# David G. Lowe

## Contact Details

NameDavid G. Lowe |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesHigh Energy Physics - Theory (45) General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (12) Computer Science - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (4) Astrophysics (4) Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (3) Computer Science - Robotics (1) Statistics - Machine Learning (1) Computer Science - Computational Engineering; Finance; and Science (1) Computer Science - Artificial Intelligence (1) |

## Publications Authored By David G. Lowe

We present an unsupervised learning framework for the task of monocular depth and camera motion estimation from unstructured video sequences. We achieve this by simultaneously training depth and camera pose estimation networks using the task of view synthesis as the supervisory signal. The networks are thus coupled via the view synthesis objective during training, but can be applied independently at test time. Read More

Global conformal invariance determines the form of two and three-point functions of quasi-primary operators in a conformal field theory, and generates nontrivial relations between terms in the operator product expansion. These ideas are generalized to the principal and complementary series representations, which play an important role in the conjectured dS/CFT correspondence. The conformal partial wave expansions are constructed for these representations which in turn determine the operator product expansion. Read More

We consider the possibility of mining black holes in the 1+1-dimensional dilaton gravity model of Russo, Susskind and Thorlacius. The model correctly incorporates Hawking radiation and back-reaction in a semiclassical expansion in 1/N, where N is the number of matter species. It is shown that the lifetime of a perturbed black hole is independent of the addition of any extra apparatus when realized by an arbitrary positive energy matter source. Read More

We explore a version of black hole complementarity, where an approximate semiclassical effective field theory for interior infalling degrees of freedom emerges holographically from an exact evolution of exterior degrees of freedom. The infalling degrees of freedom have a complementary description in terms of outgoing Hawking radiation and must eventually decohere with respect to the exterior Hamiltonian, leading to a breakdown of the semiclassical description for an infaller. Trace distance is used to quantify the difference between the complementary time evolutions, and to define a decoherence time. Read More

Mack has conjectured that all conformal field theories are equivalent to string theories. We explore the example of the two-dimensional minimal model CFTs and confirm that the Mellin transformed amplitudes have the desired properties of string theory in three-dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetime. Read More

An effective field theory for infalling observers in the vicinity of a quasi-static black hole is given in terms of a freely falling lattice discretization. The lattice model successfully reproduces the thermal spectrum of outgoing Hawking radiation, as was shown by Corley and Jacobson, but can also be used to model observations made by a typical low-energy observer who enters the black hole in free fall at a prescribed time. The explicit short distance cutoff ensures that, from the viewpoint of the infalling observer, any quantum information that entered the black hole more than a scrambling time earlier has been erased by the black hole singularity. Read More

The holographic dual of a gravitational theory around the de Sitter background is argued to be a Euclidean conformal gravity theory in one fewer dimensions. The measure for the holographic theory naturally includes a sum over topologies as well as conformal structures. Read More

The bulk to boundary mapping for massive scalar fields is constructed, providing a de Sitter analog of the LSZ reduction formula. The set of boundary correlators thus obtained defines a potentially new class of conformal field theories based on principal series representations of the global conformal group. Conversely, we show bulk field operators in de Sitter may be reconstructed from boundary operators. Read More

We consider the construction of local bulk operators in a black hole background dual to a pure state in conformal field theory. The properties of these operators in a microcanonical ensemble are studied. It has been argued in the literature that typical states in such an ensemble contain firewalls, or otherwise singular horizons. Read More

This paper considers the problem of low-dimensional visualisation of very high dimensional information sources for the purpose of situation awareness in the maritime environment. In response to the requirement for human decision support aids to reduce information overload (and specifically, data amenable to inter-point relative similarity measures) appropriate to the below-water maritime domain, we are investigating a preliminary prototype topographic visualisation model. The focus of the current paper is on the mathematical problem of exploiting a relative dissimilarity representation of signals in a visual informatics mapping model, driven by real-world sonar systems. Read More

Within the framework of black hole complementarity, a proposal is made for an approximate interior effective field theory description. For generic correlators of local operators on generic black hole states, it agrees with the exact exterior description in a region of overlapping validity, up to corrections that are too small to be measured by typical infalling observers. Read More

We consider the microcanonical ensemble of black holes in gravitational theories in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime with a conformal field theory dual. We argue that typical quantum black hole states show no violations of general covariance on the horizon. Read More

