Darren Croton - Swinburne University of Technology

Darren Croton
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Darren Croton
Swinburne University of Technology

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Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (40)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (18)
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (5)
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (1)
Physics - Physics and Society (1)

Publications Authored By Darren Croton

We present a clustering comparison of 12 galaxy formation models (including Semi-Analytic Models (SAMs) and Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) models) all run on halo catalogues and merger trees extracted from a single {\Lambda}CDM N-body simulation. We compare the results of the measurements of the mean halo occupation numbers, the radial distribution of galaxies in haloes and the 2-Point Correlation Functions (2PCF). We also study the implications of the different treatments of orphan (galaxies not assigned to any dark matter subhalo) and non-orphan galaxies in these measurements. Read More

We use EAGLE to explore the effect galaxy mergers have on the stellar specific angular momentum of galaxies, $j_{\rm stars}$. We characterise mergers into: dry (gas-poor)/wet (gas-rich), major/minor, and by different spin alignments and orbital parameters. Our wet (dry) mergers have an average neutral gas fraction (i. Read More

We present an analysis of the pairwise velocity statistics from a suite of cosmological N-body simulations describing the "Running Friedmann-Lema\^itre-Robertson-Walker" (R-FLRW) cosmological model. This model is based on quantum field theory in a curved space-time and extends {\Lambda}CDM with a time-evolving vacuum energy density. To enforce local conservation of matter a time-evolving gravitational coupling is also included. Read More

Authors: Demitri Muna, Michael Alexander, Alice Allen, Richard Ashley, Daniel Asmus, Ruyman Azzollini, Michele Bannister, Rachael Beaton, Andrew Benson, G. Bruce Berriman, Maciej Bilicki, Peter Boyce, Joanna Bridge, Jan Cami, Eryn Cangi, Xian Chen, Nicholas Christiny, Christopher Clark, Michelle Collins, Johan Comparat, Neil Cook, Darren Croton, Isak Delberth Davids, Éric Depagne, John Donor, Leonardo A. dos Santos, Stephanie Douglas, Alan Du, Meredith Durbin, Dawn Erb, Daniel Faes, J. G. Fernández-Trincado, Anthony Foley, Sotiria Fotopoulou, Søren Frimann, Peter Frinchaboy, Rafael Garcia-Dias, Artur Gawryszczak, Elizabeth George, Sebastian Gonzalez, Karl Gordon, Nicholas Gorgone, Catherine Gosmeyer, Katie Grasha, Perry Greenfield, Rebekka Grellmann, James Guillochon, Mark Gurwell, Marcel Haas, Alex Hagen, Daryl Haggard, Tim Haines, Patrick Hall, Wojciech Hellwing, Edmund Christian Herenz, Samuel Hinton, Renee Hlozek, John Hoffman, Derek Holman, Benne Willem Holwerda, Anthony Horton, Cameron Hummels, Daniel Jacobs, Jens Juel Jensen, David Jones, Arna Karick, Luke Kelley, Matthew Kenworthy, Ben Kitchener, Dominik Klaes, Saul Kohn, Piotr Konorski, Coleman Krawczyk, Kyler Kuehn, Teet Kuutma, Michael T. Lam, Richard Lane, Jochen Liske, Diego Lopez-Camara, Katherine Mack, Sam Mangham, Qingqing Mao, David J. E. Marsh, Cecilia Mateu, Loïc Maurin, James McCormac, Ivelina Momcheva, Hektor Monteiro, Michael Mueller, Roberto Munoz, Rohan Naidu, Nicholas Nelson, Christian Nitschelm, Chris North, Juan Nunez-Iglesias, Sara Ogaz, Russell Owen, John Parejko, Vera Patrício, Joshua Pepper, Marshall Perrin, Timothy Pickering, Jennifer Piscionere, Richard Pogge, Radek Poleski, Alkistis Pourtsidou, Adrian M. Price-Whelan, Meredith L. Rawls, Shaun Read, Glen Rees, Hanno Rein, Thomas Rice, Signe Riemer-Sørensen, Naum Rusomarov, Sebastian F. Sanchez, Miguel Santander-García, Gal Sarid, William Schoenell, Aleks Scholz, Robert L. Schuhmann, William Schuster, Peter Scicluna, Marja Seidel, Lijing Shao, Pranav Sharma, Aleksandar Shulevski, David Shupe, Cristóbal Sifón, Brooke Simmons, Manodeep Sinha, Ian Skillen, Bjoern Soergel, Thomas Spriggs, Sundar Srinivasan, Abigail Stevens, Ole Streicher, Eric Suchyta, Joshua Tan, O. Grace Telford, Romain Thomas, Chiara Tonini, Grant Tremblay, Sarah Tuttle, Tanya Urrutia, Sam Vaughan, Miguel Verdugo, Alexander Wagner, Josh Walawender, Andrew Wetzel, Kyle Willett, Peter K. G. Williams, Guang Yang, Guangtun Zhu, Andrea Zonca

