David J. Singh - Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC

David J. Singh
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David J. Singh
Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC
United States

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Physics - Materials Science (36)
Physics - Superconductivity (13)
Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (10)
Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (1)
Physics - Optics (1)

Publications Authored By David J. Singh

The interplay of BCS superconductivity and nontrivial band topology is expected to give rise to opportunities for creating topological superconductors, achieved through pairing spin-filtered boundary modes via superconducting proximity effects. The thus-engineered topological superconductivity can, for example, facilitate the search for Majorana fermion quasiparticles in condensed matter systems. Here we report a first-principles study of Mg$_2$Pb and predict that it should be a superconducting topological material. Read More

High-temperature superconductivity occurs near antiferromagnetic instabilities and nematic state. Debate remains on the origin of nematic order in FeSe and its relation with superconductivity. Here, we use transport, neutron scatter- ing and Fermi surface measurements to demonstrate that hydro-thermo grown superconducting FeS, an isostructure of FeSe, is a tetragonal paramagnet without nematic order and with a quasiparticle mass significantly reduced from that of FeSe. Read More

We theoretically investigate Sn(II) phosphates as optoelectronic materials using first principles calculations. We focus on known prototype materials Sn$_n$P$_2$O$_{5+n}$ (n=2, 3, 4, 5) and a previously unreported compound, SnP$_2$O$_6$ (n=1), which we find using global optimization structure prediction. The electronic structure calculations indicate that these compounds all have large band gaps above 3. Read More

We report systematic Angle Resolved Photoemission (ARPES) experiments using different photon polarizations and experimental geometries and find that the doping evolution of the normal state of Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 deviates significantly from the predictions of a rigid band model. The data reveal a non-monotonic dependence upon doping of key quantities such as band filling, bandwidth of the electron pocket, and quasiparticle coherence. Our analysis suggests that the observed phenomenology and the inapplicability of the rigid band model in Co-doped Ba122 are due to electronic correlations, and not to either the size of the impurity potential, or self-energy effects due to impurity scattering. Read More

We present a first-principles framework to investigate the electron scattering channels and transport properties for polar material by combining the exact solution of linearized electron-phonon (e-ph) Boltzmann transport equation in its integral-differential form associated with the e-ph coupling matrices obtained from polar Wannier interpolation scheme. No ad hoc parameter is required throughout this calculation, and GaAs, a well-studied polar material, is used as an example to demonstrate this method. In this work, the long-range and short-range contributions as well as the intravalley and intervalley transitions in the e-ph interactions (EPIs) have been quantitatively addressed. Read More

We report a structural study of the Weyl semimetals TaAs and TaP, utilizing diffraction and imaging techniques, where we show that they contain a high density of defects, leading to non-stoichiometric single crystals of both semimetals. Despite the observed defects and non-stoichiometry on samples grown using techniques already reported in the literature, de Haas-van Alphen measurements on TaP reveal quantum oscillations and a high carrier mobility, an indication that the crystals are of quality comparable to those reported elsewhere. Electronic structure calculations on TaAs reveal that the position of the Weyl points relative to the Fermi level shift with the introduction of vacancies and stacking faults. Read More

We present an investigation of the thermoelectric properties of cubic perovskite SrTiO3. The results are derived from a combination of calculated transport functions obtained from Boltzmann transport theory in the constant scattering time approximation based on the electronic structure and existing experimental data for La-doped SrTiO3. The figure of merit ZT is modeled with respect to carrier concentration and temperature. Read More

Oxides with good p-type conductivity have been long sought after to achieve high performance all-oxide optoelectronic devices. Divalent Sn(II) based oxides are promising candidates because of their rather dispersive upper valence bands caused by the Sn-5s/O-2p anti-bonding hybridization. There are so far few known Sn(II) oxides being p-type conductive suitable for device applications. Read More

Ge2Sb2Te5 and related phase change materials are highly unusual in that they can be readily transformed between amorphous and crystalline states using very fast melt, quench, anneal cycles, although the resulting states are extremely long lived at ambient temperature. These states have remarkably different physical properties including very different optical constants in the visible in strong contrast to common glass formers such as silicates or phosphates. This behavior has been described in terms of resonant bonding, but puzzles remain, particularly regarding different physical properties of crystalline and amorphous phases. Read More