Massless fields propagating in a generic Kerr black hole background enjoy a hidden SL(2,R)xSL(2,R) symmetry. We determine how the exact mode functions decompose into representations of this symmetry group. This extends earlier results on the low frequency limit of the massless scalar case to finite frequencies and general spin. Read More

This paper introduces a novel self-learning framework that automates the label acquisition process for improving models for detecting players in broadcast footage of sports games. Unlike most previous self-learning approaches for improving appearance-based object detectors from videos, we allow an unknown, unconstrained number of target objects in a more generalized video sequence with non-static camera views. Our self-learning approach uses a latent SVM learning algorithm and deformable part models to represent the shape and colour information of players, constraining their motions, and learns the colour of the playing field by a gentle Adaboost algorithm. Read More

The future apparent horizon of a black hole develops large stress energy due to quantum effects, unless the outgoing modes are in a thermal density matrix at the local Hawking temperature. It is shown for generic pure states that the deviation from thermality is so small that an infalling observer will see no drama on their way to the stretched horizon, providing a derivation of black hole complementarity after the Page time. Atypical pure states, and atypical observers, may of course see surprises, but that is not surprising. Read More

Loop corrections to observables in slow-roll inflation are found to diverge no worse than powers of the log of the scale factor, extending Weinberg's theorem to quasi-single field inflation models. Demanding perturbation theory be valid during primordial inflation leads to constraints on the effective lagrangian. This leads to some interesting constraints and coincidences on the landscape of inflationary vacua. Read More

The postulates of black hole complementarity do not imply a firewall for infalling observers at a black hole horizon. The dynamics of the stretched horizon, that scrambles and re-emits information, determines whether infalling observers experience anything out of the ordinary when entering a large black hole. In particular, there is no firewall if the stretched horizon degrees of freedom retain information for a time of order the black hole scrambling time. Read More

The long wavelength physics in a de Sitter region depends on the initial quantum state. While such long wavelength physics is under control for massive fields near the Hartle-Hawking vacuum state, such initial states make unnatural assumptions about initial data outside the region of causal contact of a local observer. We argue that a reasonable approximation to a maximum entropy state, one that makes minimal assumptions outside an observer's horizon volume, is one where a cutoff is placed on a surface bounded by timelike geodesics, just outside the horizon. Read More

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Theory

We construct a family of vector fields that generate local symmetries in the solution space of low frequency massless field perturbations in the general Kerr geometry. This yields a one-parameter family of SL(2,R)x SL(2,R) algebras. We identify limits in which the SL(2,R)xSL(2,R) algebra contracts to an SL(2,R) symmetry of the Schwarzschild background. Read More

We present Local Naive Bayes Nearest Neighbor, an improvement to the NBNN image classification algorithm that increases classification accuracy and improves its ability to scale to large numbers of object classes. The key observation is that only the classes represented in the local neighborhood of a descriptor contribute significantly and reliably to their posterior probability estimates. Instead of maintaining a separate search structure for each class, we merge all of the reference data together into one search structure, allowing quick identification of a descriptor's local neighborhood. Read More

It has been proposed that a hidden conformal field theory (CFT) governs the dynamics of low frequency scattering in a general Kerr black hole background. We further investigate this correspondence by mapping higher order corrections to the massless wave equations in a Kerr background to an expansion within the CFT in terms of higher dimension operators. This implies the presence of infinite towers of CFT primary operators with positive conformal dimensions compatible with unitarity. Read More

Local operators in the bulk of AdS can be represented as smeared operators in the dual CFT. We show how to construct these bulk observables by requiring that the bulk operators commute at spacelike separation. This extends our previous work by taking interactions into account. Read More

The work is an attempt to model a scenario of inflation in the framework of Anti de Sit- ter/Conformal Field theory (AdS/CFT) duality, a potentially complete nonperturbative description of quantum gravity via string theory. We look at bubble geometries with de Sitter interiors within an ambient Schwarzschild anti-de Sitter black hole spacetime and obtain a characterization for the states in the dual CFT on boundary of the asymptotic AdS which code the expanding dS bubble. These can then in turn be used to specify initial conditions for cosmology. Read More

The Semantic Robot Vision Competition provided an excellent opportunity for our research lab to integrate our many ideas under one umbrella, inspiring both collaboration and new research. The task, visual search for an unknown object, is relevant to both the vision and robotics communities. Moreover, since the interplay of robotics and vision is sometimes ignored, the competition provides a venue to integrate two communities. Read More

