David N. Burrows - Pennsylvania University

David N. Burrows
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David N. Burrows
Pennsylvania University
United States

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Pub Categories

Astrophysics (23)
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (17)
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (7)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (3)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (2)
Physics - Instrumentation and Detectors (2)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (1)

Publications Authored By David N. Burrows

Updated imaging and photometric results from Chandra observations of SN 1987A, covering the last 16 years, are presented. We find that the 0.5-2 keV light curve has remained constant at ~8x10^-12 erg s^-1 cm^-2 since 9500 days, with the 3-8 keV light curve continuing to increase until at least 10000 days. Read More

The Speedster-EXD is a new 64x64 pixel, 40 $\mu$m pixel pitch, 100 $\mu$m depletion depth hybrid CMOS X-ray detector (HCD) with the capability of reading out only those pixels containing event charge, thus enabling fast effective frame rates. A global charge threshold can be specified, and pixels containing charge above this threshold are flagged and read out. The Speedster detector has also been designed with other advanced in-pixel features to improve performance, including a low-noise, high-gain CTIA amplifier that eliminates interpixel capacitance crosstalk (IPC), and in-pixel Correlated Double Sampling (CDS) subtraction to reduce reset noise. Read More

Affiliations: 1Penn State, 2Penn State, 3U of Texas at Arlington

We analyze three Chandra observations, with a combined exposure time of 99 ks, of the Galactic supernova remnant RCW 103, a young supernova remnant, previously with no clear detection of metal-rich ejecta. Based on our imaging and spectral analyses of these deep Chandra data, we find evidence for metal-rich ejecta emission scattered throughout the remnant. X-ray emission from the shocked ejecta is generally weak, and the shocked circumstellar medium (CSM) is a largely dominant component across the entire remnant. Read More

We present new {\it Hubble Space Telescope} images of high-velocity H-$\alpha$ and Lyman-$\alpha$ emission in the outer debris of SN~1987A. The H-$\alpha$ images are dominated by emission from hydrogen atoms crossing the reverse shock. For the first time we observe emission from the reverse shock surface well above and below the equatorial ring, suggesting a bipolar or conical structure perpendicular to the ring plane. Read More

Affiliations: 1Pennsylvania University, 2INAF - IASF Milano, 3MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 4European Space Astronomy Centre of ESA, 5Space Radiation Lab., California Institute of Technology, 6MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 7University of Tartu, 8Harvard-Smithsonian Centre for Astrophysics, 9Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester

We present the main results of the 9th meeting of the International Astronomical Consortium for High Energy Calibration (IACHEC), held in Warrenton (Virginia) in May 2014. Over 50 scientists directly involved in the calibration of operational and future high-energy missions gathered during 3.5 days to discuss the status of the X-ray payloads inter-calibration, as well as possible ways to improve it. Read More

We present preliminary characterization of the Speedster-EXD, a new event driven hybrid CMOS detector (HCD) developed in collaboration with Penn State University and Teledyne Imaging Systems. HCDs have advantages over CCDs including lower susceptibility to radiation damage, lower power consumption, and faster read-out time to avoid pile-up. They are deeply depleted and able to detect x-rays down to approximately 0. Read More

We present a sample of 27 GRBs with detailed Swift light curves supplemented by late time Chandra observations. To answer the missing jet-break problem in general, we develop a numerical simulation based model which can be directly fit to the data using Monte Carlo methods. Our numerical model takes into account all the factors that can shape a jet-break: (i) lateral expansion (ii) edge effects and (iii) off-axis effects. Read More

We report on the initial results from our deep Chandra observation (450 ks) of O-rich supernova remnant (SNR) B0049-73.6 in the Small Magellanic Cloud. We detect small metal-rich ejecta features extending out to the outermost boundary of B0049-73. Read More

We have identified a merging galaxy cluster with evidence of two distinct sub-clusters. The X-ray and optical data suggest that the subclusters are moving away from each other after closest approach. This cluster merger was discovered from observations of the well localized short-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB), GRB 050509B. Read More

We report on the characterization of four Teledyne Imaging Systems HAWAII Hybrid Si CMOS detectors designed for X-ray detection. Three H1RG detectors were studied along with a specially configured H2RG. Read noise measurements were performed, with the lowest result being 7. Read More

Affiliations: 1U of Texas at Arlington, 2U of Pittsburgh, 3U of Miyazaki, 4U of Miyazaki, 5U Politecnica de Catalunya, 6U of Texas at Arlington, 7LANL, 8Rutgers, 9CfA, 10Penn State, 11KASI