It has been generally accepted that unfilled skutterudites process high lattice thermal conductivity ($\kappa_{l}$) that can be efficiently reduced upon filling. Here by using first principles Boltzmann-Peierls transport calculations, we find pure skutterudite of FeSb$_3$ with no filler in fact has an intrinsic ultralow $\kappa_{l}$ smaller than that of CoSb$_3$ by one order of magnitude. The value is even smaller than those of most of the fully filled skutterudites. Read More

A first-principles study of the electronic and superconducting properties of the Ni$_2$VAl Heusler compound is presented. The electron-phonon coupling constant of $\lambda_{ep}$ = 0.68 is obtained, which leads to a superconducting transition temperature of T$_c$ = $\sim$4 $K$ (assuming a Coulomb pseudopotential $\mu^*$ = 0. Read More

Semimetallic tungsten ditelluride (WTe2) displays an extremely large non-saturating magnetoresistance (XMR), which is the subject of intense interest. This phenomenon is thought to arise from the combination of perfect n-p charge compensation with low carrier densities in WTe2 and presumably details of its band structure. Recently, "spin texture" induced by strong spin-orbital coupling (SOC) has been observed in WTe2 by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Read More

We report detailed experimental investigation of the transport and magnetic properties of orthorhombic NiSi along with first principles studies of this phase and related nickel silicides. Neutron scattering shows no evidence for magnetism, in agreement with first principles calculations. Comparison of first principles results and experimental results from our measurements and literature show a weak electron phonon coupling. Read More

We discuss and present search strategies for finding new thermoelectric compositions based on first principles electronic structure and transport calculations. We illustrate them by application to a search for potential n-type oxide thermoelectric materials. This includes a screen based on visualization of electronic energy isosurfaces. Read More

Binary hydrides formed by the pnictogens of phosphorus, arsenic and antimony are studied at high pressures using first principles methods. Stable structures are predicted and their electronic, vibrational and superconducting properties are investigated. We predict that SbH$_{4}$ and AsH$_{8}$ will be high-temperature superconductors at megabar pressures, with critical temperatures in excess of 100 K. Read More

We report calculations of the electronic structure, vibrational properties and transport for the p-type semiconductors, SrAg$Ch$F ($Ch$=S, Se and Te). We find soft phonons with low frequency optical branches intersecting the acoustic modes below 50 $cm^{-1}$, indicative of a material with low thermal conductivity. The bands at and near the valence band maxima are highly two dimensional, which leads to high thermopowers even at high carrier concentrations, which is a combination that suggests good thermoelectric performance. Read More

Understanding the origin of splitting of valance band is important since it governs the unique spin and valley physics in few-layer MoS2. With first principle methods, we explore the effects of spin-orbit coupling and layer's coupling on few-layer MoS2. It is found that intra-layer spin-orbit coupling has a major contribution to the splitting of valance band at K. Read More

The interplay of superconductivity and magnetism is a subject of ongoing interest, stimulated most recently by the discovery of Fe-based superconductivity and the recognition that spin-fluctuations near a magnetic quantum critical point may provide an explanation for the superconductivity and the order parameter. Here we investigate magnetism in the Na filled Fe-based skutterudites using first principles calculations. NaFe4Sb12 is a known ferromagnet near a quantum critical point. Read More

We study theoretically the effects of anisotropy on the thermoelectric performance of $p$-type AgBiSe$_2$. We present an apparent realization of the thermoelectric benefits of one-dimensional "plate-like" carrier pocket anisotropy in the valence band of this material. Based on first principles calculations we find a substantial anisotropy in the electronic structure, likely favorable for thermoelectric performance, in the valence bands of the hexagonal phase of the silver chalcogenide thermoelectric AgBiSe$_2$, while the conduction bands are more isotropic, and in our experiments do not attain high performance. Read More

