# Eugen Radu - National University of Ireland Maynooth, Ireland

## Contact Details

NameEugen Radu |
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AffiliationNational University of Ireland Maynooth, Ireland |
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CityMaynooth |
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CountryIreland |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## External Links |
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## Pub CategoriesGeneral Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (49) High Energy Physics - Theory (36) High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (18) High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (2) Nonlinear Sciences - Pattern Formation and Solitons (1) |

## Publications Authored By Eugen Radu

We continue our study on the capabilities of present and future X-ray missions to test the nature of astrophysical black hole candidates via X-ray reflection spectroscopy and distinguish Kerr black holes from other solutions of 4-dimensional Einstein's gravity in the presence of a matter field. Here we investigate the case of Kerr black holes with Proca hair [1]. The analysis of a sample of these configurations suggests that even extremely hairy black holes can mimic the iron line profile of the standard Kerr black holes, and, at least for the configurations of our study, we find that current X-ray missions cannot distinguish these objects from Kerr black holes. Read More

We construct a generalization of the AdS charged rotating black holes with two equal magnitude angular momenta in five-dimensional minimal gauged supergravity. In addition to the mass, electric charge and angular momentum, the new solutions possess an extra-parameter associated with a non-zero magnitude of the magnetic potential at infinity. In contrast with the known cases, these new black holes possess a non-trivial zero-horizon size limit which describes a one parameter family of spinning charged solitons. Read More

Vector boson stars, or $\textit{Proca stars}$, have been recently obtained as fully non-linear numerical solutions of the Einstein-(complex)-Proca system. These are self-gravitating, everywhere non-singular, horizonless Bose-Einstein condensates of a massive vector field, which resemble in many ways, but not all, their scalar cousins, the well-known (scalar) $\textit{boson stars}$. In this paper we report fully-non linear numerical evolutions of Proca stars, focusing on the spherically symmetric case, with the goal of assessing their stability and the end-point of the evolution of the unstable stars. Read More

We study the shadows of the fully non-linear, asymptotically flat Einstein-dilaton-Gauss-Bonnet (EdGB) black holes (BHs), for both static and rotating solutions. We find that, in all cases, these shadows are smaller than for comparable Kerr BHs, i.e. Read More

X-ray reflection spectroscopy can be a powerful tool to test the nature of astrophysical black holes. Extending previous work on Kerr black holes with scalar hair [1] and on boson stars [2], here we study whether astrophysical black hole candidates may be horizonless, self-gravitating, vector Bose-Einstein condensates, known as Proca stars [3]. We find that observations with current X-ray missions can only provide weak constraints and rule out solely Proca stars with low compactness. Read More

We study the effect of a Chern-Simons term on the electrically charged and spinning solitons of several $U(1)$ gauged models in $2+1$ dimensions. These are vortices of complex scalar field theories, both with and without symmetry breaking dynamics, and the $O(3)$ Skyrme model. In all cases the gauge decoupling limits are also considered. Read More

We construct a new class of Einstein-Maxwell static solutions with a magnetic field in $D$-dimensions (with $D\geq 5$ an odd number), approaching at infinity a globally Anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. In addition to the mass, the new solutions possess an extra-parameter associated with a non-zero magnitude of the magnetic potential at infinity. Some of the black holes possess a non-trivial zero-horizon size limit, which corresponds to a solitonic deformation of the AdS background. Read More

Light bosonic fields are ubiquitous in extensions of the Standard Model. Even when minimally coupled to gravity, these fields might evade the assumptions of the black-hole no-hair theorems and give rise to spinning black holes which can be drastically different from the Kerr metric. Furthermore, they allow for self-gravitating compact solitons, known as (scalar or Proca) boson stars. Read More

Recent numerical relativity simulations within the Einstein--Maxwell--(charged-)Klein-Gordon (EMcKG) system have shown that the non-linear evolution of a superradiantly unstable Reissner-Nordstr\"om black hole (BH) enclosed in a cavity, leads to the formation of a BH with scalar hair. Perturbative evidence for the stability of such hairy BHs has been independently established, confirming they are the true endpoints of the superradiant instability. The same EMcKG system admits also charged scalar soliton-type solutions, which can be either stable or unstable. Read More