We have performed deep X-ray observations of the remnant of Kepler's supernova (SN 1604) as a Key Project of the Suzaku Observatory. Our main goal is to detect secondary Fe-peak elements in the SN ejecta to gain insights into the Type Ia supernova explosion mechanism and the nature of the progenitor. Here we report our initial results. Read More

We present the results of x-ray measurements on a hybrid CMOS detector that uses a H2RG ROIC and a unique bonding structure. The silicon absorber array has a 36{\mu}m pixel size, and the readout array has a pitch of 18{\mu}m; but only one readout circuit line is bonded to each 36x36{\mu}m absorber pixel. This unique bonding structure gives the readout an effective pitch of 36{\mu}m. Read More

Future space-based X-ray telescope missions are likely to have significantly increased demands on detector read out rates due to increased collection area, and there will be a desire to minimize radiation damage in the interests of maintaining spectral resolution. While CCDs have met the requirements of past missions, active pixel sensors are likely to be a standard choice for some future missions due to their inherent radiation hardness and fast, flexible read-out architecture. One form of active pixel sensor is the hybrid CMOS sensor. Read More

GRB 120422A is a low-luminosity Gamma-ray burst (GRB) associated with a bright supernova, which distinguishes itself by its relatively short T90 ~ 5 s and an energetic X-ray tail. We analyze the Swift BAT and XRT data and discuss the physical implications. We show that the early steep decline in the X-ray light curve can be interpreted as the curvature tail of a late emission episode around 58-86 s, with a curved instantaneous spectrum at the end of the emission episode. Read More

We report on the results from our deep Chandra observation (120 ks) of the supernova remnant (SNR) N49 and soft Gamma-ray repeater (SGR) 0526-66 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We firmly establish the detection of an ejecta "bullet" beyond the southwestern boundary of N49. The X-ray spectrum of the bullet is distinguished from that of the main SNR shell, showing significantly enhanced Si and S abundances. Read More

The double burst, GRB 110709B, triggered Swift/BAT twice at 21:32:39 UT and 21:43:45 UT, respectively, on 9 July 2011. This is the first time we observed a GRB with two BAT triggers. In this paper, we present simultaneous Swift and Konus-WIND observations of this unusual GRB and its afterglow. Read More

We have been monitoring the supernova remnant (SNR) 1987A with {\it Chandra} observations since 1999. Here we report on the latest change in the soft X-ray light curve of SNR 1987A. For the last $\sim$1. Read More

We report our 110 ks Chandra observations of the supernova remnant (SNR) 0104-72.3 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). The X-ray morphology shows two prominent lobes along the northwest-southeast direction and a soft faint arc in the east. Read More

We continue to explore the validity of the reflected shock structure (RSS) picture in SNR 1987A that was proposed in our previous analyses of the X-ray emission from this object. We used an improved version of our RSS model in a global analysis of 14 CCD spectra from the monitoring program with Chandra. In the framework of the RSS picture, we are able to match both the expansion velocity curve deduced from the analysis of the X-ray images and light curve. Read More

We have used the Spitzer satellite to monitor the mid-IR evolution of SN 1987A over a 5 year period spanning the epochs between days 6000 and 8000 since the explosion. The supernova (SN) has evolved into a supernova remnant (SNR) and its radiative output is dominated by the interaction of the SN blast wave with the pre-existing equatorial ring (ER). The mid-IR spectrum is dominated by emission from ~180 K silicate dust, collisionally-heated by the hot X-ray emitting gas with a temperature and density of ~5x10^6 K and 3x10^4 cm-3, respectively. Read More

Using our deep ~120 ks Chandra observation, we report on the results from our spatially-resolved X-ray spectral analysis of the "oxygen-rich" supernova remnant (SNR) 0540-69.3 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We conclusively establish the nonthermal nature of the "arcs" in the east and west boundaries of the SNR, which confirms the cosmic-ray electron acceleration in the supernova shock (B ~ 20-140 microG). Read More

The development of Hybrid CMOS Detectors (HCDs) for X-Ray telescope focal planes will place them in con- tention with CCDs on future satellite missions due to their faster frame rates, flexible readout scenarios, lower power consumption, and inherent radiation hardness. CCDs have been used with great success on the current generation of X-Ray telescopes (e.g. Read More

We present the evolution of the radial expansion of SNR 1987A as measured using Chandra X-ray observations taken over the last 10 years. To characterize the complex structure of the remnant and isolate the expansion measurement, we fit the images to several empirical models including: a simple circular torus, a torus with bilateral lobes, and a torus with four tangentially extended lobes. We discuss the results of this measure in the context of the overall evolution of the supernova remnant, for which we believe we have measured the end of the free expansion phase and its transition to the adiabatic phase (at least along the equatorial ring). Read More

