Dmitri Kharzeev - BNL

Dmitri Kharzeev
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Dmitri Kharzeev

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High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (47)
Nuclear Theory (36)
High Energy Physics - Theory (25)
Nuclear Experiment (13)
Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (11)
High Energy Physics - Lattice (3)
Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (3)
High Energy Physics - Experiment (2)
Physics - Materials Science (1)
Physics - Soft Condensed Matter (1)

Publications Authored By Dmitri Kharzeev

We employ a 3+1D anomalous hydrodynamics with initial condition generated by HIJING to simulate the chiral vortical effect and the chiral magnetic effect in heavy-ion collisions. This allows us to calculate the charge-dependent two-particle correlations with respect to the reaction plane at different collision energies and centralities. We then compare the computed results with the experimental data and give discussions on the possible background effects. Read More

We discuss the effects of the electromagnetic interaction in high-energy proton collisions with nuclei of large Z at strong coupling $\lambda=g^2N_c$. Using the holographic dual limit of large $N_c>\lambda\gg 1$, we describe the Reggeon exchange as a twisted surface and show that it gets essentially modified by the electromagnetic interaction. Read More

In strong magnetic field the longitudinal magnetoconductivity in 3D chiral materials is shown to exhibit a new type of quantum oscillations arising from the chiral magnetic effect (CME). These quantum CME oscillations are predicted to dominate over the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) ones in chiral materials with an approximately conserved chirality of quasiparticles at strong magnetic fields. The phase of quantum CME oscillations differs from the phase of the conventional SdH oscillations by $\pi/2$. Read More

Using non-linear evolution equations of QCD, we compute the von Neumann entropy of the system of partons resolved by deep inelastic scattering at a given Bjorken $x$ and momentum transfer $q^2 = - Q^2$. We interpret the result as the entropy of entanglement between the spatial region probed by deep inelastic scattering and the rest of the proton. At small $x$ the relation between the entanglement entropy $S(x)$ and the parton distribution $xG(x)$ becomes very simple: $S(x) = \ln[ xG(x) ]$. Read More

Zirconium pentatelluride ZrTe$_5$, a fascinating topological material platform, hosts exotic chiral fermions in its highly anisotropic three-dimensional Dirac band and holds great promise advancing the next-generation information technology. However, the origin underlying its anomalous resistivity peak has been under debate for decades. Here we provide transport evidence substantiating the anomaly to be a direct manifestation of a Lifshitz transition in the Dirac band with an ultrahigh carrier mobility exceeding 3$\times$10$^5$ cm$^2$ V$^{-1}$ s$^{-1}$. Read More

Using magneto-infrared spectroscopy, we have explored the charge dynamics of (Bi,Sb)$_2$Te$_3$ thin films on InP substrates. From the magneto-transmission data we extracted three distinct cyclotron resonance (CR) energies that are all apparent in the broad band Faraday rotation (FR) spectra. This comprehensive FR-CR data set has allowed us to isolate the response of the bulk states from the intrinsic surface states associated with both the top and bottom surfaces of the film. Read More

We discuss a number of examples for recent connections between emergent phenomena in many-body systems in atomic and condensed matter physics, and confinement and other non-perturbative effects in quantum chromodynamics. Read More

Materials with charged chiral quasiparticles in external parallel electric and magnetic fields can support an electric current that grows linearly in time, corresponding to diverging DC conductivity. From experimental viewpoint, this "Chiral Magnetic Superconductivity" (CMS) is thus analogous to conventional superconductivity. However the underlying physics is entirely different -- the CMS does not require a condensate of Cooper pairs breaking the gauge degeneracy, and is thus not accompanied by Meissner effect. Read More

We identify a new contribution to the chiral magnetic conductivity at finite frequencies -- the magnetization current. This allows to quantitatively reproduce the known field-theoretic time-dependent (AC) chiral magnetic response in terms of kinetic theory. We evaluate the corresponding AC chiral magnetic conductivity in two flavor QCD plasma at weak coupling. Read More

