Daniele Oriti - DAMTP-University of Cambridge

Daniele Oriti
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Name
Daniele Oriti
Affiliation
DAMTP-University of Cambridge
City
Cambridge
Country
United Kingdom

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General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (46)
 
High Energy Physics - Theory (44)
 
Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (16)
 
Mathematical Physics (16)
 
Quantum Physics (3)
 
Physics - Popular Physics (1)
 
Physics - History of Physics (1)
 
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (1)
 
Physics - Statistical Mechanics (1)

Publications Authored By Daniele Oriti

We prove the renormalizability of a gauge-invariant, four-dimensional GFT model on SU(2), whose defining interactions correspond to necklace bubbles (found also in the context of new large-N expansions of tensor models), rather than melonic ones, which are not renormalizable in this case. The respective scaling of different interactions in the vicinity of the Gaussian fixed point is determined by the renormalization group itself. This is possible because of the appropriate notion of canonical dimension of the GFT coupling constants takes into account the detailed combinatorial structure of the individual interaction terms. Read More

We introduce the geometric formulation of Quantum Mechanics in the quantum gravity context, and we use it to give a tensorial characterization of entanglement on spin network states. Starting from the simplest case of a single-link graph (Wilson line), we define a dictionary to construct a Riemannian metric tensor and a symplectic structure on the space of spin network states, showing how they fully encode the information about separability and entanglement, and, in particular, an entanglement monotone interpreted as a distance with respect to the separable state. In the maximally entangled gauge-invariant case, the entanglement monotone is proportional to a power of the area of the surface dual to the link thus supporting a connection between entanglement and the (simplicial) geometric properties of spin network states. Read More

We construct a group field theory model for quantum gravity minimally coupled to relativistic scalar fields, defining as well a corresponding discrete gravity path integral (and, implicitly, a coupled spin foam model) in its Feynman expansion. We also analyze a number of variations of the same model, the corresponding discrete gravity path integrals, its generalization to the coupling of multiple scalar fields and discuss its possible applications to the extraction of effective cosmological dynamics from the full quantum gravity formalism, in the context of group field theory condensate cosmology. Read More

We establish a dictionary between group field theory (thus, spin networks and random tensors) states and generalized random tensor networks. Then, we use this dictionary to compute the R\'{e}nyi entropy of such states and recover the Ryu-Takayanagi formula, in three different cases corresponding to three different truncations/approximations, suggested by the established correspondence. Read More

This is an introduction to the approach to the extraction of cosmological dynamics from full quantum gravity based on group field theory condensates. We outline its general perspective, which sees cosmology as the hydrodynamics of the fundamental quantum gravity degrees of freedom, as well as its concrete implementation within the group field theory formalism. We summarise recent work showing the emergence of a bouncing cosmological dynamics from a fundamental group field theory model, and provide a brief but complete survey of other results in the literature. Read More

We discuss the notion of symmetries in non-local field theories characterized by integro-differential equations of motion, from a geometric perspective. We then focus on Group Field Theory (GFT) models of quantum gravity and provide a general analysis of their continuous point symmetry transformations, including the generalized conservation laws following from them. Read More

We show how the large-scale cosmological dynamics can be obtained from the hydrodynamics of isotropic group field theory condensate states in the Gross-Pitaevskii approximation. The correct Friedmann equations are recovered in the semi-classical limit for some choices of the parameters in the action for the group field theory, and quantum gravity corrections arise in the high-curvature regime causing a bounce which generically resolves the big-bang and big-crunch singularities. Read More

We study the effective cosmological dynamics, emerging as the hydrodynamics of simple condensate states, of a group field theory model for quantum gravity coupled to a massless scalar field and reduced to its isotropic sector. The quantum equations of motion for these group field theory condensate states are given in relational terms with respect to the scalar field, from which effective dynamics for spatially flat, homogeneous and isotropic space-times can be extracted. The result is a generalization of the Friedmann equations, including quantum gravity modifications, in a specific regime of the theory corresponding to a Gross-Pitaevskii approximation where interactions are subdominant. Read More

