# E. -G. Zhao - University of Toronto

## Contact Details

NameE. -G. Zhao |
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AffiliationUniversity of Toronto |
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CityToronto |
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CountryCanada |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesNuclear Theory (27) Nuclear Experiment (15) Quantum Physics (7) Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (6) Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (5) Physics - Superconductivity (5) Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (5) Mathematics - Differential Geometry (2) Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (1) Mathematical Physics (1) Physics - Atomic Physics (1) |

## Publications Authored By E. -G. Zhao

Numerous EWs were discovered by several deep photometric survey and there are about 40785 EW-type binary systems listed in the international variable star index (VSX) by March 13, 2017. 7938 of them were observed by LAMOST by November 30, 2016 and their spectral types were given. Stellar atmospheric parameters of 5363 EW-type binary stars were determined based on good spectroscopic observations. Read More

We develop a theory of weakly interacting fermionic atoms in shaken optical lattices based on the orbital mixing in the presence of time-periodic modulations. Specifically, we focus on fermionic atoms in circularly shaken square lattice with near resonance frequencies, i.e. Read More

Motivated by the experimental realization of quantum spin models of polar molecule KRb in optical lattices, we analyze the spin 1/2 dipolar Heisenberg model with competing anisotropic, long-range exchange interactions. We show that by tilting the orientation of dipoles using an external electric field, the dipolar spin system on square lattice come close to a maximally frustrated region similar, but not identical, to that of the $J_1$-$J_2$ model. This provides a simple yet powerful route to potentially realize quantum spin liquid without the need for triangular or kagome lattice. Read More

Nova Sco 2008 (=V1309 Sco) is an example of a V838 Mon type eruption rather than a typical classical nova. This enigmatic object was recently shown to have resulted from the merger of two stars in a contact binary. It is the first stellar merger that was identified to be undergoing a common envelope transient. Read More

Time-periodic (Floquet) topological phases of matter exhibit bulk-edge relationships that are more complex than static topological insulators and superconductors. Finding the edge modes unique to driven systems usually requires numerics. Here we present a minimal two-band model of Floquet topological insulators and semimetals in two dimensions where all the bulk and edge properties can be obtained analytically. Read More

The first V Rc Ic bands light curves of MQ UMa are presented and analyzed using the Wilson-Devinney (W-D) program. It is discovered that MQ UMa is an A-subtype contact binary with a high fill-out (f=82 %) and a low mass ratio (q = 0:195), which indicates that it is in the late evolutionary stage of latetype tidal-locked binary stars. The mass of the primary and secondary stars are estimated and the evolutionary status of the two components are placed in the H-R diagram. Read More

We develop a multidimensionally constrained relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (MDC-RHB) model in which the pairing correlations are taken into account by making the Bogoliubov transformation. In this model, the nuclear shape is assumed to be invariant under the reversion of $x$ and $y$ axes; i.e. Read More

The topological properties of periodically driven many-body systems often have no static analogs and defy a simple description based on the effective Hamiltonian. To explore the emergent edge modes in driven p-wave superconductors in two dimensions, we analyze a toy model of Kitaev chains (one-dimensional spinless p-wave superconductors with Majorana edge states) coupled by time-periodic hopping. We show that with proper driving, the coupled Kitaev chains can turn into a fully gapped superconductor which is analogous to the $p_x+ip_y$ state but has two, rather than one, chiral edge modes. Read More

Experiments on quantum degenerate Fermi gases of magnetic atoms and dipolar molecules begin to probe their broken symmetry phases dominated by the long-range, anisotropic dipole-dipole interaction. Several candidate phases including the p-wave superfluid, the stripe density wave, and a supersolid have been proposed theoretically for two-dimensional spinless dipolar Fermi gases. Yet the phase boundaries predicted by different approximations vary greatly, and a definitive phase diagram is still lacking. Read More

Quantum spin models with spatially dependent interactions, known as compass models, play an important role in the study of frustrated quantum magnetism. One example is the Kitaev model on the honeycomb lattice with spin-liquid ground states and anyonic excitations. Another example is the geometrically frustrated quantum $120^\circ$ model on the same lattice whose ground state has not been unambiguously established. Read More