The Astropy Project (http://astropy.org) is, in its own words, "a community effort to develop a single core package for Astronomy in Python and foster interoperability between Python astronomy packages." For five years this project has been managed, written, and operated as a grassroots, self-organized, almost entirely volunteer effort while the software is used by the majority of the astronomical community. Read More

Although there has been much progress in understanding how galaxies evolve, we still do not understand how and when they stop forming stars and become quiescent. We address this by applying our galaxy spectral energy distribution models, which incorporate physically motivated star formation histories (SFHs) from cosmological simulations, to a sample of quiescent galaxies at $0.2Read More

Affiliations: 1ICRAR, CAASTRO, 2Durham, 3Swinburne, 4ICRAR, 5PUC, 6Cardiff, 7PUC, 8Swinburne

We use the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamic simulation suite to study the specific angular momentum of galaxies, $j$, with the aims of (i) investigating the physical causes behind the wide range of $j$ at fixed mass and (ii) examining whether simple, theoretical models can explain the seemingly complex and non-linear nature of the evolution of $j$. We find that $j$ of the stars, $j_{\rm stars}$, and baryons, $j_{\rm bar}$, are strongly correlated with stellar and baryon mass, respectively, with the scatter being highly correlated with morphological proxies such as gas fraction, stellar concentration, (u-r) intrinsic colour, stellar age and the ratio of circular velocity to velocity dispersion. We compare with available observations at $z=0$ and find excellent agreement. Read More

We use the hydrodynamic, cosmological EAGLE simulations to investigate how hot gas in haloes condenses to form and grow galaxies. We select haloes from the simulations that are actively cooling and study the temperature, distribution, and metallicity of their hot, cold, and transitioning `cooling' gas, placing these in context of semi-analytic models. Our selection criteria lead us to focus on Milky Way-like haloes. Read More

We investigate the properties of the stellar populations of model galaxies as a function of galaxy evolutionary history and angular momentum content. We use the new semi-analytic model presented in Tonini et al. (2016). Read More

We present the new semi-analytic model of galaxy evolution, DARK SAGE, a heavily modified version of the publicly available SAGE code. The model is designed for detailed evolution of galactic discs. We evolve discs in a series of annuli with fixed specific angular momentum, which allows us to make predictions for the radial and angular-momentum structure of galaxies. Read More

We present a suite of cosmological N-body simulations describing the "Running Friedmann-Lema{\"i}tre-Robertson-Walker" (R-FLRW) cosmological model. This model is based on quantum field theory in a curved space-time and extends {\Lambda}CDM with a time-evolving vacuum density, {\Lambda}(z), and time-evolving gravitational Newton's coupling, G(z). In this paper we review the model and introduce the necessary analytical treatment needed to adapt a reference N-body code. Read More

