# Emanuel Knill - Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, USA

## Contact Details

NameEmanuel Knill |
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AffiliationLos Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, USA |
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CountryUnited States |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## External Links |
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## Pub CategoriesQuantum Physics (40) Mathematics - Combinatorics (10) Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (3) Computer Science - Computational Complexity (2) Physics - Other (1) Physics - Optics (1) Mathematical Physics (1) Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (1) Physics - Data Analysis; Statistics and Probability (1) |

## Publications Authored By Emanuel Knill

Random numbers are an important resource for applications such as numerical simulation and secure communication. However, it is difficult to certify whether a physical random number generator is truly unpredictable. Here, we exploit the phenomenon of quantum nonlocality in a loophole-free photonic Bell test experiment for the generation of randomness that cannot be predicted within any physical theory that allows one to make independent measurement choices and prohibits superluminal signaling. Read More

**Authors:**Lynden K. Shalm, Evan Meyer-Scott, Bradley G. Christensen, Peter Bierhorst, Michael A. Wayne, Martin J. Stevens, Thomas Gerrits, Scott Glancy, Deny R. Hamel, Michael S. Allman, Kevin J. Coakley, Shellee D. Dyer, Carson Hodge, Adriana E. Lita, Varun B. Verma, Camilla Lambrocco, Edward Tortorici, Alan L. Migdall, Yanbao Zhang, Daniel R. Kumor, William H. Farr, Francesco Marsili, Matthew D. Shaw, Jeffrey A. Stern, Carlos Abellán, Waldimar Amaya, Valerio Pruneri, Thomas Jennewein, Morgan W. Mitchell, Paul G. Kwiat, Joshua C. Bienfang, Richard P. Mirin, Emanuel Knill, Sae Woo Nam

**Category:**Quantum Physics

We present a loophole-free violation of local realism using entangled photon pairs. We ensure that all relevant events in our Bell test are spacelike separated by placing the parties far enough apart and by using fast random number generators and high-speed polarization measurements. A high-quality polarization-entangled source of photons, combined with high-efficiency, low-noise, single-photon detectors, allows us to make measurements without requiring any fair-sampling assumptions. Read More

A common experimental strategy for demonstrating non-classical correlations is to show violation of a Bell inequality by measuring a continuously emitted stream of entangled photon pairs. The measurements involve the detection of photons by two spatially separated parties. The detection times are recorded and compared to quantify the violation. Read More

Quantum simulation - the use of one quantum system to simulate a less controllable one - may provide an understanding of the many quantum systems which cannot be modeled using classical computers. Impressive progress on control and manipulation has been achieved for various quantum systems, but one of the remaining challenges is the implementation of scalable devices. In this regard, individual ions trapped in separate tunable potential wells are promising. Read More

We describe protocols for passive atomic clocks based on quantum interrogation of the atoms. Unlike previous techniques, our protocols are adaptive and take advantage of prior information about the clock's state. To reduce deviations from an ideal clock, each interrogation is optimized by means of a semidefinite program for atomic state preparation and measurement whose objective function depends on the prior information. Read More

Tests of local realism and their applications aim for very high confidence in their results even in the presence of potentially adversarial effects. For this purpose, one can measure a quantity that reflects the amount of violation of local realism and determine a bound on the probability, according to local realism, of obtaining a violation at least that observed. In general, it is difficult to obtain sufficiently robust and small bounds. Read More

When performing maximum-likelihood quantum-state tomography, one must find the quantum state that maximizes the likelihood of the state given observed measurements on identically prepared systems. The optimization is usually performed with iterative algorithms. This paper provides a gradient-based upper bound on the ratio of the true maximum likelihood and the likelihood of the state of the current iteration, regardless of the particular algorithm used. Read More

The distillation of magic states is an often-cited technique for enabling universal quantum computing once the error probability for a special subset of gates has been made negligible by other means. We present a routine for magic-state distillation that reduces the required overhead for a range of parameters of practical interest. Each iteration of the routine uses a four-qubit error-detecting code to distill the +1 eigenstate of the Hadamard gate at a cost of ten input states per two improved output states. Read More

Reliable experimental demonstrations of violations of local realism are highly desirable for fundamental tests of quantum mechanics. One can quantify the violation witnessed by an experiment in terms of a statistical p-value, which can be defined as the maximum probability according to local realism of a violation at least as high as that witnessed. Thus, high violation corresponds to small p-value. Read More