Complete fusion excitation functions of reactions involving breakup are studied by using the empirical coupled-channel (ECC) model with breakup effects considered. An exponential function with two parameters is adopted to describe the prompt-breakup probability in the ECC model. These two parameters are fixed by fitting the measured prompt-breakup probability or the complete fusion cross sections. Read More

The dynamic coupling effects on fusion cross sections for reactions $^{32}$S + $^{94,96}$Zr and $^{40}$Ca + $^{94,96}$Zr are studied with the universal fusion function formalism and an empirical coupled channel (ECC) model. An examination of the reduced fusion functions shows that the total effect of couplings to inelastic excitations and neutron transfer channels on fusion in $^{32}$S + $^{94}$Zr ($^{40}$Ca + $^{94}$Zr) is almost the same as that in $^{32}$S + $^{96}$Zr ($^{40}$Ca + $^{96}$Zr). The enhancements of the fusion cross section at sub-barrier energies due to inelastic channel coupling and neutron transfer channel coupling are evaluated separately by using the ECC model. Read More

The conventionally separated treatments for strangelets and strange stars are now unified with a more comprehensive theoretical description for objects ranging from strangelets to strange stars. After constraining the model parameter according to the Witten-Bodmer hypothesis and observational mass-radius probability distribution of pulsars, we investigate the properties of this kind of objects. It is found that the energy per baryon decreases monotonously for increasing baryon number and reaches its minimum at the maximum baryon number, corresponding to the most massive strange star. Read More

Motivated by recent progress in epitaxial growth of proximity structures of s-wave superconductors (S) and spin-active materials (M), we show that the periodic structure of S and M can behave effectively as a superconductor with pairs of point nodes, near which the low energy excitations are Weyl fermions. A simple toy model, where M is described by a Kronig-Penney potential with both spin-orbit coupling and exchange field, is proposed and solved to obtain the phase diagram of the nodal structure, the spin texture of the Weyl fermions, as well as the zero energy surface states in the form of open Fermi lines ("Fermi arcs"). Going beyond the simple model, a lattice model with alternating layers of S and magnetic $Z_2$ topological insulators (M) is solved. Read More

We perform a systematic study of capture excitation functions by using an empirical coupled-channel model. In this model, a barrier distribution is used to take effectively into account the effects of couplings between the relative motion and intrinsic degrees of freedom. The shape of the barrier distribution is of an asymmetric Gaussian form. Read More

Mott insulators with both spin and orbital degeneracy are pertinent to a large number of transition metal oxides. The intertwined spin and orbital fluctuations can lead to rather exotic phases such as quantum spin-orbital liquids. Here we consider two-component (spin 1/2) fermionic atoms with strong repulsive interactions on the $p$-band of the optical square lattice. Read More

The role of tensor force on the collision dynamics of $^{16}$O+$^{16}$O is investigated in the framework of a fully three-dimensional time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory. The calculations are performed with modern Skyrme energy functional plus tensor terms. Particular attention is given on the analysis of dissipation dynamics in heavy-ion collisions. Read More

We investigate the one-body dissipation dynamics in heavy-ion collisions of $^{16}{\rm O}$+$^{16}{\rm O}$ using a fully three-dimensional time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory with the modern Skyrme energy functional and without any symmetry restrictions. The energy dissipation is revealed to decrease in deep-inelastic collisions of the light systems as the bombarding energy increases owing to the competition between collective motion and single-particle degrees of freedom. The role of spin-orbit force is given particular emphasis in deep-inelastic collisions. Read More

Recent theoretical work on time-periodically kicked Hofstadter model found robust counter-propagating edge modes. It remains unclear how ubiquitously such anomalous modes can appear, and what dictates their robustness against disorder. Here we shed further light on the nature of these modes by analyzing a simple type of periodic driving where the hopping along one spatial direction is modulated sinusoidally with time while the hopping along the other spatial direction is kept constant. Read More