SrRu2O6 is a layered honeycomb lattice material with an extraordinarily high magnetic ordering temperature. We investigated this material using density functional calculations. We find that the energy scales for moment formation and ordering are similar and high. Read More

We report the electronic structure and related properties of the superconductor Ta2PdSe5 as determined from density functional calculations. The Fermi surface has two disconnected sheets, both derived from bands of primarily chalcogenide p states. These are a corrugated hole cylinder and and a heavier complex shaped electron sheet. Read More

Ge$_{2}$Sb$_{2}$Te$_{5}$ (GST) has been widely used as a popular phase change material. In this study, we show that it exhibits high Seebeck coefficients 200 - 300 $\mu$V/K in its cubic crystalline phase ($\it{c}$-GST) at remarkably high $\it{p}$-type doping levels of $\sim$ 1$\times$10$^{19}$ - 6$\times$10$^{19}$ cm$^{-3}$ at room temperature. More importantly, at low temperature (T = 200 K), the Seebeck coefficient was found to exceed 200 $\mu$V/K for a doping range 1$\times$10$^{19}$ - 3. Read More

The band structure, optical and defects properties of Ba_{2}TeO are systematically investigated using density functional theory with a view to understanding its potential as an optoelectronic or trans- parent conducting material. Ba_{2}TeO crystallizes with tetragonal structure (space group P4/nmm) and with a 2.93 eV optical band gap 1 . Read More

We report calculations of the electronic structure and optical properties of doped $n$-type perovskite BaSnO3 and layered perovskites. While doped BaSnO$_3$ retains its transparency for energies below the valence to conduction band onset, the doped layered compounds exhibit below band edge optical conductivity due to transitions from the lowest conduction band. This gives absorption in the visible for Ba2SnO4. Read More

Thermoelectric performance is of interest for numerous applications such as waste heat recovery and solid state energy conversion, and will be seen to be closely connected to topological insulator behavior. In this context we here report first principles transport and defect calculations for Bi$_{2}$Te$_{2}$Se in relation to Bi$_{2}$Te$_{3}$. The two compounds are found to contain remarkably different electronic structures in spite of being isostructural and isoelectronic. Read More

Theoretical calculations are performed to understand the electronic structure and magnetic properties of CuFe$_2$Ge$_2$. The band structure reveal large electron density $N(E_F)$ at the Fermi level suggesting strong itinerant character of magnetism. The Fermi surface is dominated by two dimensional sheet like structures, with potentially strong nesting between them. Read More

Light scattering by small particles has a long and interesting history in physics. Nonetheless, it continues to surprise with new insights and applications. This includes new discoveries, such as novel plasmonic effects, as well as exciting theoretical and experimental developments such as optical trapping, anomalous light scattering, optical tweezers, nano-spasers, and novel aspects and realizations of Fano resonances. Read More

Novel or unusual magnetism is a subject of considerable interest, particularly in metals and degenerate semiconductors. In such materials the interplay of magnetism, transport and other Fermi liquid properties can lead to fascinating physical behavior. One example is in magnetic semiconductors, where spin polarized currents may be controlled and used. Read More

We report calculations of the electronic structure and magnetic properties of YFe$_2$Ge$_2$ and discuss the results in terms of the observed superconductivity near magnetism. We find that YFe$_2$Ge$_2$ is a material near a magnetic quantum critical point based on comparison of standard density functional results that predict magnetism with experiment. The band structure and Fermi surfaces are very three dimensional and higher conductivity is predicted in the $c$-axis direction. Read More

We present an analysis of the thermoelectric properties of of $n$-type GeTe and SnTe in relation to the lead chalcogenides PbTe and PbSe. We find that the singly degenerate conduction bands of semiconducting GeTe and SnTe are highly non-ellipsoidal, even very close to the band edges. This leads to isoenergy surfaces with a strongly corrugated shape that is clearly evident at carrier concentrations well below 0. Read More

We report electronic structure calculations for Ta$_2$PdS$_5$, which is a layered superconductor containing heavy elements and displaying an upper critical field, $H_{c2}(0)$, $\sim$3 times higher than the estimated Pauli limit. We show that this is a multiband superconductor that is most likely in the strong coupling regime. This provides an alternative explanation to strong spin orbit scattering for the high upper critical field. Read More