We study a simple version of the AdS/CFT (anti-de Sitter spacetime/Conformal Field Theory) correspondence, where operators have integer conformal dimensions. In this model, bulk causality follows from boundary analyticity, even in nontrivial black hole backgrounds that break the underlying conformal symmetry. This allows a natural set of quasi-local bulk observables to be constructed. Read More

The mapping between bulk supergravity fields in anti-de Sitter space and operators in the dual boundary conformal field theory usually relies heavily on the available global symmetries. In the present work, we study a generalization of this mapping to time dependent situations, for the simple case of collapsing shock waves in two spacetime dimensions. The construction makes use of analyticity of the conformal field theory and the properties of the asymptotic bulk geometry to reconstruct the non-analytic bulk observables. Read More

Pure gravity in (2+1)-dimensions with negative cosmological constant is classically equivalent Chern-Simons gauge theory with gauge group SO(2; 2), which may be realized on chiral and antichiral gauge connections. This paper looks at half-AdS geometries i.e. Read More

We study the six-dimensional dilaton gravity Yang black holes of hep-th/0607193, which carry (1,-1) charge in SU(2)xSU(2) gauge group. We find what values of the asymptotic parameters (mass and scalar charge) lead to a regular horizon, and show that there are no regular solutions with an extremal horizon. Read More

This paper has two parts. First we review the description of local bulk operators in Lorentzian AdS in terms of non-local operators in the boundary CFT. We discuss how bulk locality arises in pure AdS backgrounds and how it is modified at finite N. Read More

The anti-de Sitter space/conformal field theory correspondence (AdS/CFT) can potentially provide a complete formulation of string theory on a landscape of stable and metastable vacua that naturally give rise to eternal inflation. As a model for this process, we consider bubble solutions with de Sitter interiors, obtained by patching together dS and Schwarzschild-AdS solutions along a bubble wall. For an interesting subclass of these solutions the bubble wall reaches spacelike infinity in the black hole interior. Read More

To gain insight into how bulk locality emerges from the holographic conformal field theory, we reformulate the bulk to boundary map in as local a way as possible. In previous work, we carried out this program for Lorentzian AdS, and showed the support on the boundary could always be reduced to a compact region spacelike separated from the bulk point. In the present work the idea is extended to a complexified boundary, where spatial coordinates are continued to imaginary values. Read More

A quantum deformation of three-dimensional de Sitter space was proposed in hep-th/0407188. We use this to calculate the entropy of Kerr-de Sitter space, using a canonical ensemble, and find agreement with the semiclassical result. Read More

The Lorentzian AdS/CFT correspondence implies a map between local operators in supergravity and non-local operators in the CFT. By explicit computation we construct CFT operators which are dual to local bulk fields in the semiclassical limit. The computation is done for general dimension in global, Poincare and Rindler coordinates. Read More

String theory provides numerous examples of duality between gravitational theories and unitary gauge theories. To resolve the black hole information paradox in this setting, it is necessary to better understand how unitarity is implemented on the gravity side. We argue that unitarity is restored by nonlocal effects whose initial magnitude is suppressed by the exponential of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. Read More

It has been proposed that a quantum group structure underlies de Sitter/Conformal field theory duality. These ideas are used to give a microscopic operator counting interpretation for the entropy of two-dimensional dilaton de Sitter space. This agrees with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy up to a factor of order unity. Read More

We develop the representation of local bulk fields in AdS by non-local operators on the boundary, working in the semiclassical limit and using AdS_2 as our main example. In global coordinates we show that the boundary operator has support only at points which are spacelike separated from the bulk point. We construct boundary operators that represent local bulk operators inserted behind the horizon of the Poincare patch and inside the Rindler horizon of a two dimensional black hole. Read More

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Theory

We consider dS_2/CFT_1 where the asymptotic symmetry group of the de Sitter spacetime contains the Virasoro algebra. We construct representations of the Virasoro algebra realized in the Fock space of a massive scalar field in de Sitter, built as excitations of the Euclidean vacuum state. These representations are unitary, without highest weight, and have vanishing central charge. Read More