A large number of complete fusion excitation functions of reactions including the breakup channel were measured in recent decades, especially in the last few years. It allows us to investigate the systematic behavior of the breakup effects on the complete fusion cross sections. To this end, we perform a systematic study of the breakup effects on the complete fusion cross sections at energies above the Coulomb barrier. Read More

Potential energy surfaces (PES's) of actinide nuclei are characterized by a two-humped barrier structure. At large deformations beyond the second barrier the occurrence of a third one was predicted by Mic-Mac model calculations in the 1970s, but contradictory results were later reported. In this paper, triple-humped barriers in actinide nuclei are investigated with covariant density functional theory (CDFT). Read More

New multi-color light curves of the very short period K-type eclipsing binary V1799 Ori were obtained and analyzed with the W-D code. The photometric solutions reveal that the system is a W-type shallow-contact binary with a mass ratio of $q=1.335(\pm0. Read More

In this contribution we present some results of potential energy surfaces of actinide and transfermium nuclei from multi-dimensional constrained relativistic mean field (MDC-RMF) models. Recently we developed multi-dimensional constrained covariant density functional theories (MDC-CDFT) in which all shape degrees of freedom $\beta_{\lambda\mu}$ with even $\mu$ are allowed and the functional can be one of the following four forms: the meson exchange or point-coupling nucleon interactions combined with the non-linear or density-dependent couplings. In MDC-RMF models, the pairing correlations are treated with the BCS method. Read More

The pseudospin symmetry (PSS) is a relativistic dynamical symmetry directly connected with the small component of the nucleon Dirac wave function. Much effort has been made to study this symmetry in bound states. Recently, a rigorous justification of the PSS in single particle resonant states was achieved by examining the asymptotic behaviors of the radial Dirac wave functions: The PSS in single particle resonant states in nuclei is conserved exactly when the attractive scalar and repulsive vector potentials have the same magnitude but opposite sign. Read More

We investigate the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter and its isospin dependence in various spin-isospin $ST$ channels within the framework of the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach extended to include a microscopic three-body force (TBF). It is shown that the potential energy per nucleon in the isospin-singlet T=0 channel is mainly determined by the contribution from the tensor SD coupled channel. At high densities, the TBF effect on the isospin-triplet T=1 channel contribution turns out to be much larger than that on the T=0 channel contribution. Read More

The structure of nuclei with $Z\sim100$ is investigated systematically by the Cranked Shell Model (CSM) with pairing correlations treated by a Particle-Number Conserving (PNC) method. In the PNC method, the particle number is conserved and the Pauli blocking effects are taken into account exactly. By fitting the experimental single-particle spectra in these nuclei, a new set of Nilsson parameters ($\kappa$ and $\mu$) is proposed. Read More

A periodically driven quantum Hall system in a fixed magnetic field is found to exhibit a series of phases featuring anomalous edge modes with the "wrong" chirality. This leads to pairs of counter-propagating chiral edge modes at each edge, in sharp contrast to stationary quantum Hall systems. We show that the pair of Floquet edge modes are protected by the chiral (sublattice) symmetry, and that they are robust against static disorder. Read More

A deformed relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov theory in continuum has been developed for the study of neutron halos in deformed nuclei and the halo phenomenon in deformed weakly bound nuclei is investigated. Magnesium and neon isotopes are studied and some results are presented for the deformed neutron-rich and weakly bound nuclei 44Mg and 36Ne. The core of the former nucleus is prolate, but the halo has a slightly oblate shape. Read More

The pseudospin symmetry (PSS) has been studied extensively for bound states. Recently we justified rigorously that the PSS in single particle resonant states is exactly conserved when the attractive scalar and repulsive vector potentials of the Dirac Hamiltonian have the same magnitude but opposite sign [PRL 109, 072501 (2012)]. To understand more deeply the PSS, we focus on several issues related to the exact conservation and breaking mechanism of the PSS in single particle resonances. Read More

We have developed multi-dimensional constrained covariant density functional theories (MDC-CDFT) for finite nuclei in which the shape degrees of freedom \beta_{\lambda\mu} with even \mu, e.g., \beta_{20}, \beta_{22}, \beta_{30}, \beta_{32}, \beta_{40}, etc. Read More