We describe a new type of the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) that should occur in Weyl semimetals with an asymmetry in the dispersion relations of the left- and right-handed chiral Weyl fermions. In such materials, time-dependent pumping of electrons from a non-chiral external source generates a non-vanishing chiral chemical potential. This is due to the different capacities of the left- and right-handed (LH and RH) chiral Weyl cones arising from the difference in the density of states in the LH and RH cones. Read More

We argue that strain applied to a time-reversal and inversion breaking Weyl semi-metal in a magnetic field can induce an electric current via the chiral magnetic effect. A tight binding model is used to show that strain generically changes the locations in the Brillouin zone but also the energies of the band touching points (tips of the Weyl cones). Since axial charge in a Weyl semi-metal can relax via inter-valley scattering processes the induced current will decay with a timescale given by the lifetime of a chiral quasiparticle. Read More

We introduce a new mechanism for the chiral magnetic effect that does not require an initial chirality imbalance. The chiral magnetic current is generated by reconnections of magnetic flux that change the magnetic helicity of the system. The resulting current is entirely determined by the change of magnetic helicity, and it is quantized. Read More

We report on our recent attempt of quantitative modeling of the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) in heavy-ion collisions. We perform 3+1 dimensional anomalous hydrodynamic simulations on an event-by-event basis, with constitutive equations that contain the anomaly-induced effects. We also develop a model of the initial condition for the axial charge density that captures the statistical nature of random chirality imbalances created by the color flux tubes. Read More

The peak of the heavy quark pair entropy at the deconfinement transition, observed in lattice QCD, suggests that the transition is effectively driven by the increase of the entropy of bound states. The growth of the entropy with the inter-quark distance leads to the emergent entropic force that induces dissociation of quarkonium states. Since the quark-gluon plasma around the transition point is a strongly coupled system, we use the gauge-gravity duality to study the entropy of heavy quarkonium and the real-time dynamics of its dissociation. Read More

For systems with charged chiral fermions, the imbalance of chirality in the presence of magnetic field generates an electric current - this is the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME). We study the dynamical real-time evolution of electromagnetic fields coupled by the anomaly to the chiral charge density and the CME current by solving the Maxwell-Chern-Simons equations. We find that the CME induces the inverse cascade of magnetic helicity towards the large distances, and that at late times this cascade becomes self-similar, with universal exponents. Read More

QCD possesses a compact gauge group, and this implies a non-trivial topological structure of the vacuum. In this contribution to the Gribov-85 Memorial volume, we first discuss the origin of Gribov copies and their interpretation in terms of fluctuating topology in the QCD vacuum. We then describe the recent work with E. Read More

Dirac metals are characterized by the linear dispersion of fermionic quasi-particles, with the Dirac point hidden inside a Fermi surface. We study the magnetotransport in these materials using chiral kinetic theory to describe within the same framework both the negative magnetoresistance caused by chiral magnetic effect and quantum oscillations in the magnetoresistance due to the existence of the Fermi surface. We discuss the relevance of obtained results to recent measurements on ${\rm Cd_3As_2}$. Read More

QCD perturbation theory ignores the compact nature of $SU(3)$ gauge group that gives rise to the periodic $\theta$-vacuum of the theory. We propose to modify the gluon propagator to reconcile perturbation theory with the anomalous Ward identities for the topological current in the $\theta$-vacuum. As a result, the gluon couples to the Veneziano ghost describing the tunneling transitions between different Chern-Simons sectors of the vacuum; we call the emerging gluon dressed by ghost loops a "glost". Read More

Gauge theories with compact symmetry groups possess topologically non-trivial configurations of gauge field. This has dramatic implications for the vacuum structure of Quantum Chromo-Dynamics (QCD) and for the behavior of QCD plasma, as well as for condensed matter systems with chiral quasiparticles. I review the current status of the problem with an emphasis on the interplay of chirality with a background magnetic field, and on the observable manifestations of topology in heavy ion collisions, Dirac semimetals, neutron stars, and in the Early Universe. Read More

