Dominik Schleicher - Georg-August-Universitat, Germany

Dominik Schleicher
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Dominik Schleicher
Georg-August-Universitat, Germany

Pubs By Year

Pub Categories

Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (30)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (25)
Physics - Fluid Dynamics (12)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (10)
Physics - Plasma Physics (10)
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (4)
Physics - Computational Physics (4)
Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (3)
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (3)
Nonlinear Sciences - Chaotic Dynamics (1)
Physics - Space Physics (1)

Publications Authored By Dominik Schleicher

The Orion nebula is a prime example of a massive star-forming region in our galaxy. Observations have shown that gravitational and magnetic energy are comparable in its integral shaped filament (ISF) on a scale of ~1 pc, and that the population of pre-main sequence stars appears dynamically heated compared to the protostars. These results have been attributed to a slingshot mechanism resulting from the oscillation of the filament (Stutz & Gould 2016). Read More

Observations of the Orion~A integral shaped filament (ISF) have shown indications of an oscillatory motion of the gas filament. This evidence is based on both the wave-like morphology of the filament as well as the kinematics of the gas and stars, where the characteristic velocities of the stars require a dynamical heating mechanism. As proposed by Stutz and Gould (2016), such a heating mechanism (the "Slingshot") may be the result of an oscillating gas filament in a gas-dominated (as opposed to stellar-mass dominated) system. Read More

While supermassive black holes are known to co-evolve with their host galaxy, the precise nature and origin of this co-evolution is not clear. We here explore the possible connection between star formation and black hole growth in the circumnuclear disk (CND) to probe this connection in the vicinity close to the black hole. We adopt here the circumnuclear disk model developed by Kawakatu & Wada (2008) and Wutschik et al. Read More

The class of Double Period Variables (DPVs) consists of close interacting binaries, with a characteristic long period that is an order of magnitude longer than the corresponding orbital period, many of them with a characteristic ratio of about 3.5x10^1. We consider here the possibility that the accretion flow is modulated as a result of a magnetic dynamo cycle. Read More

High-mass stars are expected to form from dense prestellar cores. Their precise formation conditions are widely discussed, including their virial condition, which results in slow collapse for super-virial cores with strong support by turbulence or magnetic fields, or fast collapse for sub-virial sources. To disentangle their formation processes, measurements of the deuterium fractions are frequently employed to approximately estimate the ages of these cores and to obtain constraints on their dynamical evolution. Read More

Large eddy simulations (LES) are a powerful tool in understanding processes that are inaccessible by direct simulations due to their complexity, for example, in the highly turbulent regime. However, their accuracy and success depends on a proper subgrid-scale (SGS) model that accounts for the unresolved scales in the simulation. We evaluate the applicability of two traditional SGS models, namely the eddy-viscosity (EV) and the scale-similarity (SS) model, and one recently proposed nonlinear (NL) SGS model in the realm of compressible MHD turbulence. Read More

Dark matter annihilation can have a strong impact on many astrophysical processes in the Universe. In the case of Sommerfeld-enhanced annihilation cross sections, the annihilation rates are enhanced at late times, thus enhancing the potential annihilation signatures. We here calculate the Sommerfeld-enhanced annihilation signatures during the epoch of helium reionization, the epoch where helium becomes fully ionized due to energetic photons. Read More

A key for understanding the evolution of galaxies and in particular their star formation history will be future ultra-deep radio surveys. While star formation rates (SFRs) are regularly estimated with phenomenological formulas based on the local FIR-radio correlation, we present here a physically motivated model to relate star formation with radio fluxes. Such a relation holds only in frequency ranges where the flux is dominated by synchrotron emission, as this radiation originates from cosmic rays produced in supernova remnants, therefore reflecting recent star formation. Read More

Galaxy mergers are expected to play a central role for the evolution of galaxies, and may have a strong impact on their magnetic fields. We present the first grid-based 3D magneto-hydrodynamical simulations investigating the evolution of magnetic fields during merger events. For this purpose, we employ a simplified model considering the merger event of magnetized gaseous disks in the absence of stellar feedback and without a stellar or dark matter component. Read More

The far-infrared - radio correlation connects star formation and magnetic fields in galaxies, and has been confirmed over a large range of far-infrared luminosities. Recent investigations indicate that it may even hold in the regime of local dwarf galaxies, and we explore here the expected behavior in the regime of star formation surface densities below 0.1 M_sun kpc^{-2} yr^{-1}. Read More

Compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is ubiquitous in astrophysical phenomena ranging from the intergalactic to the stellar scales. In studying them, numerical simulations are nearly inescapable, due to the large degree of nonlinearity involved. However the dynamical ranges of these phenomena are much larger than what is computationally accessible. Read More