We report on 5 Chandra observations of the X-ray afterglow of the Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 060729 performed between 2007 March and 2008 May. In all five observations the afterglow is clearly detected. The last Chandra pointing was performed on 2008-May-04, 642 days after the burst - the latest detection of a GRB X-ray afterglow ever. Read More

We present an extended analysis of the deep Chandra LETG and HETG observations of the supernova remnant 1987A (SNR 1987A) carried out in 2007. The global fits to the grating spectra show that the temperature of the X-ray emitting plasma in the slower shocks in this system has remained stable for the last three years, while that in the faster shocks has decreased. This temperature evolution is confirmed by the first light curves of strong X-ray emission lines and their ratios. Read More

We present results from our X-ray data analysis of the SNR G330.2+1.0 and its CCO, CXOU J160103. Read More

We present science highlights and performance from the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT), which was launched on November 20, 2004. The XRT covers the 0.2-10 keV band, and spends most of its time observing gamma-ray burst (GRB)afterglows, though it has also performed observations of many other objects. Read More


We report on our initial analysis of a deep 510 ks observation of the Galactic oxygen-rich supernova remnant (SNR) G292.0+1.8 with the {\it Chandra X-ray Observatory}. Read More

The Swift/XRT data of 179 GRBs (from 050124 to 070129) and the optical afterglow data of 57 pre- and post-Swift GRBs are analyzed, in order to systematically investigate the jet-like breaks in the X-ray and optical afterglow lightcurves. We find that not a single burst can be included in the ``Platinum'' sample, in which the data satisfy all the criteria of a jet break. By releasing one or more requirements to define a jet break, some candidates of various degrees could be identified. Read More

GRB051022 was undetected to deep limits in early optical observations, but precise astrometry from radio and X-ray showed that it most likely originated in a galaxy at z~0.8. We report radio, optical, near infra-red and X-ray observations of GRB051022. Read More

Affiliations: 1Penn State, 2CfA, 3Rutgers, 4Miyazaki, 5Penn State, 6Penn State
Category: Astrophysics

We report on observations of the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G299.2$-$2.9 with the {\it Chandra X-Ray Observatory}. Read More

Affiliations: 1Penn State, 2Penn State, 3Penn State, 4Colorado, 5Penn State, 6Space Res Inst
Category: Astrophysics

We have been monitoring Supernova (SN) 1987A with {\it Chandra X-Ray Observatory} since 1999. We present a review of previous results from our {\it Chandra} observations, and some preliminary results from new {\it Chandra} data obtained in 2006 and 2007. High resolution imaging and spectroscopic studies of SN 1987A with {\it Chandra} reveal that X-ray emission of SN 1987A originates from the hot gas heated by interaction of the blast wave with the ring-like dense circumstellar medium (CSM) that was produced by the massive progenitor's equatorial stellar winds before the SN explosion. Read More

We examine the Swift/X-ray Telescope (XRT) light curves from the first ~150 gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows. Although we expected to find jet breaks at typical times of 1-2 days after the GRB, we find that these appear to be extremely rare. Typical light curves have a break in the slope at about 10^4s, followed by a single power-law decay whose slope is much too shallow to be consistent with expectations for jet breaks. Read More

The absence of a supernova accompanying the nearby long GRB 060614 poses a great puzzle about the progenitor of this event and challenges the current GRB classification scheme. This burst displays a short-hard emission episode followed by extended soft emission with strong spectral evolution. Noticing that this burst has an isotropic gamma-ray energy only ~8 times that of GRB 050724, a good candidate of merger-type short GRBs, we generate a ``pseudo'' burst that is ~8 times less energetic than GRB 060614 based on the spectral properties of GRB 060614 and the Ep ~ Eiso^{1/2} (Amati) relation. Read More

The detection of flares with the Swift satellite triggered a lot of bservational and theoretical interest in these phenomena. As a consequence a large analysis effort started within the community to characterize the phenomenon and at the same time a variety of theoretical speculations have been proposed to explain it. In this presentation we discuss part of the results we obtained analyzing a first statistical sample of GRBs observed with Swift. Read More

Affiliations: 1PSU, 2PSU, 3PSU, 4PSU, 5PSU, 6U. Leicester, 7U Leicester, 8NASA/GSFC
Category: Astrophysics

We remark on the utility of an observational relation between the absorption column density in excess of the Galactic absorption column density, $\Delta N_{\rm H} = N_{\rm H, fit} - N_{\rm H, gal}$, and redshift, z, determined from all 55 Swift-observed long bursts with spectroscopic redshifts as of 2006 December. The absorption column densities, $N_{\rm H, fit}$, are determined from powerlaw fits to the X-ray spectra with the absorption column density left as a free parameter. We find that higher excess absorption column densities with $\Delta N_{\rm H} > 2\times 10^{21}$ cm$^{-2}$ are only present in bursts with redshifts z$<$2. Read More