We discuss the generalization of the NUT spacetime in General Relativity (GR) within the framework of the (dynamical) Einstein--Chern-Simons (ECS) theory with a massless scalar field. These configurations approach asymptotically the NUT spacetime and are characterized by the `electric' and `magnetic' mass parameters and a scalar `charge'. The solutions are found both analytically and numerically. Read More

Generalizations of the Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes are discussed in an astrophysically viable generalized theory of gravity, which includes higher curvature corrections in the form of the Gauss-Bonnet term, coupled to a dilaton. The angular momentum of these black holes can slightly exceed the Kerr bound. The location and the orbital frequency of particles in their innermost stable circular orbits can deviate significantly from the respective Kerr values. Read More

We consider rotating black hole solutions in five-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory with a negative cosmological constant and a generic value of the Chern-Simons coupling constant $\lambda$. Using both analytical and numerical techniques, we focus on cohomogeneity-1 configurations, with two equal-magnitude angular momenta, which approach at infinity a globally AdS background. We find that the generic solutions share a number of basic properties with the known Cvetic, L\"u and Pope black holes which have $\lambda=1$. Read More

The present paper is a sequel to our previous work [Y. Ni et al., JCAP 1607, 049 (2016)] in which we studied the iron K$\alpha$ line expected in the reflection spectrum of Kerr black holes with scalar hair. Read More

We construct electrically charged Kerr black holes (BHs) with scalar hair. Firstly, we take an uncharged scalar field, interacting with the electromagnetic field only indirectly, via the background metric. The corresponding family of solutions, dubbed Kerr-Newman BHs with ungauged scalar hair, reduces to (a sub-family of) Kerr-Newman BHs in the limit of vanishing scalar hair and to uncharged rotating boson stars in the limit of vanishing horizon. Read More

A central feature of the most elementary rotating black hole (BH) solution in General Relativity is the Kerr bound, which, for vacuum Kerr BHs, can be expressed either in terms of the ADM or the horizon "charges". This bound, however, is not a fundamental properties of General Relativity and stationary, asymptotically flat, regular (on and outside an event horizon) BHs are known to violate the Kerr bound, both in terms of their ADM and horizon quantities. Examples include the recently discovered Kerr BHs with scalar or Proca hair. Read More

Recently, a family of hairy black holes in 4-dimensional Einstein gravity minimally coupled to a complex, massive scalar field was discovered~\cite{hbh}. Besides the mass $M$ and spin angular momentum $J$, these objects are characterized by a Noether charge $Q$, measuring the amount of scalar hair, which is not associated to a Gauss law and cannot be measured at spatial infinity. Introducing a dimensionless scalar hair parameter $q$, ranging from 0 to 1, we recover (a subset of) Kerr black holes for $q=0$ and a family of rotating boson stars for $q=1$. Read More

We explicitly construct static black hole solutions to the fully non-linear, D=4, Einstein-Maxwell-AdS equations that have no continuous spatial symmetries. These black holes have a smooth, topologically spherical horizon (section), but without isometries, and approach, asymptotically, global AdS spacetime. They are interpreted as bound states of a horizon with the Einstein-Maxwell-AdS solitons recently discovered, for appropriate boundary data. Read More

Recently, various examples of asymptotically flat, rotating black holes (BHs) with synchronized hair have been explicitly constructed, including Kerr BHs with scalar or Proca hair, and Myers-Perry BHs with scalar hair and a mass gap, showing there is a general mechanism at work. All these solutions have been found numerically, integrating the fully non-linear field equations of motion from the event horizon outwards. Here, we address the spacetime geometry of these solutions inside the event horizon. Read More

For an observer, the Black Hole (BH) shadow is the BH's apparent image in the sky due to the gravitational lensing of nearby radiation, emitted by an external source. A recent class of solutions dubbed Kerr BHs with scalar hair possess smaller shadows than the corresponding Kerr BHs and, under some conditions, novel exotic shadow shapes can arise. Thus, these hairy BHs could potentially provide new shadow templates for future experiments such as the Event Horizon Telescope. Read More