Unitary principal series representations of the conformal group appear in the dS/CFT correspondence. These are infinite dimensional irreducible representations, without highest weights. In earlier work of Guijosa and the author it was shown for the case of two-dimensional de Sitter, there was a natural q-deformation of the conformal group, with q a root of unity, where the unitary principal series representations become finite-dimensional cyclic unitary representations. Read More

We show that eternal inflation is compatible with holography. In particular, we emphasize that if a region is asymptotically de Sitter in the future, holographic arguments by themselves place no bound on the number of past e-foldings. We also comment briefly on holographic restrictions on the production of baby universes. Read More

We stress that the dS/CFT correspondence should be formulated using unitary principal series representations of the de Sitter isometry group/conformal group, rather than highest-weight representations as originally proposed. These representations, however, are infinite-dimensional, and so do not account for the finite gravitational entropy of de Sitter space in a natural way. We then propose to replace the classical isometry group by a q-deformed version. Read More

We consider scalar field theory in de Sitter space with a general vacuum invariant under the continuously connected symmetries of the de Sitter group. We begin by reviewing approaches to define this as a perturbative quantum field theory. One approach leads to Feynman diagrams with pinch singularities in the general case, which renders the theory perturbatively ill-defined. Read More

The production of ultra high-energy cosmic rays in de Sitter invariant vacuum states is considered. Assuming the present-day universe is asymptoting toward a future de Sitter phase, we argue the observed flux of cosmic rays places a bound on the parameter $\alpha$ that characterizes these de Sitter invariant vacuum states, generalizing earlier work of Starobinsky and Tkachev. If this bound is saturated, we obtain a new top-down scenario for the production of super-GZK cosmic rays. Read More

We propose that stretched horizons can be described in terms of a gas of non-interacting quasiparticles. The quasiparticles are unstable, with a lifetime set by the imaginary part of the lowest quasinormal mode frequency. If the horizon arises from an AdS/CFT style duality the quasiparticles are also the effective low-energy degrees of freedom of the finite-temperature CFT. Read More

We propose a Matrix Theory approach to Romans' massive Type IIA supergravity. It is obtained by applying the procedure of Matrix Theory compactifications to Hull's proposal of the Massive Type IIA String Theory as M-Theory on a twisted torus. The resulting Matrix Theory is a super-Yang Mills theory on large N three-branes with a space dependent non-commutativity parameter, which is also independently derived by a T-duality approach. Read More

We set up a consistent renormalizable perturbation theory of a scalar field in a nontrivial alpha vacuum in de Sitter space. Although one representation of the effective action involves non-local interactions between anti-podal points, we show the theory leads to causal physics, and we prove a spectral theorem for the interacting two-point function. We construct the renormalized stress energy tensor and show this develops no imaginary part at leading order in the interactions, consistent with stability. Read More

We propose an effective description of 0-brane black holes, in which the black hole is modeled as a gas of non-interacting quasi-particles in the dual quantum mechanics. This simple model is shown to account for many of the static thermodynamic properties of the black hole. It also accounts for dynamical properties, such as the rate at which energy gets thermalized by the black hole. Read More

It has been conjectured that string theory in a pp-wave background is dual to a sector of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. We study the Hagedorn transition for free strings in this background. We find that the free energy at the transition point is finite suggesting a confinement/deconfinement transition in the gauge theory. Read More

We consider the N=2 gauge theory on N D7-branes wrapping K3, with D3-brane probes. In the large N limit, the D7-branes blow up to form an enhancon shell. We probe the region inside and outside the enhancon shell using the D3-branes, and compute the probe metric using the Seiberg-Witten formalism. Read More

There exist a one complex parameter family of de Sitter invariant vacua, known as alpha vacua. In the context of slow roll inflation, we show that all but the Bunch-Davies vacuum generates unacceptable production of high energy particles at the end of inflation. As a simple model for the effects of trans-planckian physics, we go on to consider non-de Sitter invariant vacua obtained by patching modes in the Bunch-Davies vacuum above some momentum scale M_c, with modes in an alpha vacuum below M_c. Read More

We compute the moduli space metric of SU(N) Yang-Mills theory with N=2 supersymmetry in the vicinity of the point where the classical moduli vanish. This gauge theory may be realized as a set of N D7-branes wrapping a K3 surface, near the enhancon locus. The moduli space metric determines the low-energy worldvolume dynamics of the D7 branes near this point, including stringy corrections. Read More