We systematically analyze the prompt emission and the early afterglow data of a sample of 31 GRBs detected by {\em Swift} before September 2005, and estimate the GRB radiative efficiency. BAT's narrow band inhibits a precise determination of the GRB spectral parameters, and we have developed a method to estimate these parameters with the hardness ratio information. The shallow decay component commonly existing in early X-ray afterglows, if interpreted as continuous energy injection in the external shock, suggests that the GRB efficiency previously derived from the late-time X-ray data were not reliable. Read More

Affiliations: 1Penn State, 2Miyazaki, 3Penn State, 4CfA, 5Rutgers, 6Penn State, 7Penn State, 8Penn State
Category: Astrophysics

We report on the discovery of a pointlike source (CXOU J160103.1$-$513353) at the center of a Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G330.2+1. Read More

Affiliations: 1Rutgers University, 2UCLA, 3Rutgers University, 4Harvard-Smithsonian CfA, 5Harvard-Smithsonian CfA, 6Penn State, 7Penn State
Category: Astrophysics

A new Chandra observation of SNR 0506-68.0 (also called N23) reveals a complex, highly structured morphology in the low energy X-ray band and an isolated compact central object in the high energy band. Spectral analysis indicates that the X-ray emission overall is dominated by thermal gas whose composition is consistent with swept-up ambient material. Read More

We report the simultaneous observations of the prompt emission in the gamma-ray and hard X-ray bands by the Swift-BAT and the KONUS-Wind instruments of the short-hard burst, GRB 060313. The observations reveal multiple peaks in both the gamma-ray and hard X-ray bands suggesting a highly variable outflow from the central explosion. We also describe the early-time observations of the X-ray and UV/Optical afterglows by the Swift XRT and UVOT instruments. Read More

We report the best evidence to date of a jet break in a short Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) afterglow, using Chandra and Swift XRT observations of the X-ray afterglow of GRB 051221A. The combined X-ray light curve, which has three breaks, is similar to those commonly observed in Swift observations of long GRBs. A flat segment of the light curve at ~0. Read More

Affiliations: 1Penn State, 2Colorado, SRI, 3Penn State, 4Penn State, 5Penn State, 6Colorado
Category: Astrophysics

$\sim$18 yr after the supernova explosion, the blast wave of SNR 1987A is entering the main body of the equatorial circumstellar material, which is causing a dramatic brightening of the remnant. We recently reported the observational evidence for this event from our {\it Chandra} data (Park et al. 2005b; P05 hereafter). Read More

Affiliations: 1INAF -- Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, 2Pennsylvania State University, 3Liverpool John Moores University, 4NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, 5Pennsylvania State University, 6INAF -- Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, 7University of Leicester, 8Pennsylvania State University, 9Pennsylvania State University, 10Pennsylvania State University, 11Pennsylvania State University, 12Pennsylvania State University, 13INAF -- Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, 14INAF -- Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, 15INAF -- Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, 16NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, 17NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, 18INAF -- Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Sezione di Palermo, 19University of Leicester, 20Liverpool John Moores University, 21INAF -- Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, 22Space Research Centre, University of Leicester, 23ASI Science Data Center, 24Pennsylvania State University, 25NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
Category: Astrophysics

The unique capability of the Swift satellite to perform a prompt and autonomous slew to a newly detected Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) has yielded the discovery of interesting new properties of GRB X-ray afterglows, such as the steep early lightcurve decay and the frequent presence of flares detected up to a few hours after the GRB trigger. We present observations of GRB 050607, the fourth case of a GRB discovered by Swift with flares superimposed on the overall fading X-ray afterglow. The flares of GRB 050607 were not symmetric as in previously reported cases, showing a very steep rise and a shallower decay, similar to the Fast Rise, Exponential Decay that are frequently observed in the gamma-ray prompt emission. Read More

Affiliations: 1PSU, 2PSU, 3GSFC, 4U. Nevada, 5PSU, 6PSU, 7GSFC, 8ASDC, 9GSFC, 10GSFC, 11PSU, 12PSU, 13PSU, 14U. Leicester, 15U. Leicester, 16PSU, 17PSU, 18PSU, 19MSSL, PSU
Category: Astrophysics

We report the results of Swift observations of the Gamma Ray Burst GRB 050603. With a V magnitude V=18.2 about 10 hours after the burst the optical afterglow was the brightest so far detected by Swift and one of the brightest optical afterglows ever seen. Read More