We show that the general framework proposed in arXiv:1410.0581 for the study of asymptotically flat vacuum black objects with $k+1$ equal magnitude angular momenta in $D\geq 5$ spacetime dimensions (with $0\leq k\leq \big[\frac{D-5}{2} \big]$) can be extended to the case of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton (EMd) theory. This framework can describe black holes with spherical horizon topology, the simplest solutions corresponding to a class of electrically charged (dilatonic) Myers-Perry black holes. Read More

Self-interacting boson stars have been shown to alleviate the astrophysically low maximal mass of their non-self-interacting counterparts. We report some physical features of spinning self-interacting boson stars, namely their compactness, the occurence of ergo-regions and the scalar field profiles, for a sample of values of the coupling parameter. The results agree with the general picture that these boson stars are comparatively less compact than the non-self-interacting ones. Read More

A known feature of electrically charged Reissner-Nordstr\"om-anti-de Sitter planar black holes is that they can become unstable when considered as solutions of Einstein--Yang-Mills theory. The mechanism for this is that the linearized Yang-Mills equations in the background of the Reissner-Nordstr\"om (RN) black holes possess a normalizable zero mode, resulting in non-Abelian (nA) magnetic clouds near the horizon. In this work we show that the same pattern may occur also for asymptotically flat RN black holes. Read More

Bekenstein proved that in Einstein's gravity minimally coupled to one (or many) real, Abelian, Proca field, stationary black holes (BHs) cannot have Proca hair. Dropping Bekenstein's assumption that matter inherits spacetime symmetries, we show this model admits asymptotically flat, stationary, axi-symmetric, regular on and outside an event horizon BHs with Proca hair, for an even number of real (or an arbitrary number of complex) Proca fields. To establish it, we start by showing that a test, complex Proca field can form bound states, with real frequency, around Kerr BHs: stationary Proca clouds. Read More

Electrostatics on global Anti-de-Sitter (AdS) spacetime is sharply different from that on global Minkowski spacetime. It admits a multipolar expansion with everywhere regular, finite energy solutions, for every multipole moment except the monopole (arXiv:1507.04370). Read More

We study the generalization of the Kerr-Newmann black hole in 5D Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory with free Chern-Simons coupling parameter. These black holes possess equal magnitude angular momenta and an event horizon of spherical topology. We focus on the extremal case with zero temperature. Read More

We present an investigation of spinning black holes in Einstein--Gauss-Bonnet--dilaton (EGBd) theory. The solutions are found within a non-perturbative approach, by directly solving the field equations. These stationary axially symmetric black holes are asymptotically flat. Read More

The known static electro-vacuum black holes in a globally AdS$_4$ background have an event horizon which is geometrically a round sphere. In this work we argue that the situation is different in models with matter fields possessing an explicit dependence on the azimuthal angle $\varphi$, which, however, does not manifest at the level of the energy-momentum tensor. As a result, the full solutions are axially symmetric only, possessing a single (timelike) Killing vector field. Read More

The maximal ADM mass for (mini-)boson stars (BSs) -- gravitating solitons of Einstein's gravity minimally coupled to a free, complex, mass $\mu$, Klein-Gordon field -- is $M_{\rm ADM}^{\rm max}\sim M_{Pl}^2/\mu$. Adding quartic self-interactions to the scalar field theory, described by the Lagrangian $\mathcal{L}_I=\lambda |\Psi|^4$, the maximal ADM mass becomes $M_{\rm ADM}^{\rm max}\sim \sqrt{\lambda}M_{Pl}^3/\mu^2$. Thus, for mini-BSs, astrophysically interesting masses require ultra-light scalar fields, whereas self-interacting BSs can reach such values for bosonic particles with Standard Model range masses. Read More

Using backwards ray tracing, we study the shadows of Kerr black holes with scalar hair (KBHsSH). KBHsSH interpolate continuously between Kerr BHs and boson stars (BSs), so we start by investigating the lensing of light due to BSs. Moving from the weak to the strong gravity region, BSs - which by themselves have no shadows - are classified, according to the lensing produced, as: $(i)$ non-compact, which yield no multiple images; $(ii)$ compact, which produce an increasing number of Einstein rings and multiple images of the whole celestial sphere; $(iii)$ ultra-compact, which possess light rings, yielding an infinite number of images with (we conjecture) a self-similar structure. Read More