We present a theoretical model for the evolution of mass, angular momentum and size of galaxy disks and bulges, and we implement it into the semi-analytic galaxy formation code SAGE. The model follows both secular and violent evolutionary channels, including smooth accretion, disk instabilities, minor and major mergers. We find that the combination of our recipe with hierarchical clustering produces two distinct populations of bulges: merger-driven bulges, akin to classical bulges and ellipticals, and instability-driven bulges, akin to secular (or pseudo-)bulges. Read More

This paper describes a new publicly available codebase for modelling galaxy formation in a cosmological context, the "Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution" model, or SAGE for short. SAGE is a significant update to that used in Croton et al. (2006) and has been rebuilt to be modular and customisable. Read More

Approximately half of the matter in the Universe is "unbound" at z = 0, according to N-body simulations such as the Millennium Run. Here, we use the milli-Millennium simulation to examine the distribution of unbound matter in relation to the dark matter halos which host galaxies. We measure the unbound matter within two types of windows, using a halo dependent radius and a fixed radius at several different scales. Read More

We present a comparison of 14 galaxy formation models: 12 different semi-analytical models and 2 halo-occupation distribution models for galaxy formation based upon the same cosmological simulation and merger tree information derived from it. The participating codes have proven to be very successful in their own right but they have all been calibrated independently using various observational data sets, stellar models, and merger trees. In this paper we apply them without recalibration and this leads to a wide variety of predictions for the stellar mass function, specific star formation rates, stellar-to- halo mass ratios, and the abundance of orphan galaxies. Read More

With the installation of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope, measurements of the metal content of the low redshift intergalactic medium (IGM) are now available. Using a new grid-based model for diffuse gas coupled to the SAGE semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, we examine the impact of supernova feedback on the pollution of the IGM. We consider different assumptions for the reheating and ejection of gas by supernovae and their dependence on galaxy circular velocity and gas surface density. Read More

In the upcoming synoptic all--sky survey era of astronomy, thousands of new multiply imaged quasars are expected to be discovered and monitored regularly. Light curves from the images of gravitationally lensed quasars are further affected by superimposed variability due to microlensing. In order to disentangle the microlensing from the intrinsic variability of the light curves, the time delays between the multiple images have to be accurately measured. Read More

Currently-proposed galaxy quenching mechanisms predict very different behaviours during major halo mergers, ranging from significant quenching enhancement (e.g., clump-induced gravitational heating models) to significant star formation enhancement (e. Read More

We use the Gigaparsec WiggleZ (GiggleZ) simulations to characterise galaxy bias and its scale dependence for a range of redshifts and halo masses in a standard $\Lambda$LCDM cosmology. Assuming bias converges to a scale independent form at large scales, we develop a phenomenological model which fully expresses the mass and redshift dependence of bias and its scale dependence in real or redshift space. We then use this to illustrate how scale-dependent bias can systematically skew measurements of the growth-rate of cosmic structure obtained from redshift-space distortion measurements. Read More

Using the suite of high-resolution zoom re-simulations of individual haloes by Martig et al., and the large-scale simulation \emph{MassiveBlack-II}, we examine the differences in measured galaxy properties from techniques with various aperture definitions of where galaxies end. We perform techniques popular in the literature and present a new technique of our own, where the aperture radius is based on the baryonic mass profiles of simulated (sub)haloes. Read More

We introduce the Theoretical Astrophysical Observatory (TAO), an online virtual laboratory that houses mock observations of galaxy survey data. Such mocks have become an integral part of the modern analysis pipeline. However, building them requires an expert knowledge of galaxy modelling and simulation techniques, significant investment in software development, and access to high performance computing. Read More