Rank-d Tensorial Group Field Theories are quantum field theories defined on a group manifold $G^{\times d}$, which represent a non-local generalization of standard QFT, and a candidate formalism for quantum gravity, since, when endowed with appropriate data, they can be interpreted as defining a field theoretic description of the fundamental building blocks of quantum spacetime. Their renormalisation analysis is crucial both for establishing their consistency as quantum field theories, and for studying the emergence of continuum spacetime and geometry from them. In this paper, we study the renormalisation group flow of two simple classes of TGFTs, defined for the group $G=\mathbb{R}$ for arbitrary rank, both without and with gauge invariance conditions, by means of functional renormalisation group techniques. Read More

We construct condensate states encoding the continuum spherically symmetric quantum geometry of an horizon in full quantum gravity, i.e. without any classical symmetry reduction, in the group field theory formalism. Read More

We study a model of Tensorial Group Field Theory (TGFT) on $\mathbb{R}^3$ from the point of view of the Functional Renormalisation Group. This is the first attempt to apply a renormalisation procedure to a TGFT model defined over a non-compact group manifold. IR divergences (with respect to the metric on $\mathbb{R}$) coming from the non-compactness of the group are regularised via compactification, and a thermodynamic limit is then taken. Read More

We study the renormalization of a general field theory on the 2-sphere with tensorial interaction and gauge invariance under the diagonal action of SU(2). We derive the power counting for arbitrary dimension d. For the case d=4, we prove perturbative renormalizability to all orders via multi-scale analysis, study both the renormalised and effective perturbation series, and establish the asymptotic freedom of the model. Read More

We propose a geometrical treatment of symmetries in non-local field theories, where the non-locality is due to a lack of identification of field arguments in the action. We show that the existence of a symmetry of the action leads to a generalised conservation law, in which the usual conserved current acquires an additional non-local correction term, obtaining a generalisation of the standard Noether theorem. We illustrate the general formalism by discussing the specific physical example of complex scalar field theory of the type describing the hydrodynamic approximation of Bose-Einstein condensates. Read More

We study a just renormalizable tensorial group field theory of rank six with quartic melonic interactions and Abelian group U(1). We introduce the formalism of the intermediate field, which allows a precise characterization of the leading order Feynman graphs. We define the renormalization of the model, compute its (perturbative) renormalization group flow and write its expansion in terms of effective couplings. Read More

We construct a generalized class of quantum gravity condensate states, that allows the description of continuum homogeneous quantum geometries within the full theory. They are based on similar ideas already applied to extract effective cosmological dynamics from the group field theory formalism, and thus also from loop quantum gravity. However, they represent an improvement over the simplest condensates used in the literature, in that they are defined by an infinite superposition of graph-based states encoding in a precise way the topology of the spatial manifold. Read More

In various theories of quantum gravity, one observes a change in the spectral dimension from the topological spatial dimension $d$ at large length scales to some smaller value at small, Planckian scales. While the origin of such a flow is well understood in continuum approaches, in theories built on discrete structures a firm control of the underlying mechanism is still missing. We shed some light on the issue by presenting a particular class of quantum geometries with a flow in the spectral dimension, given by superpositions of states defined on regular complexes. Read More

We set up the Functional Renormalisation Group formalism for Tensorial Group Field Theory in full generality. We then apply it to a rank-3 model over U(1) x U(1) x U(1), endowed with a linear kinetic term and nonlocal interactions. The system of FRG equations turns out to be non-autonomous in the RG flow parameter. Read More

Group field theories represent a 2nd quantized reformulation of the loop quantum gravity state space and a completion of the spin foam formalism. States of the canonical theory, in the traditional continuum setting, have support on graphs of arbitrary valence. On the other hand, group field theories have usually been defined in a simplicial context, thus dealing with a restricted set of graphs. Read More

We introduce the group field theory formalism for quantum gravity, mainly from the point of view of loop quantum gravity, stressing its promising aspects. We outline the foundations of the formalism, survey recent results and offer a perspective on future developments. Read More

In the context of group field theory condensate cosmology, we clarify the extraction of cosmological variables from the microscopic quantum gravity degrees of freedom. We show that an important implication of the second quantized formalism is the dependence of cosmological variables and equations on the quantum gravitational atomic number N (number of spin network vertices/elementary simplices). We clarify the relation of the effective cosmological equations with loop quantum cosmology, understood as an effective (hydrodynamic-like) approximation of a more fundamental quantum gravity theory. Read More

