WFC3/IR grism observations of a clumpy galaxy at z=1.35, with evidence for 10^6 - 10^7 Msun rapidly growing black holes in separate sub-components of the host galaxy. Read More

We describe the results of a new, wide-field survey for z=3.1 Ly-alpha emission-line galaxies (LAEs) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDF-S). By using a nearly top-hat 5010 Angstrom filter and complementary broadband photometry from the MUSYC survey, we identify a complete sample of 141 objects with monochromatic fluxes brighter than 2. Read More

The formation of the first massive objects in the infant Universe remains impossible to observe directly and yet it sets the stage for the subsequent evolution of galaxies. While some black holes with masses > billion solar masses? have been detected in luminous quasars less than one billion years after the Big Bang, these individual extreme objects have limited utility in constraining the channels of formation of the earliest black holes. The initial conditions of black hole seed properties are quickly erased during the growth process. Read More

We study the physical properties of 216 z ~ 2.1 LAEs discovered in an ultra-deep narrow-band MUSYC image of the ECDF-S. We fit their stacked Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) using Charlot & Bruzual templates. Read More

We determine star formation rates (SFRs) in a sample of color-selected, star-forming (sBzK) galaxies (K(AB)<21.8) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field - South. To identify and avoid active galactic nuclei, we use X-ray, IRAC color, and IR/radio flux ratio selection methods. Read More

We take advantage of the rich multi-wavelength data available in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), including the 4 Msec Chandra observations (the deepest X-ray data to date), in order to search for heavily-obscured low-luminosity AGN among infrared-luminous galaxies. In particular, we obtained a stacked rest-frame X-ray spectrum for samples of galaxies binned in terms of their IR luminosity or stellar mass. We detect a significant signal at E~1 to 8 keV, which we interpret as originating from a combination of emission associated with star-formation processes at low energies combined with a heavily-obscured AGN at E>5 keV. Read More

Using new, highly accurate photometric redshifts from the MUSYC medium-band survey in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDF-S), we fit synthetic stellar population models to compare AGN host galaxies to inactive galaxies at 0.8 < z < 1.2. Read More

We present deep optical 18-medium-band photometry from the Subaru telescope over the ~30' x 30' Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (ECDF-S), as part of the Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC). This field has a wealth of ground- and space-based ancillary data, and contains the GOODS-South field and the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. We combine the Subaru imaging with existing UBVRIzJHK and Spitzer IRAC images to create a uniform catalog. Read More


Infrared (IR) luminosity is fundamental to understanding the cosmic star formation history and AGN evolution. The AKARI IR space telescope performed all sky survey in 6 IR bands (9, 18, 65, 90, 140, and 160um) with 3-10 times better sensitivity than IRAS, covering the crucial far-IR wavelengths across the peak of the dust emission. Combined with a better spatial resolution, AKARI can much more precisely measure the total infrared luminosity (L_TIR) of individual galaxies, and thus, the total infrared luminosity density in the local Universe. Read More

Despite observed strong correlations between central supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and star-formation in galactic nuclei, uncertainties exist in our understanding of their coupling. We present observations of the ratio of heavily-obscured to unobscured quasars as a function of cosmic epoch up to z~3, and show that a simple physical model describing mergers of massive, gas-rich galaxies matches these observations. In the context of this model, every obscured and unobscured quasar represent two distinct phases that result from a massive galaxy merger event. Read More

We use data from large surveys of the local Universe (SDSS+Galaxy Zoo) to show that the galaxy-black hole connection is linked to host morphology at a fundamental level. The fraction of early-type galaxies with actively growing black holes, and therefore the AGN duty cycle, declines significantly with increasing black hole mass. Late-type galaxies exhibit the opposite trend: the fraction of actively growing black holes increases with black hole mass. Read More

We use data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and visual classifications of morphology from the Galaxy Zoo project to study black hole growth in the nearby Universe (z < 0.05) and to break down the AGN host galaxy population by color, stellar mass and morphology. We find that black hole growth at luminosities L_OIII >1E40 erg/s in early- and late-type galaxies is fundamentally different. Read More

We present a new K-selected, optical-to-near-infrared photometric catalog of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS), making it publicly available to the astronomical community. The dataset is founded on publicly available imaging, supplemented by original zJK imaging data obtained as part of the MUltiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC). The final photometric catalog consists of photometry derived from nine band U-K imaging covering the full 0. Read More

The growth of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies are thought to be linked, but the precise nature of this symbiotic relationship is still poorly understood. Both observations and simulations of galaxy formation suggest that the energy input from active galactic nuclei (AGN), as the central supermassive black hole accretes material and grows, heats the interstellar material and suppresses star formation. In this Letter, we show that most host galaxies of moderate-luminosity supermassive black holes in the local universe have intermediate optical colors that imply the host galaxies are transitioning from star formation to quiescence, the first time this has been shown to be true for all AGN independent of obscuration. Read More