Galactic magnetic fields in the local Universe are strong and omnipresent. There is mounting evidence that galaxies were magnetized already in the early Universe. Theoretical scenarios including the turbulent small-scale dynamo predict magnetic energy densities comparable to the one of turbulence. Read More

Magnetic fields are considered as a vital ingredient of contemporary star formation, and may have been important during the formation of the first stars in the presence of an efficient amplification mechanism. Initial seed fields are provided via plasma fluctuations, and are subsequently amplified by the small-scale dynamo, leading to a strong tangled magnetic field. Here we explore how the magnetic field provided by the small-scale dynamo is further amplified via the $\alpha-\Omega$ dynamo in a protostellar disk and assess its implications. Read More

We present and test chemical models for three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of galaxies. We explore the effect of changing key parameters such as metallicity, radiation and non-equilibrium versus equilibrium metal cooling approximations on the transition between the gas phases in the interstellar medium. The microphysics is modelled by employing the public chemistry package KROME and the chemical networks have been tested to work in a wide range of densities and temperatures. Read More

The detection of $\rm z>6$ quasars reveals the existence of supermassive black holes of a few $\rm 10^9~M_{\odot}$. One of the potential pathways to explain their formation in the infant universe is the so-called direct collapse model which provides massive seeds of $\rm 10^5-10^6~M_{\odot}$. An isothermal direct collapse mandates that halos should be of a primordial composition and the formation of molecular hydrogen remains suppressed in the presence of a strong Lyman Werner flux. Read More

The reionization of helium describes the transition from its singly ionized state to a doubly-ionized state in the intergalactic medium (IGM). This process is important for the thermal evolution of the IGM and influences the mean free path of photons with energies above $54.4$~eV. Read More

The origin of strong magnetic fields in the Universe can be explained by amplifying weak seed fields via turbulent motions on small spatial scales and subsequently transporting the magnetic energy to larger scales. This process is known as the turbulent dynamo and depends on the properties of turbulence, i.e. Read More

The astonishing diversity in the observed planetary population requires theoretical efforts and advances in planet formation theories. Numerical approaches provide a method to tackle the weaknesses of current planet formation models and are an important tool to close gaps in poorly constrained areas. We present a global disk setup to model the first stages of giant planet formation via gravitational instabilities (GI) in 3D with the block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) hydrodynamics code ENZO. Read More

Numerical simulations show the formation of self-gravitating primordial disks during the assembly of the first structures in the Universe, in particular during the formation of Pop.~III and supermassive stars. Their subsequent evolution is expected to be crucial to determine the mass scale of the first cosmological objects, which depends on the temperature of the gas and the dominant cooling mechanism. Read More

Deep surveys with the SKA1-MID array offer for the first time the opportunity to systematically explore the polarization properties of the microJy source population. Our knowledge of the polarized sky approaching these levels is still very limited. In total intensity the population will be dominated by star-forming and normal galaxies to intermediate redshifts ($z \sim1-2$), and low-luminosity AGN to high redshift. Read More

To understand the evolution of planetary systems, it is important to investigate planets in highly evolved stellar systems, and to explore the implications of their observed properties with respect to potential formation scenarios. Observations suggest the presence of giant planets in post-common-envelope binaries (PCEBs). A particularly well-studied system with planetary masses of 1. Read More

Relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei (AGN) are among the most powerful astrophysical objects discovered to date. Indeed, jetted AGN studies have been considered a prominent science case for SKA, and were included in several different chapters of the previous SKA Science Book (Carilli & Rawlings 2004). Most of the fundamental questions about the physics of relativistic jets still remain unanswered, and await high-sensitivity radio instruments such as SKA to solve them. Read More

The turbulent dynamo may explain the origin of cosmic magnetism. While the exponential amplification of magnetic fields has been studied for incompressible gases, little is known about dynamo action in highly-compressible, supersonic plasmas, such as the interstellar medium of galaxies and the early Universe. Here we perform the first quantitative comparison of theoretical models of the dynamo growth rate and saturation level with three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations of supersonic turbulence with grid resolutions of up to 1024^3 cells. Read More

Low-metallicity star formation poses a central problem of cosmology, as it determines the characteristic mass scale and distribution for the first and second generations of stars forming in our Universe. Here, we present a comprehensive investigation assessing the relative impact of metals and magnetic fields, which may both be present during low-metallicity star formation. We show that the presence of magnetic fields generated via the small-scale dynamo stabilises the protostellar disc and provides some degree of support against fragmentation. Read More