We establish that massive complex Abelian vector fields (mass $\mu$) can form gravitating solitons, when minimally coupled to Einstein's gravity. Such Proca stars (PSs) have a stationary, everywhere regular and asymptotically flat geometry. The Proca field, however, possesses a harmonic time dependence (frequency $w$), realizing Wheeler's concept of geons for an Abelian spin 1 field. Read More

We discuss electrostatics in Anti-de-Sitter ($AdS$) spacetime, in global coordinates. We observe that the multipolar expansion has two crucial differences to that in Minkowski spacetime. First, there are everywhere regular solutions, with finite energy, for every multipole moment except for the monopole. Read More

Rotating black holes in Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory possess remarkable features, when the Chern-Simons coupling constant reaches a critical value. Representing single asymptotically flat black holes with horizons of spherical topology, they exhibit non-uniqueness. In particular, there even exist extremal and non-extremal black holes with the same sets of global charges. Read More

Kerr black holes have their angular momentum, $J$, bounded by their mass, $M$: $Jc\leqslant GM^2$. There are, however, known black hole solutions violating this Kerr bound. We propose a very simple universal bound on the rotation, rather than on the angular momentum, of four-dimensional, stationary and axisymmetric, asymptotically flat black holes, given in terms of an appropriately defined horizon linear velocity, $v_H$. Read More

We construct rotating boson stars and Myers-Perry black holes with scalar hair (MPBHsSH) as fully non-linear solutions of five dimensional Einstein gravity minimally coupled to a complex, massive scalar field. The MPBHsSH are, in general, regular on and outside the horizon, asymptotically flat, and possess angular momentum in a single rotation plane. They are supported by rotation and have no static limit. Read More

We consider the status of black hole solutions with non-trivial scalar fields but no gauge fields, in four dimensional asymptotically flat space-times, reviewing both classical results and recent developments. We start by providing a simple illustration on the physical difference between black holes in electro-vacuum and scalar-vacuum. Next, we review no-scalar-hair theorems. Read More

We investigate the thermodynamics of spherically symmetric black hole solutions in a four-dimensional Einstein--Yang-Mills-SU(2) theory with a negative cosmological constant. Special attention is paid to configurations with a unit magnetic charge. We find that a set of Reissner-Nordstr\"om--Anti-de Sitter black holes can become unstable to forming non-Abelian hair. Read More

We construct black holes with a Ricci flat horizon in Einstein--Yang-Mills theory with a negative cosmological constant, which approach asymptotically an AdS$_d$ spacetime background (with $d\geq 4$). These solutions are isotropic, $i.e. Read More

**Authors:**Emanuele Berti, Enrico Barausse, Vitor Cardoso, Leonardo Gualtieri, Paolo Pani, Ulrich Sperhake, Leo C. Stein, Norbert Wex, Kent Yagi, Tessa Baker, C. P. Burgess, Flávio S. Coelho, Daniela Doneva, Antonio De Felice, Pedro G. Ferreira, Paulo C. C. Freire, James Healy, Carlos Herdeiro, Michael Horbatsch, Burkhard Kleihaus, Antoine Klein, Kostas Kokkotas, Jutta Kunz, Pablo Laguna, Ryan N. Lang, Tjonnie G. F. Li, Tyson Littenberg, Andrew Matas, Saeed Mirshekari, Hirotada Okawa, Eugen Radu, Richard O'Shaughnessy, Bangalore S. Sathyaprakash, Chris Van Den Broeck, Hans A. Winther, Helvi Witek, Mir Emad Aghili, Justin Alsing, Brett Bolen, Luca Bombelli, Sarah Caudill, Liang Chen, Juan Carlos Degollado, Ryuichi Fujita, Caixia Gao, Davide Gerosa, Saeed Kamali, Hector O. Silva, João G. Rosa, Laleh Sadeghian, Marco Sampaio, Hajime Sotani, Miguel Zilhao

One century after its formulation, Einstein's general relativity has made remarkable predictions and turned out to be compatible with all experimental tests. Most of these tests probe the theory in the weak-field regime, and there are theoretical and experimental reasons to believe that general relativity should be modified when gravitational fields are strong and spacetime curvature is large. The best astrophysical laboratories to probe strong-field gravity are black holes and neutron stars, whether isolated or in binary systems. Read More