We make a case for the existence for ultra-massive black holes (UMBHs) in the Universe, but argue that there exists a likely upper limit to black hole masses of the order of $M \sim 10^{10} \msun$. We show that there are three strong lines of argument that predicate the existence of UMBHs: (i) expected as a natural extension of the observed black hole mass bulge luminosity relation, when extrapolated to the bulge luminosities of bright central galaxies in clusters; (ii) new predictions for the mass function of seed black holes at high redshifts predict that growth via accretion or merger-induced accretion inevitably leads to the existence of rare UMBHs at late times; (iii) the local mass function of black holes computed from the observed X-ray luminosity functions of active galactic nuclei predict the existence of a high mass tail in the black hole mass function at $z = 0$. Consistency between the optical and X-ray census of the local black hole mass function requires an upper limit to black hole masses. Read More

We present the mid-infrared colors of X-ray-detected AGN and explore mid-infrared selection criteria. Using a statistical matching technique, the likelihood ratio, over 900 IRAC counterparts were identified with a new MUSYC X-ray source catalog that includes ~1000 published X-ray sources in the Chandra Deep Field-South and Extended Chandra Deep Field-South. Most X-ray-selected AGN have IRAC spectral shapes consistent with power-law slopes, f_{nu} ~ nu^{alpha}, and display a wide range of colors, -2 < alpha < 2. Read More

Recent work has suggested that the fraction of obscured AGN declines with increasing luminosity, but it has been difficult to quantify this trend. Here, we attempt to measure this fraction as a function of luminosity by studying the ratio of mid-infrared to intrinsic nuclear bolometric luminosity in unobscured AGN. Because the mid-infrared is created by dust reprocessing of shorter wavelength nuclear light, this ratio is a diagnostic of f_obsc, the fraction of solid angle around the nucleus covered by obscuring matter. Read More

We present the first clustering results of X-ray selected AGN at z~3. Using Chandra X-ray imaging and UVR optical colors from MUSYC photometry in the ECDF-S field, we selected a sample of 58 z~3 AGN candidates. From the optical data we also selected 1385 LBG at 2. Read More

We studied the clustering properties and multiwavelength spectral energy distributions of a complete sample of 162 Ly Alpha-Emitting (LAE) galaxies at z=3.1 discovered in deep narrow-band MUSYC imaging of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South. LAEs were selected to have observed frame equivalent widths >80A and emission line fluxes >1. Read More

Affiliations: 1ESO, Chile, 2Yale
Category: Astrophysics

In order to study the evolution of the relative fraction of obscured Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) we constructed the largest sample to date of AGN selected in hard X-rays. The full sample contains 2341 X-ray-selected AGN, roughly 4 times the largest previous samples studied in this connection. Of these, 1229 (53%) have optical counterparts for which redshifts are available; these span the redshift range $z$=0-4. Read More

We selected 40 candidate Lyman Alpha Emitting galaxies (LAEs) at z ~=3.1 with observed frame equivalent widths >150A and inferred emission line fluxes >2.5x10^-17 ergs/cm^2/s from deep narrow-band and broad-band MUSYC images of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South. Read More

Affiliations: 1Department of Astronomy, Yale U, 2Yale Center for Astronomy & Astrophysics, 3Yale Center for Astronomy & Astrophysics, 4NOAO, 5Spitzer Science Center, Caltech, 6IoA, Cambridge, 7IoA, Cambridge, 8Yale Center for Astronomy & Astrophysics, 9Departamento de Astronomia, U. de Chile, 10Johns Hopkins U
Category: Astrophysics

We present mid-infrared observations of AGN in the GOODS fields, performed with the Spitzer Space Telescope. These are the deepest infrared and X-ray fields to date and cover a total area of ~0.1 square degrees. Read More

Affiliations: 1Department of astronomy, Yale U, 2Department of astronomy, Yale U, 3Departamento de Astronomia, U. de Chile
Category: Astrophysics

The Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) combines deep HST and Spitzer imaging with the deepest Chandra/XMM observations to probe obscured AGN at higher redshifts than previous multiwavelength surveys. We present a self-consistent implementation of the AGN unification paradigm, which postulates obscured AGN wherever there are unobscured AGN, to successfully explain the infrared, optical, and X-ray number counts of X-ray sources detected in the GOODS fields. Assuming either a constant ratio of obscured to unobscured AGN of 3:1 (the local value), or a ratio that decreases with luminosity, and including Compton-thick sources, we can explain the spectral shape and normalization of the extragalactic X-ray "background" as a superposition of unresolved AGN, predominantly at z~0. Read More