By breaking both the axial and the spatial reflection symmetries, we develop multidimensionally constrained relativistic mean field (MDC-RMF) models. The nuclear shape is assumed to be invariant under the reversion of $x$ and $y$ axes, i.e. Read More

The effect of nuclear superfluidity on antimagnetic rotation bands in $^{105}$Cd and $^{106}$Cd are investigated by the cranked shell model with the pairing correlations and the blocking effects treated by a particle-number conserving method. The experimental moments of inertia and the reduced $B(E2)$ transition values are excellently reproduced. The nuclear superfluidity is essential to reproduce the experimental moments of inertia. Read More

Multi-dimensional constrained covariant density functional theories were developed recently. In these theories, all shape degrees of freedom \beta_{\lambda\mu} deformations with even \mu are allowed, e.g. Read More

In this contribution we present some results on the study of pseudospin symmetry (PSS) in single particle resonant states. The PSS is a relativistic dynamical symmetry connected with the small component of the nucleon Dirac wave function. Many efforts have been made to study this symmetry in bound states. Read More

We introduce a new platform for quantum simulation of many-body systems based on nonspherical atoms or molecules with zero dipole moment but possessing a significant value of electric quadrupole moment. We consider a quadrupolar Fermi gas trapped in a 2D square optical lattice, and show that the peculiar symmetry and broad tunability of the quadrupole-quadrupole interaction results in a rich phase diagram encompassing unconventional BCS and charge density wave phases, and opens up a perspective to create topological superfluid. Quadrupolar species, such as metastable alkaline-earth atoms and homonuclear molecules, are stable against chemical reactions and collapse and are readily available in experiment at high densities. Read More

In this contribution we present some recent results about neutron halos in deformed nuclei. A deformed relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov theory in continuum has been developed and the halo phenomenon in deformed weakly bound nuclei is investigated. These weakly bound quantum systems present interesting examples for the study of the interdependence between the deformation of the core and the particles in the halo. Read More

The non-axial reflection-asymmetric $\beta_{32}$ shape in some transfermium nuclei with N=150, namely $^{246}$Cm, $^{248}$Cf, $^{250}$Fm, and $^{252}$No are investigated with multidimensional constrained covariant density functional theories. By using the density-dependent point coupling covariant density functional theory with the parameter set DD-PC1 in the particle-hole channel, it is found that, for the ground states of $^{248}$Cf and $^{250}$Fm, the non-axial octupole deformation parameter $\beta_{32} > 0.03$ and the energy gain due to the $\beta_{32}$ distortion is larger than 300 keV. Read More

The conventional spin density wave (SDW) phase (Overhauser, 1962), as found in antiferromagnetic metal for example (Fawcett 1988), can be described as a condensate of particle-hole pairs with zero angular momentum, $\ell=0$, analogous to a condensate of particle-particle pairs in conventional superconductors. While many unconventional superconductors with Cooper pairs of finite $\ell$ have been discovered, their counterparts, density waves with non-zero angular momenta, have only been hypothesized in two-dimensional electron systems (Nayak, 2000). Using an unbiased functional renormalization group analysis, we here show that spin-triplet particle-hole condensates with $\ell=1$ emerge generically in dipolar Fermi gases of atoms (Lu, Burdick, and Lev, 2012) or molecules (Ospelkaus et al. Read More

The ground state band was recently observed in the superheavy nucleus 256Rf. We study the rotational properties of 256Rf and its neighboring even-even nuclei by using a cranked shell model (CSM) with the pairing correlations treated by a particle-number conserving (PNC) method in which the blocking effects are taken into account exactly. The kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia of the ground state bands in these nuclei are well reproduced by the theory. Read More

Josephson junctions fabricated on the surface of three-dimensional topological insulators (TI) show a few unusual properties distinct from conventional Josephson junctions. In these devices, the Josephson coupling and the supercurrent are mediated by helical metal, the two-dimensional surface of the TI. A line junction of this kind is known to support Andreev bound states at zero energy for phase bias \pi, and consequently the so-called fractional ac Josephson effect. Read More