As synoptic all-sky surveys begin to discover new multiply lensed quasars, the flow of data will enable statistical cosmological microlensing studies of sufficient size to constrain quasar accretion disc and supermassive black hole properties. In preparation for this new era, we are undertaking the GPU-Enabled, High Resolution cosmological MicroLensing parameter survey (GERLUMPH). We present here the GERLUMPH Data Release 1, which consists of 12342 high resolution cosmological microlensing magnification maps and provides the first uniform coverage of the convergence, shear and smooth matter fraction parameter space. Read More

We present significant improvements in cosmic distance measurements from the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey, achieved by applying the reconstruction of the baryonic acoustic feature technique. We show using both data and simulations that the reconstruction technique can often be effective despite patchiness of the survey, significant edge effects and shot-noise. We investigate three redshift bins in the redshift range 0. Read More

We compare the predictions of three independently developed semi-analytic galaxy formation models that are being used to aid in the interpretation of results from the CANDELS survey. These models are each applied to the same set of halo merger trees extracted from the "Bolshoi" simulation and are carefully tuned to match the local galaxy stellar mass function using the powerful method of Bayesian Inference coupled with MCMC or by hand. The comparisons reveal that in spite of the significantly different parameterizations for star formation and feedback processes, the three models yield qualitatively similar predictions for the assembly histories of galaxy stellar mass and star formation over cosmic time. Read More

The Hubble constant, H0, or its dimensionless equivalent, "little h", is a fundamental cosmological property that is now known to an accuracy better than a few percent. Despite its cosmological nature, little h commonly appears in the measured properties of individual galaxies. This can pose unique challenges for users of such data, particularly with survey data. Read More

Galaxy environment is frequently discussed, but inconsistently defined. It is especially difficult to measure at high redshift where only photometric redshifts are available. With a focus on early forming proto-clusters, we use a semi-analytical model of galaxy formation to show how the environment measurement around high redshift galaxies is sensitive to both scale and metric, as well as to cluster viewing angle, evolutionary state, and the availability of either spectroscopic or photometric data. Read More

We study the environmental dependence of color, stellar mass, and morphology by comparing galaxies in a forming cluster to those in the field at z = 1:6 with Hubble Space Telescope near-infrared imaging in the CANDELS/UDS field. We quantify the morphology of the galaxies using the effective radius, reff, and S\'ersic index, n. In both the cluster and field, approximately half of the bulge-dominated galaxies (n > 2) reside on the red sequence of the color-magnitude diagram, and most disk-dominated galaxies (n < 2) have colors expected for star-forming galaxies. Read More

We introduce a simple model to self-consistently connect the growth of galaxies to the formation history of their host dark matter haloes. Our model is defined by two simple functions: the "baryonic growth function" which controls the rate at which new baryonic material is made available for star formation, and the "physics function" which controls the efficiency with which this material is converted into stars. Using simple, phenomenologically motivated forms for both functions that depend only on a single halo property, we demonstrate the model's ability to reproduce the z=0 red and blue stellar mass functions. Read More

Higher-order statistics are a useful and complementary tool for measuring the clustering of galaxies, containing information on the non-gaussian evolution and morphology of large-scale structure in the Universe. In this work we present measurements of the three-point correlation function (3PCF) for 187,000 galaxies in the WiggleZ spectroscopic galaxy survey. We explore the WiggleZ 3PCF scale and shape dependence at three different epochs z=0. Read More

We analyze environmental correlations using mark clustering statistics with the mock galaxy catalogue constructed by Muldrew et al. (Paper I). We find that mark correlation functions are able to detect even a small dependence of galaxy properties on the environment, quantified by the overdensity $1+\delta$, while such a small dependence would be difficult to detect by traditional methods. Read More

We investigate the ability of the Croton et al. (2006) semi-analytic model to reproduce the evolution of observed galaxies across the final 7 billion years of cosmic history. Using Monte-Carlo Markov Chain techniques we explore the available parameter space to produce a model which attempts to achieve a statistically accurate fit to the observed stellar mass function at z=0 and z~0. Read More

We investigate the evolution of Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) from redshift z~1.6 to z~0. We use the semi-analytic model of Croton et al. Read More