We investigate the thermoelectric properties of ${\beta}$-FeSi$_{\text2}$ using first principles electronic structure and Boltzmann transport calculations. We report a high thermopower for both \textit{p}- and \textit{n}-type ${\beta}$-FeSi$_{\text2}$ over a wide range of carrier concentration and in addition find the performance for \textit{n}-type to be higher than for the \textit{p}-type. Our results indicate that, depending upon temperature, a doping level of 3$\times10{^{20}}$ - 2$\times10{^{21}}$ cm${^{-3}}$ may optimize the thermoelectric performance. Read More

New fluoropnictides BaMnPnF with Pn = As, Sb, Bi, are synthesized by stoichiometric reaction of elements with BaF\_2. The compounds crystallize in the tetragonal P4/nmm (No. 129, Z = 2) space group, with the ZrCuSiAs-type structure, as indicated by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction results. Read More

The electronic structure and magnetic properties of FeGa3 and doped FeGa3 are studied using density functional calculations. An itinerant mechanism for ferromagnetism is found both for n-type doping with Ge and also for p-type doping. Boltzmann transport calculations of the thermopower are also reported. Read More

Calculations of the optical properties of GeTe in the cubic NaCl and rhombohedral ferroelectric structures are reported. The rhombohedral ferroelectric distortion increases the band gap from 0.11 eV to 0. Read More

We study experimentally and theoretically the electronic and magnetic properties of two insulating double perovskites that show similar atomic and electronic structure, but different magnetic properties. In magnetization measurements, La2ZnIrO6 displays weak ferromagnetic behavior below 7.5 K whereas La2MgIrO6 shows antiferromagnetic behavior (AFM) below TN = 12 K. Read More

We used X-ray/neutron diffraction to determine the low temperature (LT) structure of IrTe2. A structural modulation was observed with a wavevector of k =(1/5, 0, 1/5) below Ts?285 K, accompanied by a structural transition from a trigonal to a triclinic lattice. We also performed the first principles calculations for high temperature (HT) and LT structures, which elucidate the nature of the phase transition and the LT structure. Read More

High thermoelectric performance in oxides requires stable conductive materials that have suitable band structures. Here we show based on an analysis of the thermopower and related properties using first-principles calculations and Boltzmann transport theory that hole doped Cu2O may be such a material. We find that hole-doped Cu2O has a high thermopower of above 200 microV/K even with doping levels as high as 5. Read More

Reduced dimensionality has long been regarded as an important strategy for increasing thermoelectric performance, for example in superlattices and other engineered structures. Here we point out and illustrate by examples that three dimensional bulk materials can be made to behave as if they were two dimensional from the point of view of thermoelectric performance. Implications for the discovery of new practical thermoelectrics are discussed. Read More

We present first principles calculations of the phonon dispersions of Bi2Te3 and discuss these in relation to the acoustic phonon interface scattering in ceramics. The phonon dispersions show agreement with what is known from neutron scattering for the optic modes. We find a difference between the generalized gradient approximation and local density results for the acoustic branches. Read More

We report electronic structure calculations for the layered centrosymmetric superconductor LaNiGa$_2$, which has been identified as having a possible triplet state based on evidence for time reversal symmetry breaking. The Fermi surface has several large sheets and is only moderately anisotropic, so that the material is best described as a three dimensional metal. These include sections that are open in the in-plane direction as well as a section that approaches the zone center. Read More

Resistivity, Hall effect, Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and magnetic susceptibility data are reported for CrSb2 single crystals. In spite of some unusual features in electrical transport and Hall measurements below 100 K, only one phase transition is found in the temperature range from 2 to 750 K corresponding to long-range antiferromagnetic order below T_N ~ 273 K. Many of the low temperature properties can be explained by the thermal depopulation of carriers from the conduction band into a low mobility band located approximately 16 meV below the conduction band edge, as deduced from the Hall effect data. Read More