We characterize a periodically poled KTP crystal that produces an entangled, two-mode, squeezed state with orthogonal polarizations, nearly identical, factorizable frequency modes, and few photons in unwanted frequency modes. We focus the pump beam to create a nearly circular joint spectral probability distribution between the two modes. After disentangling the two modes, we observe Hong-Ou-Mandel interference with a raw (background corrected) visibility of 86 % (95 %) when an 8. Read More

The accuracies of modern quantum logic clocks have surpassed those of standard atomic fountain clocks. These clocks also provide a greater degree of control, because before and after clock queries, we are able to apply chosen unitary operations and measurements. Here, we take advantage of these choices and present a numerical technique designed to increase the accuracy of these clocks. Read More

We have created heralded coherent state superpositions (CSS), by subtracting up to three photons from a pulse of squeezed vacuum light. To produce such CSSs at a sufficient rate, we used our high-efficiency photon-number-resolving transition edge sensor to detect the subtracted photons. This is the first experiment enabled by and utilizing the full photon-number-resolving capabilities of this detector. Read More

Because of the fundamental importance of Bell's theorem, a loophole-free demonstration of a violation of local realism (LR) is highly desirable. Here, we study violations of LR involving photon pairs. We quantify the experimental evidence against LR by using measures of statistical strength related to the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence, as suggested by van Dam et al. Read More

Transversal gates play an important role in the theory of fault-tolerant quantum computation due to their simplicity and robustness to noise. By definition, transversal operators do not couple physical subsystems within the same code block. Consequently, such operators do not spread errors within code blocks and are, therefore, fault tolerant. Read More

Experimental characterizations of a quantum system involve the measurement of expectation values of observables for a preparable state |psi> of the quantum system. Such expectation values can be measured by repeatedly preparing |psi> and coupling the system to an apparatus. For this method, the precision of the measured value scales as 1/sqrt(N) for N repetitions of the experiment. Read More

We consider quantum computational models defined via a Lie-algebraic theory. In these models, specified initial states are acted on by Lie-algebraic quantum gates and the expectation values of Lie algebra elements are measured at the end. We show that these models can be efficiently simulated on a classical computer in time polynomial in the dimension of the algebra, regardless of the dimension of the Hilbert space where the algebra acts. Read More

We present a general control-theoretic framework for constructing and analyzing random decoupling schemes, applicable to quantum dynamical control of arbitrary finite-dimensional composite systems. The basic idea is to design the control propagator according to a random rather than deterministic path on a group. We characterize the performance of random decoupling protocols, and identify control scenarios where they can significantly weaken time scale requirements as compared to cyclic counterparts. Read More

This paper addresses the following main question: Do we have a theoretical understanding of entanglement applicable to a full variety of physical settings? It is clear that not only the assumption of distinguishability, but also the few-subsystem scenario, are too narrow to embrace all possible physical settings. In particular, the need to go beyond the traditional subsystem-based framework becomes manifest when one tries to apply the conventional concept of entanglement to the physics of matter, since the constituents of a quantum many-body system are indistinguishable particles. We shall discuss here a notion of generalized entanglement, which can be applied to any operator language (fermions, bosons, spins, etc. Read More

We present a notion of generalized entanglement which goes beyond the conventional definition based on quantum subsystems. This is accomplished by directly defining entanglement as a property of quantum states relative to a distinguished set of observables singled out by Physics. While recovering standard entanglement as a special case, our notion allows for substantially broader generality and flexibility, being applicable, in particular, to situations where existing tools are not directly useful. Read More

Characterizing and quantifying quantum correlations in states of many-particle systems is at the core of a full understanding of phase transitions in matter. In this work, we continue our investigation of the notion of generalized entanglement [Barnum et al. Phys. Read More

We present a quantum algorithm which identifies with certainty a hidden subgroup of an arbitrary finite group G in only a polynomial (in log |G|) number of calls to the oracle. This is exponentially better than the best classical algorithm. However our quantum algorithm requires exponential time, as in the classical case. Read More

We introduce a generalization of entanglement based on the idea that entanglement is relative to a distinguished subspace of observables rather than a distinguished subsystem decomposition. A pure quantum state is entangled relative to such a subspace if its expectations are a proper mixture of those of other states. Many information-theoretic aspects of entanglement can be extended to the general setting, suggesting new ways of measuring and classifying entanglement in multipartite systems. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, USA,

^{2}Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, USA,

^{3}Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, USA,

^{4}Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, USA

**Category:**Quantum Physics

If a large Quantum Computer (QC) existed today, what type of physical problems could we efficiently simulate on it that we could not simulate on a classical Turing machine? In this paper we argue that a QC could solve some relevant physical "questions" more efficiently. The existence of one-to-one mappings between different algebras of observables or between different Hilbert spaces allow us to represent and imitate any physical system by any other one (e.g. Read More