Exotic excitations arise at the interface between a three-dimensional topological insulator (TI) and superconductors. For example, Majorana fermions with a linear dispersion, $E\sim k$, exist in a short $\pi$ Josephson junction on the TI surface. We show that in these systems, the Andreev bound states spectrum becomes nearly flat at zero energy when the chemical potential is sufficiently away from the Dirac point. Read More

We unveil a topological phase of interacting fermions on a two-leg ladder of unequal parity orbitals, derived from the experimentally realized double-well lattices by dimension reduction. $Z_2$ topological invariant originates simply from the staggered phases of $sp$-orbital quantum tunneling, requiring none of the previously known mechanisms such as spin-orbit coupling or artificial gauge field. Another unique feature is that upon crossing over to two dimensions with coupled ladders, the edge modes from each ladder form a parity-protected flat band at zero energy, opening the route to strongly correlated states controlled by interactions. Read More

We report here the discovery of an optical flare observed in R band from the red-dwarf eclipsing binary CU Cnc whose component stars are at the upper boundary of full convection (M1=0.43 and M2=0.4M0, M0 is the solar mass). Read More

The pseudospin symmetry is a relativistic dynamical symmetry connected with the small component of the Dirac spinor. The origin of pseudospin symmetry in single particle bound states in atomic nuclei has been revealed and studied extensively. By examining the zeros of Jost functions corresponding to the small components of Dirac wave functions and phase shifts of continuum states, we show that the pseudospin symmetry in single particle resonant states in nuclei is conserved when the attractive scalar and repulsive vector potentials have the same magnitude but opposite sign. Read More

In this paper, we prove some convergence theorems for the mean curvature flow of closed submanifolds in the unit sphere $\mathbb{S}^{n+d}$ under integral curvature conditions. As a consequence, we obtain several differentiable sphere theorems for certain submanifolds in $\mathbb{S}^{n+d}$. Read More

We investigate the convergence of the mean curvature flow of arbitrary codimension in Riemannian manifolds with bounded geometry. We prove that if the initial submanifold satisfies a pinching condition, then along the mean curvature flow the submanifold contracts smoothly to a round point in finite time. As a consequence we obtain a differentiable sphere theorem for submanifolds in a Riemannian manifold. Read More

By using a newly developed di-nuclear system model with a dynamical potential energy surface---the DNS-DyPES model, hot fusion reactions for synthesizing superheavy nuclei (SHN) with the charge number Z = 112-120 are studied. The calculated evaporation residue cross sections are in good agreement with available data. In the reaction 50Ti+249Bk -> (299-x)119 + xn, the maximal evaporation residue (ER) cross section is found to be about 0. Read More

In order to describe the exotic nuclear structure in unstable odd-$A$ or odd-odd nuclei, the deformed relativistic Hartree Bogoliubov theory in continuum has been extended to incorporate the blocking effect due to the odd nucleon. For a microscopic and self-consistent description of pairing correlations, continuum, deformation, blocking effects, and the extended spatial density distribution in exotic nuclei, the deformed relativistic Hartree Bogoliubov equations are solved in a Woods-Saxon basis in which the radial wave functions have a proper asymptotic behavior at large $r$. The formalism and numerical details are provided. Read More

A deformed relativistic Hartree Bogoliubov (RHB) theory in continuum is developed aiming at a proper description of exotic nuclei, particularly those with a large spatial extension. In order to give an adequate consideration of both the contribution of the continuum and the large spatial distribution in exotic nuclei, the deformed RHB equations are solved in a Woods-Saxon (WS) basis in which the radial wave functions have a proper asymptotic behavior at large distance from the nuclear center. This is crucial for the proper description of a possible halo. Read More

Ultracold atom research presents many avenues to study problems at the forefront of physics. Due to their unprecedented controllability, these systems are ideally suited to explore new exotic states of matter, which is one of the key driving elements of the condensed matter research. One such topic of considerable importance is topological insulators, materials that are insulating in the interior but conduct along the edges. Read More