We review briefly the motivations for introducing additional group-theoretic data in tensor models, leading to the richer framework of group field theories, themselves a field theory formulation of loop quantum gravity. We discuss how these data give to the GFT amplitudes the structure of lattice gauge theories and simplicial gravity path integrals, and make their quantum geometry manifest. We focus in particular on the non-commutative flux/algebra representation of these models. Read More

We apply the non-commutative Fourier transform for Lie groups to formulate the non-commutative metric representation of the Ponzano-Regge spin foam model for 3d quantum gravity. The non-commutative representation allows to express the amplitudes of the model as a first order phase space path integral, whose properties we consider. In particular, we study the asymptotic behavior of the path integral in the semi-classical limit. Read More

The spectral dimension is an indicator of geometry and topology of spacetime and a tool to compare the description of quantum geometry in various approaches to quantum gravity. This is possible because it can be defined not only on smooth geometries but also on discrete (e.g. Read More

We give a general procedure, in the group field theory (GFT) formalism for quantum gravity, for constructing states that describe macroscopic, spatially homogeneous universes. These states are close to coherent (condensate) states used in the description of Bose-Einstein condensates. The condition on such states to be (approximate) solutions to the quantum equations of motion of GFT is used to extract an effective dynamics for homogeneous cosmologies directly from the underlying quantum theory. Read More

We construct a 2nd quantized reformulation of canonical Loop Quantum Gravity at both kinematical and dynamical level, in terms of a Fock space of spin networks, and show in full generality that it leads directly to the Group Field Theory formalism. In particular, we show the correspondence between canonical LQG dynamics and GFT dynamics leading to a specific GFT model from any definition of quantum canonical dynamics of spin networks. We exemplify the correspondence of dynamics in the specific example of 3d quantum gravity. Read More

Group field theories have recently been shown to admit a 1/N expansion dominated by so-called `melonic graphs', dual to triangulated spheres. In this note, we deepen the analysis of this melonic sector. We obtain a combinatorial formula for the melonic amplitudes in terms of a graph polynomial related to a higher dimensional generalization of the Kirchhoff tree-matrix theorem. Read More

The definition of a double-scaling limit represents an important goal in the development of tensor models. We take the first steps towards this goal by extracting and analysing the next-to-leading order contributions, in the 1/N expansion, for the IID tensor models. We show that the radius of convergence of the NLO series coincides with that of the leading order melonic sector. Read More

We address in this paper the issue of renormalizability for SU(2) Tensorial Group Field Theories (TGFT) with geometric Boulatov-type conditions in three dimensions. We prove that tensorial interactions up to degree 6 are just renormalizable without any anomaly. Our new models define the renormalizable TGFT version of the Boulatov model and provide therefore a new approach to quantum gravity in three dimensions. Read More

We identify a class of condensate states in the group field theory (GFT) approach to quantum gravity that can be interpreted as macroscopic homogeneous spatial geometries. We then extract the dynamics of such condensate states directly from the fundamental quantum GFT dynamics, following the procedure used in ordinary quantum fluids. The effective dynamics is a non-linear and non-local extension of quantum cosmology. Read More

We discuss the hints for the disappearance of continuum space and time at microscopic scale. These include arguments for a discrete nature of them or for a fundamental non-locality, in a quantum theory of gravity. We discuss how these ideas are realized in specific quantum gravity approaches. Read More

The phase space given by the cotangent bundle of a Lie group appears in the context of several models for physical systems. A representation for the quantum system in terms of non-commutative functions on the (dual) Lie algebra, and a generalized notion of (non-commutative) Fourier transform, different from standard harmonic analysis, has been recently developed, and found several applications, especially in the quantum gravity literature. We show that this algebra representation can be defined on the sole basis of a quantization map of the classical Poisson algebra, and identify the conditions for its existence. Read More