Affiliations: 1International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, The University of Western Australia, 2International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, The University of Western Australia, 3International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, The University of Western Australia, 4Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, 5Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, 6CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, 7International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, The University of Western Australia, 8International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, The University of Western Australia

The Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) will revolutionise our knowledge of gas-rich galaxies in the Universe. Here we present predictions for two proposed extragalactic ASKAP neutral hydrogen (HI) emission-line surveys, based on semi-analytic models applied to cosmological N-body simulations. The ASKAP HI All-Sky Survey, known as WALLABY, is a shallow 3 Pi survey (z = 0 - 0. Read More

Affiliations: 1UCO/Lick, 2UCO/Lick, 3UCM, 4UCO/Lick, 5Umass, 6UCO/Lick, 7UCO/Lick, 8UCO/Lick, 9UCO/Lick, 10MPIA, 11MPIE, 12Michigan, 13Swinburne, 14Hebrew University, 15CfA, 16STScI, 17INAF, 18Umass, 19STScI, 20Umass, 21Carnegie, 22Berkeley, 23STScI, 24STScI, 25NOAO, 26Purdue, 27Pitt, 28UCO/Lick, 29UCO/Lick, 30STScI, 31MPIE, 32STScI

We combine high-resolution HST/WFC3 images with multi-wavelength photometry to track the evolution of structure and activity of massive (log(M*) > 10) galaxies at redshifts z = 1.4 - 3 in two fields of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). We detect compact, star-forming galaxies (cSFGs) whose number densities, masses, sizes, and star formation rates qualify them as likely progenitors of compact, quiescent, massive galaxies (cQGs) at z = 1. Read More

We have made the largest-volume measurement to date of the transition to large-scale homogeneity in the distribution of galaxies. We use the WiggleZ survey, a spectroscopic survey of over 200,000 blue galaxies in a cosmic volume of ~1 (Gpc/h)^3. A new method of defining the 'homogeneity scale' is presented, which is more robust than methods previously used in the literature, and which can be easily compared between different surveys. Read More

We analyze a suite of 33 cosmological simulations of the evolution of Milky Way-mass galaxies in low-density environments. Our sample spans a broad range of Hubble types at z=0, from nearly bulgeless disks to bulge-dominated galaxies. Despite the fact that a large fraction of the bulge is typically in place by z=1, we find no significant correlation between the morphology at z=1 and at z=0. Read More

The absolute neutrino mass scale is currently unknown, but can be constrained from cosmology. The WiggleZ high redshift star-forming blue galaxy sample is less sensitive to systematics from non-linear structure formation, redshift-space distortions and galaxy bias than previous surveys. We obtain a upper limit on the sum of neutrino masses of 0. Read More

The influence of a galaxy's environment on its evolution has been studied and compared extensively in the literature, although differing techniques are often used to define environment. Most methods fall into two broad groups: those that use nearest neighbours to probe the underlying density field and those that use fixed apertures. The differences between the two inhibit a clean comparison between analyses and leave open the possibility that, even with the same data, different properties are actually being measured. Read More

Affiliations: 1STScI, 2Harvard-Smithsonian CfA, 3Carnegie Observatories, 4Swinburne University, 5UC Santa Cruz, 6STScI, 7JPL

Calculating the galaxy merger rate requires both a census of galaxies identified as merger candidates, and a cosmologically-averaged `observability' timescale T_obs(z) for identifying galaxy mergers. While many have counted galaxy mergers using a variety of techniques, T_obs(z) for these techniques have been poorly constrained. We address this problem by calibrating three merger rate estimators with a suite of hydrodynamic merger simulations and three galaxy formation models. Read More

We report evidence of ordered orbital motion in luminous star-forming galaxies at z~1.3. We present integral field spectroscopy (IFS) observations, performed with the OH Suppressing InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (OSIRIS) system, assisted by laser guide star adaptive optics on the Keck telescope, of 13 star-forming galaxies selected from the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. Read More