We establish conditions under which the experimental verification of quantum error-correcting behavior against a linear set of error operators $\ce$ suffices for the verification of noiseless subsystems of an error algebra $\ca$ contained in $\ce$. From a practical standpoint, our results imply that the verification of a noiseless subsystem need not require the explicit verification of noiseless behavior for all possible initial states of the syndrome subsystem. Read More

Noiseless subsystems offer a general and efficient method for protecting quantum information in the presence of noise that has symmetry properties. A paradigmatic class of error models displaying non-trivial symmetries emerges under collective noise behavior, which implies a permutationally-invariant interaction between the system and the environment. We describe experiments demonstrating the preservation of a bit of quantum information encoded in a three qubit noiseless subsystem for general collective noise. Read More

We propose a general procedure for implementing dynamical decoupling without requiring arbitrarily strong, impulsive control actions. This is accomplished by designing continuous decoupling propagators according to Eulerian paths in the decoupling group for the system. Such Eulerian decoupling schemes offer two important advantages over their impulsive counterparts: they are able to enforce the same dynamical symmetrization but with more realistic control resources and, at the same time, they are intrinsically tolerant against a large class of systematic implementation errors. Read More

The notion of a qubit is ubiquitous in quantum information processing. In spite of the simple abstract definition of qubits as two-state quantum systems, identifying qubits in physical systems is often unexpectedly difficult. There are an astonishing variety of ways in which qubits can emerge from devices. Read More

We define and show how to construct nonbinary quantum stabilizer codes. Our approach is based on nonbinary error bases. It generalizes the relationship between selforthogonal codes over $GF_{4}$ and binary quantum codes to one between selforthogonal codes over $GF_{q^2}$ and $q$-ary quantum codes for any prime power $q$. Read More

Quantum error correcting codes enable the information contained in a quantum state to be protected from decoherence due to external perturbations. Applied to NMR, quantum coding does not alter normal relaxation, but rather converts the state of a ``data'' spin into multiple quantum coherences involving additional ancilla spins. These multiple quantum coherences relax at differing rates, thus permitting the original state of the data to be approximately reconstructed by mixing them together in an appropriate fashion. Read More

We present control schemes for open quantum systems that combine decoupling and universal control methods with coding procedures. By exploiting a general algebraic approach, we show how appropriate encodings of quantum states result in obtaining universal control over dynamically-generated noise-protected subsystems with limited control resources. In particular, we provide an efficient scheme for performing universal encoded quantum computation in a wide class of systems subjected to linear non-Markovian quantum noise and supporting Heisenberg-type internal Hamiltonians. Read More

Quantum error correction protects quantum information against environmental noise. When using qubits, a measure of quality of a code is the maximum number of errors that it is able to correct. We show that a suitable notion of ``number of errors'' e makes sense for any system in the presence of arbitrary environmental interactions. Read More

I. This paper is devoted to the problem of error detection with quantum codes. In the first part we examine possible problem settings for quantum error detection. Read More

It is shown that if one can perform a restricted set of fast manipulations on a quantum system, one can implement a large class of dynamical evolutions by effectively removing or introducing selected Hamiltonians. The procedure can be used to achieve universal noise-tolerant control based on purely unitary open-loop transformations of the dynamics. As a result, it is in principle possible to perform noise-protected universal quantum computation using no extra space resources. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}LANL,

^{2}BRICS,

^{3}LANL

**Category:**Quantum Physics

It is well known that quantum computers can efficiently find a hidden subgroup $H$ of a finite Abelian group $G$. This implies that after only a polynomial (in $\log |G|$) number of calls to the oracle function, the states corresponding to different candidate subgroups have exponentially small inner product. We show that this is true for noncommutative groups also. Read More

We propose a novel dynamical method for beating decoherence and dissipation in open quantum systems. We demonstrate the possibility of filtering out the effects of unwanted (not necessarily known) system-environment interactions and show that the noise-suppression procedure can be combined with the capability of retaining control over the effective dynamical evolution of the open quantum system. Implications for quantum information processing are discussed. Read More

In bulk quantum computation one can manipulate a large number of indistinguishable quantum computers by parallel unitary operations and measure expectation values of certain observables with limited sensitivity. The initial state of each computer in the ensemble is known but not pure. Methods for obtaining effective pure input states by a series of manipulations have been described by Gershenfeld and Chuang (logical labeling) and Cory et al. Read More