We remark the importance of adding suitable pre-geometric content to tensor models, obtaining what has recently been called tensorial group field theories, to have a formalism that could describe the structure and dynamics of quantum spacetime. We also review briefly some recent results concerning the definition of such pre-geometric content, and of models incorporating it. Read More

We extend discrete calculus for arbitrary ($p$-form) fields on embedded lattices to abstract discrete geometries based on combinatorial complexes. We then provide a general definition of discrete Laplacian using both the primal cellular complex and its combinatorial dual. The precise implementation of geometric volume factors is not unique and, comparing the definition with a circumcentric and a barycentric dual, we argue that the latter is, in general, more appropriate because it induces a Laplacian with more desirable properties. Read More

We tackle the issue of renormalizability for Tensorial Group Field Theories (TGFT) including gauge invariance conditions, with the rigorous tool of multi-scale analysis, to prepare the ground for applications to quantum gravity models. In the process, we define the appropriate generalization of some key QFT notions, including: connectedness, locality and contraction of (high) subgraphs. We also define a new notion of Wick ordering, corresponding to the subtraction of (maximal) melonic tadpoles. Read More

We show that the space of generalized fluxes - momentum space - for loop quantum gravity cannot be constructed by Fourier transforming the projective limit construction of the space of generalized connections - position space - due to the non-abelianess of the gauge group SU(2). From the abelianization of SU(2), U(1)^3, we learn that the space of generalized fluxes turns out to be an inductive limit, and we determine the consistency conditions the fluxes should satisfy under coarse-graining of the underlying graphs. We comment on the applications to loop quantum cosmology, in particular, how the characterization of the Bohr compactification of the real line as a projective limit opens the way for a similar analysis for LQC. Read More

We use a reformulation of topological group field theories in 3 and 4 dimensions in terms of variables associated to vertices, in 3d, and edges, in 4d, to obtain new scaling bounds for their Feynman amplitudes. In both 3 and 4 dimensions, we obtain a bubble bound proving the suppression of singular topologies with respect to the first terms in the perturbative expansion (in the cut-off). We also prove a new, stronger jacket bound than the one currently available in the literature. Read More

We investigate the construction of coherent states for quantum theories of connections based on graphs embedded in a spatial manifold, as in loop quantum gravity. We discuss the many subtleties of the construction, mainly related to the diffeomorphism invariance of the theory. Aiming at approximating a continuum geometry in terms of discrete, graph-based data, we focus on coherent states for collective observables characterizing both the intrinsic and extrinsic geometry of the hypersurface, and we argue that one needs to revise accordingly the more local definitions of coherent states considered in the literature so far. Read More

Following the idea of a field quantization of gravity as realized in group field theory, we construct a minisuperspace model where the wavefunction of canonical quantum cosmology (either Wheeler-DeWitt or loop quantum cosmology) is promoted to a field, the coordinates are minisuperspace variables, the kinetic operator is the Hamiltonian constraint operator, and the action features a nonlinear and possibly nonlocal interaction term. We discuss free-field classical solutions, the quantum propagator, and a mean-field approximation linearizing the equation of motion and augmenting the Hamiltonian constraint by an effective term mixing gravitational and matter variables. Depending on the choice of interaction, this can reproduce, for example, a cosmological constant, a scalar-field potential, or a curvature contribution. Read More

We provide a short and non-technical summary of our current knowledge and some possible perspectives on the group field theory formalism for quantum gravity, in the form of a (partial) FAQ (with answers). Some of the questions and answers relate to aspects of the formalism that concern loop quantum gravity. This summary also aims at giving a brief, rough guide to the recent literature on group field theory (and tensor models). Read More

In a recent work, a dual formulation of group field theories as non-commutative quantum field theories has been proposed, providing an exact duality between spin foam models and non-commutative simplicial path integrals for constrained BF theories. In light of this new framework, we define a model for 4d gravity which includes the Immirzi parameter gamma. It reproduces the Barrett-Crane amplitudes when gamma goes to infinity, but differs from existing models otherwise; in particular it does not require any rationality condition for gamma. Read More

As part of a wider study of coherent states in (loop) quantum gravity, we introduce a modification to the standard construction, based on the recently introduced (non-commutative) flux representation. The resulting quantum states have some welcomed features, in particular concerning peakedness properties, when compared to other coherent states in the literature. Read More