Affiliations: 1IfA, University of Edinburgh, 2IEEC/CSIC, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 3ICC, University of Durham, 4Swinburne University

For galaxy clustering to provide robust constraints on cosmological parameters and galaxy formation models, it is essential to make reliable estimates of the errors on clustering measurements. We present a new technique, based on a spatial Jackknife (JK) resampling, which provides an objective way to estimate errors on clustering statistics. Our approach allows us to set the appropriate size for the Jackknife subsamples. Read More

Authors: Anton M. Koekemoer, S. M. Faber, Henry C. Ferguson, Norman A. Grogin, Dale D. Kocevski, David C. Koo, Kamson Lai, Jennifer M. Lotz, Ray A. Lucas, Elizabeth J. McGrath, Sara Ogaz, Abhijith Rajan, Adam G. Riess, Steve A. Rodney, Louis Strolger, Stefano Casertano, Marco Castellano, Tomas Dahlen, Mark Dickinson, Timothy Dolch, Adriano Fontana, Mauro Giavalisco, Andrea Grazian, Yicheng Guo, Nimish P. Hathi, Kuang-Han Huang, Arjen van der Wel, Hao-Jing Yan, Viviana Acquaviva, David M. Alexander Omar Almaini, Matthew L. N. Ashby, Marco Barden, Eric F. Bell, Frédéric Bournaud, Thomas M. Brown, Karina I. Caputi, Paolo Cassata, Peter Challis, Ranga-Ram Chary, Edmond Cheung, Michele Cirasuolo, Christopher J. Conselice, Asantha Roshan Cooray, Darren J. Croton, Emanuele Daddi, Romeel Davé, Duilia F. de Mello, Loic de Ravel, Avishai Dekel, Jennifer L. Donley, James S. Dunlop, Aaron A. Dutton, David Elbaz, Giovanni G. Fazio, Alex V. Filippenko, Steven L. Finkelstein, Chris Frazer, Jonathan P. Gardner, Peter M. Garnavich, Eric Gawiser, Ruth Gruetzbauch, Will G. Hartley, Boris Häussler, Jessica Herrington, Philip F. Hopkins, Jia-Sheng Huang, Saurabh Jha, Andrew Johnson, Jeyhan S. Kartaltepe, Ali Ahmad Khostovan, Robert P. Kirshner, Caterina Lani, Kyoung-Soo Lee, Weidong Li, Piero Madau, Patrick J. McCarthy, Daniel H. McIntosh, Ross J. McLure, Conor McPartland, Bahram Mobasher, Heidi Moreira, Alice Mortlock, Leonidas A. Moustakas, Mark Mozena, Kirpal Nandra, Jeffrey A. Newman, Jennifer L. Nielsen, Sami Niemi, Kai G. Noeske, Casey J. Papovich, Laura Pentericci, Alexandra Pope, Joel R. Primack, Swara Ravindranath, Naveen A. Reddy, Alvio Renzini, Hans-Walter Rix, Aday R. Robaina, David J. Rosario, Piero Rosati, Sara Salimbeni, Claudia Scarlata, Brian Siana, Luc Simard, Joseph Smidt, Diana Snyder, Rachel S. Somerville, Hyron Spinrad, Amber N. Straughn, Olivia Telford, Harry I. Teplitz, Jonathan R. Trump, Carlos Vargas, Carolin Villforth, Cory R. Wagner, Pat Wandro, Risa H. Wechsler, Benjamin J. Weiner, Tommy Wiklind, Vivienne Wild, Grant Wilson, Stijn Wuyts, Min S. Yun

This paper describes the Hubble Space Telescope imaging data products and data reduction procedures for the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). This survey is designed to document the evolution of galaxies and black holes at $z\sim1.5-8$, and to study Type Ia SNe beyond $z>1. Read More