The evolution of magnetic fields in galaxies is still an open problem in astrophysics. In nearby galaxies the far-infrared-radio correlation indicates the coupling between magnetic fields and star formation. The correlation arises from the synchrotron emission of cosmic ray electrons traveling through the interstellar magnetic fields. Read More

The close binary system NN Serpentis must have gone through a common envelope phase before the formation of its white dwarf. During this phase, a substantial amount of mass was lost from the envelope. The recently detected orbits of circumbinary planets are likely inconsistent with planet formation before the mass loss. Read More

The Universe at present is highly magnetized, with fields of the order of a few 10^-5 G and coherence lengths larger than 10 kpc in typical galaxies like the Milky Way. We propose that the magnetic field was amplified to this values already during the formation and the early evolution of the galaxies. Turbulence in young galaxies is driven by accretion as well as by supernova (SN) explosions of the first generation of stars. Read More

We explore the evolution of supermassive black holes (SMBH) centered in a circumnuclear disk (CND) as a function of the mass supply from the host galaxy and considering different star formation laws, which may give rise to a self-regulation via the injection of supernova-driven turbulence. A system of equations describing star formation, black hole accretion and angular momentum transport was solved for an axisymmetric disk in which the gravitational potential includes contributions from the black hole, the disk and the hosting galaxy. Our model extends the framework provided by Kawakatu et al. Read More

(Abrigded) Observations of galaxies up to z 2 show a tight correlation between far-infrared and radio continuum emission. We explain the far-infrared - radio continuum correlation by relating star formation and magnetic field strength in terms of turbulent magnetic field amplification, where turbulence is injected by supernova explosions from massive stars. We calculate the expected amount of turbulence in galaxies based on their star formation rates, and infer the expected magnetic field strength due to turbulent dynamo amplification. Read More

Supermassive stars and quasi-stars (massive stars with a central black hole) are both considered as potential progenitors for the formation of supermassive black holes. They are expected to form from rapidly accreting protostars in massive primordial halos. We explore how long rapidly accreting protostars remain on the Hayashi track, implying large protostellar radii and weak accretion luminosity feedback. Read More

In this paper we show that the Universe is already strongly magnetized at very early epochs during cosmic evolution. Our calculations are based on the efficient amplification of weak magnetic seed fields, which are unavoidably present in the early Universe, by the turbulent small-scale dynamo. We identify two mechanisms for the generation of turbulence in the radiation dominated epoch where velocity fluctuations are produced by the primordial density perturbation and by possible first-order phase transitions at the electroweak or QCD scales. Read More

(Abridged) The small-scale dynamo may play a substantial role in magnetizing the Universe under a large range of conditions, including subsonic turbulence at low Mach numbers, highly supersonic turbulence at high Mach numbers and a large range of magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm, i.e. the ratio of kinetic viscosity to magnetic resistivity. Read More

The present-day Universe is highly magnetized, even though the first magnetic seed fields were most probably extremely weak. To explain the growth of the magnetic field strength over many orders of magnitude fast amplification processes need to operate. The most efficient mechanism known today is the small-scale dynamo, which converts turbulent kinetic energy into magnetic energy leading to an exponential growth of the magnetic field. Read More

The small-scale dynamo provides a highly efficient mechanism for the conversion of turbulent into magnetic energy. In astrophysical environments, such turbulence often occurs at high Mach numbers, implying steep slopes in the turbulent spectra. It is thus a central question whether the small-scale dynamo can amplify magnetic fields in the interstellar or intergalactic media, where such Mach numbers occur. Read More

We explore the amplification of magnetic fields in the high-redshift Universe. For this purpose, we perform high-resolution cosmological simulations following the formation of primordial halos with \sim10^7 M_solar, revealing the presence of turbulent structures and complex morphologies at resolutions of at least 32 cells per Jeans length. Employing a turbulence subgrid-scale model, we quantify the amount of unresolved turbulence and show that the resulting turbulent viscosity has a significant impact on the gas morphology, suppressing the formation of low-mass clumps. Read More

The first galaxies form due to gravitational collapse of primordial halos. During this collapse, weak magnetic seed fields get amplified exponentially by the small-scale dynamo - a process converting kinetic energy from turbulence into magnetic energy. We use the Kazantsev theory, which describes the small-scale dynamo analytically, to study magnetic field amplification for different turbulent velocity correlation functions. Read More

We present the first 3D simulations to include the effects of dark matter annihilation feedback during the collapse of primordial mini-halos. We begin our simulations from cosmological initial conditions and account for dark matter annihilation in our treatment of the chemical and thermal evolution of the gas. The dark matter is modelled using an analytical density profile that responds to changes in the peak gas density. Read More