The chiral magnetic effect is the generation of electric current induced by chirality imbalance in the presence of magnetic field. It is a macroscopic manifestation of the quantum anomaly in relativistic field theory of chiral fermions (massless spin $1/2$ particles with a definite projection of spin on momentum) -- a dramatic phenomenon arising from a collective motion of particles and antiparticles in the Dirac sea. The recent discovery of Dirac semimetals with chiral quasi-particles opens a fascinating possibility to study this phenomenon in condensed matter experiments. Read More

The recent experimental discovery of ${\rm Cd_3 As_2}$ and ${\rm Na_3 Bi}$ Dirac semimetals enables the study of the properties of chiral quasi-particles in three spatial dimensions. As demonstrated by photoemission, Dirac semimetals are characterized by a linear dispersion relation for fermion quasi-particles, and thus represent three dimensional analogs of graphene. While the distinctive behavior of chiral fermions (e. Read More

The (3+1)D relativistic hydrodynamics with chiral anomaly is used to obtain a quantitative description of the chiral magnetic effect (CME) in heavy-ion collisions. We find that the charge-dependent hadron azimuthal correlations are sensitive to the CME, and that the experimental observations are consistent with the presence of the effect. Read More

Lattice QCD indicates a large amount of entropy associated with the heavy quark-antiquark pair immersed in the quark-gluon plasma. This entropy grows as a function of the inter-quark distance giving rise to an entropic force that can be very effective in dissociating the bound quarkonium states. In addition, the lattice data show a very sharp peak in the heavy quark-antiquark entropy at the deconfinement transition. Read More

The entropic approach to dissociation of bound states immersed in strongly coupled systems is developed. In such systems, the excitations of the bound state are often delocalized and characterized by a large entropy, so that the bound state is strongly entangled with the rest of the statistical system. If this entropy $S$ increases with the separation $r$ between the constituents of the bound state, $S = S(r)$, then the resulting entropic force $F = T\ {\partial S}/{\partial r}$ ($T$ is temperature) can drive the dissociation process. Read More

The hot QCD matter produced in any heavy ion collision with a nonzero impact parameter is produced within a strong magnetic field. We study the imprint the magnetic fields produced in non-central heavy ion collisions leave on the azimuthal distributions and correlations of the produced charged hadrons. The magnetic field is time-dependent and the medium is expanding, which leads to the induction of charged currents due to the combination of Faraday and Hall effects. Read More

Soft photons produced in heavy ion collisions are an important tool for probing the properties of the quark-gluon plasma. It is therefore crucial to understand the background - soft photons produced in elementary collisions. Low theorem states that soft photon production in hadron collisions is dominated by Bremsstrahlung off charged initial and final state hadrons. Read More

The transverse momentum spectra of hadrons produced in high energy collisions can be decomposed into two components: the exponential ("thermal") and the power ("hard") ones. Recently, the H1 Collaboration has discovered that the relative strength of these two components in Deep Inelastic Scattering depends drastically upon the global structure of the event - namely, the exponential component is absent in the diffractive events characterized by a rapidity gap. We discuss the possible origin of this effect, and speculate that it is linked to confinement. Read More

We attempt to describe the interplay of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in QCD by using the string model. We argue that in the quasi-abelian picture of confinement based on the condensation of magnetic monopoles and the dual Meissner effect, the worldsheet dynamics of the confining string can be effectively described by the $1+1$ dimensional massless electrodynamics, which is exactly soluble. The transverse plane distribution of the chromoelectric field stretched between the quark and antiquark sources can then be attributed to the fluctuations in the position of the string. Read More

The matter produced in the early stages of heavy ion collisions consists mostly of gluons, and is penetrated by coherent magnetic field produced by spectator nucleons. The fluctuations of gluonic matter in an external magnetic field couple to real and virtual photons through virtual quark loops. We study the resulting contributions to photon and dilepton production that stem from the fluctuations of the stress tensor $T_{\mu\nu}$ in the background of a coherent magnetic field $\vec{B}$. Read More

The hot QCD matter produced in any heavy ion collision with a nonzero impact parameter is produced within a strong magnetic field. We study the imprint that these fields leave on the azimuthal distributions and correlations of the produced charged hadrons. The magnetic field is time-dependent and the medium is expanding, which leads to the induction of charged currents due to the combination of Faraday and Hall effects. Read More

The Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) is the phenomenon of electric charge separation along the external magnetic field that is induced by the chirality imbalance. The CME is a macroscopic quantum effect - it is a manifestation of the chiral anomaly creating a collective motion in Dirac sea. Because the chirality imbalance is related to the global topology of gauge fields, the CME current is topologically protected and hence non-dissipative even in the presence of strong interactions. Read More

The propagation of a high energy quark disturbs the confining QCD vacuum inducing the currents in Dirac sea. Since quarks possess electric charge, these induced vacuum quark currents act as a source of soft photon radiation. This can lead to the enhancement of the soft photon production above the expectations based on the charged hadron yields and the Low theorem. Read More

A Fermi surface threaded by a Berry phase can be described by the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) term. After gauging, it produces a five-dimensional Chern-Simons term in the action. We show how this Chern-Simons term captures the essence of the Abelian, non-Abelian, and mixed gravitational anomalies in describing both in- and off-equilibrium phenomena. Read More

Weyl semimetals possess massless chiral quasi-particles, and are thus affected by the triangle anomalies. We discuss the features of the chiral magnetic and chiral vortical effects specific to Weyl semimetals, and then propose three novel phenomena caused by the triangle anomalies in this material: 1) anomaly cooling; 2) charge transport by soliton waves as described by the Burgers' equation, and 3) the shift of the BKT phase transition of superfluid vortices coupled to Weyl fermions. In addition, we establish the conditions under which the chiral magnetic current exists in real materials. Read More

Recent LHC results indicate a suppression of jet fragmentation functions in Pb-Pb collisions at intermediate values of $\xi=\ln(1/z)$. This seems to contradict the picture of energy loss based on the induced QCD radiation that is expected to lead to the enhancement of in-medium fragmentation functions. We use an effective 1+1 dimensional quasi-Abelian model to describe the dynamical modification of jet fragmentation in the medium. Read More

This is an introduction to the volume of Lecture Notes in Physics on "Strongly interacting matter in magnetic fields". The volume combines contributions written by a number of experts on different aspects of the problem. The response of QCD matter to intense magnetic fields has attracted a lot of interest recently. Read More

We consider the properties of electric circuits involving Weyl semimetals. The existence of the anomaly-induced chiral magnetic current in a Weyl semimetal subjected to magnetic field causes an interesting and unusual behavior of such circuits. We consider two explicit examples: i) a circuit involving the "chiral battery" and ii) a circuit that can be used as a "quantum amplifier" of magnetic field. Read More

We introduce a novel photon production mechanism stemming from the conformal anomaly of QCDxQED and the existence of strong (electro)magnetic fields in heavy ion collisions. Using the hydrodynamical description of the bulk modes of QCD plasma, we show that this mechanism leads to the photon production yield that is comparable to the yield from conventional sources. This mechanism also provides a significant positive contribution to the azimuthal anisotropy of photons, $v_2$, as well as to the radial "flow". Read More

We calculate the Chern-Simons diffusion rate in a strongly coupled N=4 SUSY Yang-Mills plasma in the presence of a constant external $U(1)_R$ magnetic flux via the holographic correspondence. Due to the strong interactions between the charged fields and non-Abelian gauge fields, the external Abelian magnetic field affects the thermal Yang-Mills dynamics and increases the diffusion rate, regardless of its strength. We obtain the analytic results for the Chern-Simons diffusion rate both in the weak and strong magnetic field limits. Read More

We revisit the problem of dipole-dipole scattering via exchanges of soft Pomerons in the context of holographic QCD. We show that a single closed string exchange contribution to the eikonalized dipole-dipole scattering amplitude yields a Regge behavior of the elastic amplitude; the corresponding slope and intercept are different from previous results obtained by a variational analysis of semi-classical surfaces. We provide a physical interpretation of the semi-classical worldsheets driving the Regge behavior for (-t)>0 in terms of worldsheet instantons. Read More