Kerr black holes with scalar hair are solutions of the Einstein-Klein-Gordon field equations describing regular (on and outside an event horizon), asymptotically flat black holes with scalar hair (arXiv:1403.2757). These black holes interpolate continuously between the Kerr solution and rotating boson stars in D=4 spacetime dimensions. Read More

Under certain conditions sound waves in fluids experience an acoustic horizon with analogue properties to those of a black hole event horizon. In particular, a draining bathtub-like model can give rise to a rotating acoustic horizon and hence a rotating black hole (acoustic) analogue. We show that sound waves, when enclosed in a cylindrical cavity, can form stationary waves around such rotating acoustic black holes. Read More

We propose a general framework for the study of asymptotically flat black objects with $k+1$ equal magnitude angular momenta in $d\geq 5$ spacetime dimensions (with $0\leq k\leq \big[\frac{d-5}{2} \big]$). In this approach, the dependence on all angular coordinates but one is factorized, which leads to a codimension-two problem. This framework can describe black holes with spherical horizon topology, the simplest solutions corresponding to a class of Myers-Perry black holes. Read More

Q-balls are regular extended `objects' that exist for some non-gravitating, self-interacting, scalar field theories with a global, continuous, internal symmetry, on Minkowski spacetime. Here, analogous objects are also shown to exist around rotating (Kerr) black holes, as non-linear bound states of a test scalar field. We dub such configurations Q-clouds. Read More

We construct new finite energy regular solutions in Einstein-Yang-Mills-SU(2) theory. They are static, axially symmetric and approach at infinity the anti-de Sitter spacetime background. These configurations are characterized by a pair of integers $(m, n)$, where $m$ is related to the polar angle and $n$ to the azimuthal angle, being related to the known flat space monopole-antimonopole chains and vortex rings. Read More

Massive complex scalar fields can form bound states around Kerr black holes. These bound states -- dubbed scalar clouds -- are generically non-zero and finite on and outside the horizon; they decay exponentially at spatial infinity, have a real frequency and are specified by a set of integer "quantum" numbers (n,l,m). For a specific set of these numbers, the clouds are only possible along a 1-dimensional subset of the 2-dimensional parameter space of Kerr black holes, called an existence line. Read More

We construct a family of asymptotically flat, rotating black holes with scalar hair and a regular horizon, within five dimensional Einstein's gravity minimally coupled to a complex, massive scalar field doublet. These solutions are supported by rotation and have no static limit. They are described by their mass $M$, two equal angular momenta $J_1=J_2\equiv J$ and a conserved Noether charge $Q$, measuring the scalar hair. Read More

It is known that a non-Abelian magnetic monopole cannot rotate globally (although it may possess a nonzero angular momentum density). At the same time, the total angular momentum of a magnetic dipole equals the electric charge. In this work we question the generality of these results by considering a number of generalizations of the Georgi-Glashow model. Read More

We have recently reported (arXiv:1403.2757) the existence of Kerr black holes with scalar hair in General Relativity minimally coupled to a massive, complex scalar field. These solutions interpolate between boson stars and Kerr black holes. Read More

We show that scalar hair can be added to rotating, vacuum black holes of general relativity. These hairy black holes (HBHs) clarify a lingering question concerning gravitational solitons: if a black hole can be added at the centre of a boson star, as it typically can for other solitons. We argue that it can, but only if it is spinning. Read More

We present a family of solutions of Einstein's gravity minimally coupled to a complex, massive scalar field, describing asymptotically flat, spinning black holes with scalar hair and a regular horizon. These hairy black holes (HBHs) are supported by rotation and have no static limit. Besides mass M and angular momentum J, they carry a conserved, continuous Noether charge Q measuring the scalar hair. Read More

We study spherically symmetric solutions of an $SO(5)$ Chern-Simons--Yang-Mills-Higgs system in $3+1$ dimensions. The Chern-Simons densities are defined in terms of both Yang-Mills fields and a $5$-component isomultiplet Higgs. The $SO(3)\times{SO(2)}$ solutions are analysed in a systematic way, by employing numerical methods. Read More