We present evidence for quantum oscillations in the pressure-induced metallic state of the 4$d$ layered perovskite Ca$_2$RuO$_4$. A complicated oscillation spectrum is observed, which is both temperature and field dependent, with unusually light cyclotron masses in the range of $m^*/m_e$ $\sim$ 0.6 -- 3, suggesting that the pressure-induced metallic state is a weakly correlated Fermi liquid. Read More

We present an analysis of the potential thermoelectric performance of p-type AgGaTe$_{2}$, which has already shown a $ZT$ of 0.8 with partial optimization, and observe that the same band structure features, such as a mixture of light and heavy bands and isotropic transport, that lead to this good performance are present in certain other ternary chalcopyrite structure semiconductors. We find that optimal performance of AgGaTe$_2$ will be found for hole concentrations between 4 $\times 10^{19}$ and 2 $\times 10^{20}$cm$^{-3}$ at 900 K, and 2 $\times 10^{19}$ and 10$^{20}$ cm$^{-3}$ at 700 K, and that certain other chalcopyrite semiconductors might show good thermoelectric performance at similar doping ranges and temperatures if not for higher lattice thermal conductivity. Read More

Fabricating complex transition metal oxides with a tuneable band gap without compromising their intriguing physical properties is a longstanding challenge. Here we examine the layered ferroelectric bismuth titanate and demonstrate that, by site-specific substitution with the Mott insulator lanthanum cobaltite, its band gap can be narrowed as much as one electron volt, while remaining strongly ferroelectric. We find that when a specific site in the host material is preferentially substituted, a split-off state responsible for the band gap reduction is created just below the conduction band of bismuth titanate. Read More

We investigate the physical properties and electronic structure of BaFe2-{\delta}Se3 crystals, which were grown out of tellurium flux. The crystal structure of the compound, an iron-deficient derivative of the ThCr2Si2-type, is built upon edge-shared FeSe4 tetrahedra fused into double chains. The semiconducting BaFe2-{\delta}Se3 with {\delta} \approx 0. Read More

A strategy for obtaining low band gap oxide ferroelectrics based on charge imbalance is described and illustrated by first principles studies of the hypothetical compound Bi$_6$Ti$_4$O$_{17}$, which is an alternate stacking of the ferroelectric Bi$_4$Ti$_3$O$_{12}$. We find that this compound is ferroelectric, similar to Bi$_4$Ti$_3$O$_{12}$ although with a reduced polarization. Importantly, calculations of the electronic structure with the recently developed functional of Tran and Blaha yield a much reduced band gap of 1. Read More

We show using a combination of powder X-ray and neutron diffraction, first principles calculations, temperature- and field-dependent magnetization, heat capacity and resistivity data that the superconducting behavior of `Sr$_4$V$_2$O$_6$Fe$_2$As$_2$' is dependent on synthesis conditions, particularly, heating profiles result in unintentional chemical doping. This compound can be tuned from a state in which the vanadium electrons are itinerant with a high electronic density of states, to a state where the vanadium-oxide layers are insulating and presumably antiferromagnetic. Read More

We report a series of calculations testing the predictions of the Tran-Blaha functional for the electronic structure and magnetic properties of condensed systems. We find a general improvement in the properties of semiconducting and insulating systems, relative to calculations with standard generalized gradient approximations, although this is not always by the same mechanism as other approaches such as the quasiparticle GW method. In ZnO the valence bands are narrowed and the band gap is increased to a value in much better agreement with experiment. Read More

Structural and optical properties of several high light output halide scintillators and closely related materials are presented based on first principles calculations. The optical properties are based on the Engel-Vosko generalized gradient approximation and the recently developed density functional of Tran and Blaha. The materials investigated are BaBr$_2$, BaIBr, BaCl$_2$, BaF$_2$, BaI$_2$, BiI$_3$, CaI$_2$, Cs$_2LiYCl$_6$, CsBa$_2$Br$_5$, CsBa$_2$I$_5$, K$_2$LaBr$_5$, K$_2$LaCl$_5$,K$_2$LaI$_5$, LaBr$_3$, LaCl$_3$, SrBr$_2$, and YI$_3$. Read More