In the chiral magnetic effect, there is a competition between a strong magnetic field, which tends to project positively charged particles to have spin aligned along the magnetic field, and a chirality imbalance which may be produced locally by a topologically nontrivial gauge field such as an instanton. We study the properties of the Euclidean Dirac equation for a light fermion in the presence of both a constant abelian magnetic field and an SU(2) instanton. In particular, we analyze the zero modes analytically in various limits, both on R^4 and on the four-torus, in order to compare with recent lattice QCD results, and study the implications for the electric dipole moment. Read More

The upcoming p+Pb run at the LHC will probe the nuclear gluon distribution at very small Bjorken x (from $x \sim 10^{-4}$ at mid-rapidity down to $x \sim 10^{-6}$ in the proton fragmentation region) and will allow to test approaches based on parton saturation. Here, we present the predictions of the KLN model for hadron multiplicities and multiplicity distributions in p+Pb collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 4.4 TeV. Read More

We address a recent puzzling result from the LHC: the jet fragmentation functions measured in $PbPb$ and $pp$ collisions appear very similar in spite of a large medium-induced energy loss (we will call this "jet fragmentation scaling", JFS). To model the real-time non-perturbative effects in the propagation of a high energy jet through the strongly coupled QCD matter, we adopt an effective dimensionally reduced description in terms of the $(1+1)$ quasi-Abelian Schwinger theory. This theory is exactly soluble at any value of the coupling and shares with QCD the properties of dynamical generation of "mesons" with a finite mass and the screening of "quark" charge that are crucial for describing the transition of the jet into hadrons. Read More

The D3/D7 holographic model aims at a better approximation to QCD by adding to N=4 SYM theory N_f of N=2 supersymmetric hypermultiplets in the fundamental representation of SU(N_c) -- the "flavor fields" representing the quarks. Motivated by a recent observation of the importance of the Wess-Zumino-like (WZ) term for realizing the chiral magnetic effect within this model, we revisit the phase diagram of the finite temperature, massless D3/D7 model in the presence of external electric/magnetic fields and at finite chemical potential. We point out that the A-V-V triangle anomaly represented by the WZ term in the D7 brane probe action implies the existence of new phases that have been overlooked in the previous studies. Read More

The experimental results on heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC indicate that QCD plasma behaves as a nearly perfect fluid described by relativistic hydrodynamics. Hydrodynamics is an effective low-energy Theory Of Everything stating that the response of a system to external perturbations is dictated by conservation laws that are a consequence of the symmetries of the underlying theory. In the case of QCD fluid produced in heavy ion collisions, this theory possesses anomalies, so some of the apparent classical symmetries are broken by quantum effects. Read More

We present two new results on relativistic hydrodynamics with anomalies and external electromagnetic fields, "Chiral MagnetoHydroDynamics" (CMHD). First, we study CMHD in four dimensions at second order in the derivative expansion assuming the conformal/Weyl invariance. We classify all possible independent conformal second order viscous corrections to the energy-momentum tensor and to the U(1) current in the presence of external electric and/or magnetic fields, and identify eighteen terms that originate from the triangle anomaly. Read More

The neutrons cannot possess a quadrupole moment in the vacuum. Nevertheless, we show that in the presence of an external magnetic field the neutrons acquire a new type of quadrupole moment $Q^{ij}= \chi\,\sigma^i B^j$ involving the components of spin and magnetic field. This "chiral magnetic" quadrupole moment arises from the interplay of the chiral anomaly and the magnetic field; we estimate its value for the neutron in the static limit, and find $\chi \simeq 1. Read More

Chiral Magnetic Wave (CMW) is a gapless collective excitation of quark-gluon plasma in the presence of external magnetic field that stems from the interplay of Chiral Magnetic (CME) and Chiral Separation Effects (CSE); it is composed by the waves of the electric and chiral charge densities coupled by the axial anomaly. We consider CMW at finite baryon density and find that it induces the electric quadrupole moment of the quark-gluon plasma produced in heavy ion collisions: the "poles" of the produced fireball (pointing outside of the reaction plane) acquire additional positive electric charge, and the "equator" acquires additional negative charge. We point out that this electric quadrupole deformation lifts the degeneracy between the elliptic flows of positive and negative pions leading to $v_2(\pi^+) < v_2(\pi^-)$, and estimate the magnitude of the effect. Read More