Recent research has demonstrated that quantum computers can solve certain types of problems substantially faster than the known classical algorithms. These problems include factoring integers and certain physics simulations. Practical quantum computation requires overcoming the problems of environmental noise and operational errors, problems which appear to be much more severe than in classical computation due to the inherent fragility of quantum superpositions involving many degrees of freedom. Read More

One of the main problems for the future of practical quantum computing is to stabilize the computation against unwanted interactions with the environment and imperfections in the applied operations. Existing proposals for quantum memories and quantum channels require gates with asymptotically zero error to store or transmit an input quantum state for arbitrarily long times or distances with fixed error. In this report a method is given which has the property that to store or transmit a qubit with maximum error $\epsilon$ requires gates with error at most $c\epsilon$ and storage or channel elements with error at most $\epsilon$, independent of how long we wish to store the state or how far we wish to transmit it. Read More

Quantum Error Correction will be necessary for preserving coherent states against noise and other unwanted interactions in quantum computation and communication. We develop a general theory of quantum error correction based on encoding states into larger Hilbert spaces subject to known interactions. We obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for the perfect recovery of an encoded state after its degradation by an interaction. Read More

Using simple physical arguments we investigate the capabilities of a quantum computer based on cold trapped ions. From the limitations imposed on such a device by spontaneous decay, laser phase coherence, ion heating and other sources of error, we derive a bound between the number of laser interactions and the number of ions that may be used. The largest number which may be factored using a variety of species of ion is determined. Read More

Bennett's pebble game was introduced to obtain better time/space tradeoffs in the simulation of standard Turing machines by reversible ones. So far only upper bounds for the tradeoff based on the pebble game have been published. Here we give a recursion for the time optimal solution of the pebble game given a space bound. Read More

In group testing, the task is to determine the distinguished members of a set of objects L by asking subset queries of the form ``does the subset Q of L contain a distinguished object?'' The primary biological application of group testing is for screening libraries of clones with hybridization probes. This is a crucial step in constructing physical maps and for finding genes. Group testing has also been considered for sequencing by hybridization. Read More

We describe efficient methods for screening clone libraries, based on pooling schemes which we call ``random $k$-sets designs''. In these designs, the pools in which any clone occurs are equally likely to be any possible selection of $k$ from the $v$ pools. The values of $k$ and $v$ can be chosen to optimize desirable properties. Read More

Hamidoune's connectivity results for hierarchical Cayley digraphs are extended to Cayley coset digraphs and thus to arbitrary vertex transitive digraphs. It is shown that if a Cayley coset digraph can be hierarchically decomposed in a certain way, then it is optimally vertex connected. The results are obtained by extending the methods used by Hamidoune. Read More

Let F be a family of subsets of {1,2,... Read More

An instance of a group testing problem is a set of objects $\cO$ and an unknown subset $P$ of $\cO$. The task is to determine $P$ by using queries of the type ``does $P$ intersect $Q$'', where $Q$ is a subset of $\cO$. This problem occurs in areas such as fault detection, multiaccess communications, optimal search, blood testing and chromosome mapping. Read More

The cycle prefix network is a Cayley coset digraph based on sequences over an alphabet which has been proposed as a vertex symmetric communication network. This network has been shown to have many remarkable communication properties such as a large number of vertices for a given degree and diameter, simple shortest path routing, Hamiltonicity, optimal connectivity, and others. These considerations for designing symmetric and directed interconnection networks are well justified in practice and have been widely recognized in the research community. Read More

Let G be a graph with vertices V and edges E. Let F be the union-closed family of sets generated by E. Then F is the family of subsets of V without isolated points. Read More

Let H = (H,V) be a hypergraph with edge set H and vertex set V. Then hypergraph H is invertible iff there exists a permutation pi of V such that for all E belongs to H(edges) intersection of(pi(E) and E)=0. H is invertibility critical if H is not invertible but every hypergraph obtained by removing an edge from H is invertible. Read More

Given a set $V$, a subset $S$, and a permutation $\pi$ of $V$, we say that $\pi$ permutes $S$ if $\pi (S) \cap S = \emptyset$. Given a collection $\cS = \{V; S_1,\ldots , S_m\}$, where $S_i \subseteq V ~~(i=1,\ldots ,m)$, we say that $\cS$ is invertible if there is a permutation $\pi$ of $V$ such that $\pi (S_i) \subseteq V-S_i$. In this paper, we present necessary and sufficient conditions for the invertibility of a collection and construct a polynomial algorithm which determines whether a given collection is invertible. Read More