Stars form by the gravitational collapse of interstellar gas. The thermodynamic response of the gas can be characterized by an effective equation of state. It determines how gas heats up or cools as it gets compressed, and hence plays a key role in regulating the process of stellar birth on virtually all scales, ranging from individual star clusters up to the galaxy as a whole. Read More

We study the amplification of magnetic fields during the formation of primordial halos. The turbulence generated by gravitational infall motions during the formation of the first stars and galaxies can amplify magnetic fields very efficiently and on short timescales up to dynamically significant values. Using the Kazantsev theory, which describes the so-called small-scale dynamo - a magnetohydrodynamical process converting kinetic energy from turbulence into magnetic energy - we can then calculate the growth rate of the small-scale magnetic field. Read More

Here we summarize our recent results of high-resolution computer simulations on the turbulent amplification of weak magnetic seed fields showing that such fields will be exponentially amplified also during the gravitational collapse reminiscent to the situation during primordial star formation. The exponential magnetic field amplification is driven by the turbulent small-scale dynamo that can be only observed in computer simulations if the turbulent motions in the central core are sufficiently resolved. We find that the Jeans length, which determines the central core region, has to be resolved by at least 30 grid cells to capture the dynamo activity. Read More

We study the influence of initial conditions on the magnetic field amplification during the collapse of a magnetised gas cloud. We focus on the dependence of the growth and saturation level of the dynamo generated field on the turbulent properties of the collapsing cloud. In particular, we explore the effect of varying the initial strength and injection scale of turbulence and the initial uniform rotation of the collapsing magnetised cloud. Read More

We discuss the amplification of magnetic fields by the small-scale dynamo, a process that could efficiently produce strong magnetic fields in the first galaxies. In addition, we derive constraints on the primordial field strength from the epoch of reionization. Read More

The small-scale dynamo is a process by which turbulent kinetic energy is converted into magnetic energy, and thus is expected to depend crucially on the nature of turbulence. In this work, we present a model for the small-scale dynamo that takes into account the slope of the turbulent velocity spectrum v(l) ~ l^theta, where l and v(l) are the size of a turbulent fluctuation and the typical velocity on that scale. The time evolution of the fluctuation component of the magnetic field, i. Read More

Affiliations: 1Queen's University, Canada, 2Chungnam National University, Korea, 3Georg-August-Universitat, Germany, 4Pune University Campus, India, 5Aristotle University, Greece, 6ISSI, Switzerland

We review current ideas on the origin of galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields. We begin by summarizing observations of magnetic fields at cosmological redshifts and on cosmological scales. These observations translate into constraints on the strength and scale magnetic fields must have during the early stages of galaxy formation in order to seed the galactic dynamo. Read More

Affiliations: 1Chungnam National University, Korea, 2Georg-August-Universitat, Germany, 3ISSI, Switzerland, 4Aristotle University, Greece, 5Queen's University, Canada

Magnetic fields appear to be ubiquitous in astrophysical environments. Their existence in the intracluster medium is established through observations of synchrotron emission and Faraday rotation. On the other hand, the nature of magnetic fields outside of clusters, where observations are scarce and controversial, remains largely unknown. Read More

We study the growth rate and saturation level of the turbulent dynamo in magnetohydrodynamical simulations of turbulence, driven with solenoidal (divergence-free) or compressive (curl-free) forcing. For models with Mach numbers ranging from 0.02 to 20, we find significantly different magnetic field geometries, amplification rates, and saturation levels, decreasing strongly at the transition from subsonic to supersonic flows, due to the development of shocks. Read More

Primordial magnetic fields generated in the early universe are subject of considerable investigation, and observational limits on their strength are required to constrain the theory. Due to their impact on the reionization process, the strength of primordial fields can be limited using the latest data on reionization and the observed UV-luminosity function of high-redshift galaxies. Given the steep faint-end slope of the luminosity function, faint galaxies contribute substantial ionizing photons, and the low-luminosity cutoff has an impact on the total budget thereof. Read More

The Lyman alpha line is a robust tracer of high redshift galaxies. We present estimates of Lyman alpha emission from a protogalactic halo illuminated by UV background radiation fields with various intensities. For this purpose, we performed cosmological hydrodynamics simulations with the adaptive mesh refinement code FLASH, including a detailed network for primordial chemistry,comprising the formation of primordial molecules, a multi-level model for the hydrogen atom as well as the photo-ionization and photo-dissociation processes in a UV background. Read More

Recent FERMI observations provide a lower limit of 10^{-15} G for the magnetic field strength in the intergalactic medium (IGM). This is consistent with theoretical expectations based on the Biermann battery effect, which predicts such IGM fields already at redshifts z~10. During gravitational collapse, such magnetic fields can be amplified by compression and by turbulence, giving rise to the small-scale dynamo. Read More