We provide a rather extended introduction to the group field theory approach to quantum gravity, and the main ideas behind it. We present in some detail the GFT quantization of 3d Riemannian gravity, and discuss briefly the current status of the 4-dimensional extensions of this construction. We also briefly report on recent results obtained in this approach and related open issues, concerning both the mathematical definition of GFT models, and possible avenues towards extracting interesting physics from them. Read More

A dual formulation of group field theories, obtained by a Fourier transform mapping functions on a group to functions on its Lie algebra, has been proposed recently. In the case of the Ooguri model for SO(4) BF theory, the variables of the dual field variables are thus so(4) bivectors, which have a direct interpretation as the discrete B variables. Here we study a modification of the model by means of a constraint operator implementing the simplicity of the bivectors, in such a way that projected fields describe metric tetrahedra. Read More

We establish a mapping between fractional and noncommutative spacetimes in configuration space. Depending on the scale at which the relation is considered, there arise two possibilities. For a fractional spacetime with log-oscillatory measure, the effective measure near the fundamental scale determining the log-period coincides with the non-rotation-invariant but cyclicity-preserving measure of \kappa-Minkowski. Read More

We focus on the question: "Is space fundamentally discrete or continuous?" in the context of current quantum gravity research. In particular, we paint a scenario based on the idea that 'quantum space' is a sort of peculiar condensed matter system, and on the speculation that its microscopic dynamics is described by a 'group field theory' formalism. We suggest that, from this perspective, on the one hand the question has no absolute meaning, so no answer, but also that, on the other hand, the reason why this is the case is the 'quantum space' is much richer and more interesting than we may have assumed. Read More

Spinfoam models provide a covariant formulation of the dynamics of loop quantum gravity. They are non-perturbatively defined in the group field theory (GFT) framework: the GFT partition function defines the sum of spinfoam transition amplitudes over all possible (discretized) geometries and topologies. The issue remains, however, of explicitly relating the specific form of the group field theory action and the canonical Hamiltonian constraint. Read More

Based on recent work on simplicial diffeomorphisms in colored group field theories, we develop a representation of the colored Boulatov model, in which the GFT fields depend on variables associated to vertices of the associated simplicial complex, as opposed to edges. On top of simplifying the action of diffeomorphisms, the main advantage of this representation is that the GFT Feynman graphs have a different stranded structure, which allows a direct identification of subgraphs associated to bubbles, and their evaluation is simplified drastically. As a first important application of this formulation, we derive new scaling bounds for the regularized amplitudes, organized in terms of the genera of the bubbles, and show how the pseudo-manifolds configurations appearing in the perturbative expansion are suppressed as compared to manifolds. Read More

We formulate quantum mechanics on SO(3) using a non-commutative dual space representation for the quantum states, inspired by recent work in quantum gravity. The new non-commutative variables have a clear connection to the corresponding classical variables, and our analysis confirms them as the natural phase space variables, both mathematically and physically. In particular, we derive the first order (Hamiltonian) path integral in terms of the non-commutative variables, as a formulation of the transition amplitudes alternative to that based on harmonic analysis. Read More

We give a brief introduction to matrix models and the group field theory (GFT) formalism as realizations of the idea of a third quantization of gravity, and present in some more detail the idea and basic features of a continuum third quantization formalism in terms of a field theory on the space of connections, building up on the results of loop quantum gravity that allow to make the idea slightly more concrete. We explore to what extent one can rigorously define such a field theory. Concrete examples are given for the simple case of Riemannian GR in 3 spacetime dimensions. Read More

We study the issue of diffeomorphism symmetry in group field theories (GFT), using the recently introduced noncommutative metric representation. In the colored Boulatov model for 3d gravity, we identify a field (quantum) symmetry which ties together the vertex translation invariance of discrete gravity, the flatness constraint of canonical quantum gravity, and the topological (coarse-graining) identities for the 6j-symbols. We also show how, for the GFT graphs dual to manifolds, the invariance of the Feynman amplitudes encodes the discrete residual action of diffeomorphisms in simplicial gravity path integrals. Read More