Daniel Kabat - Columbia University

Daniel Kabat
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Daniel Kabat
Columbia University
New York
United States

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High Energy Physics - Theory (47)
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (5)
Quantum Physics (3)
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (2)
Astrophysics (2)

Publications Authored By Daniel Kabat

We show that bulk quantities localized on a minimal surface homologous to a boundary region correspond in the CFT to operators that commute with the modular Hamiltonian associated with the boundary region. If two such minimal surfaces intersect at a point in the bulk then CFT operators which commute with both extended modular Hamiltonians must be localized at the intersection point. We use this to construct local bulk operators purely from CFT considerations, without knowing the bulk metric, using intersecting modular Hamiltonians. Read More

We develop an approach to construct local bulk operators in a CFT to order $1/N^2$. Since 4-point functions are not fixed by conformal invariance we use the OPE to categorize possible forms for a bulk operator. Using previous results on 3-point functions we construct a local bulk operator in each OPE channel. Read More

We develop the representation of infalling observers and bulk fields in the CFT as a way to understand the black hole interior in AdS. We first discuss properties of CFT states which are dual to black holes. We then show that in the presence of a Killing horizon bulk fields can be decomposed into pieces we call ingoing and outgoing. Read More

To O(1/N) we derive, purely from CFT data, the bulk equations of motion for interacting scalar fields and for scalars coupled to gauge fields and gravity. We first uplift CFT operators to mimic local AdS fields by imposing bulk microcausality. This requires adding an infinite tower of smeared higher-dimension double-trace operators to the CFT definition of a bulk field, with coefficients that we explicitly compute. Read More

We consider bulk quantum fields in AdS/CFT in the background of an eternal black hole. We show that for black holes with finite entropy, correlation functions of semiclassical bulk operators close to the horizon deviate from their semiclassical value and are ill-defined inside the horizon. This is due to the large-time behavior of correlators in a unitary CFT, and means the region near and inside the horizon receives corrections. Read More

We construct smeared CFT operators which represent a scalar field in AdS interacting with gravity. The guiding principle is micro-causality: scalar fields should commute with themselves at spacelike separation. To O(1/N) we show that a correct and convenient criterion for constructing the appropriate CFT operators is to demand micro-causality in a three-point function with a boundary Weyl tensor and another boundary scalar. Read More

We compute the mutual information of two Hawking particles emitted consecutively by an evaporating black hole. Following Page, we find that the mutual information is of order exp(-S) where S is the entropy of the black hole. We speculate on implications for black hole unitarity, in particular on a possible failure of locality at large distances. Read More

We study the collapse of a fuzzy sphere, that is a spherical membrane built out of D0-branes, in the BFSS model. At weak coupling, as the sphere shrinks, open strings are produced. If the initial radius is large then open string production is not important and the sphere behaves classically. Read More

We study the process of bound state formation in a D-brane collision. We consider two mechanisms for bound state formation. The first, operative at weak coupling in the worldvolume gauge theory, is pair creation of W-bosons. Read More

We develop the representation of interacting bulk gauge fields and charged scalar matter in AdS in terms of non-local observables in the dual CFT. We work in holographic gauge in the bulk, A_z = 0. The correct statement of micro-causality in holographic gauge is somewhat subtle, so we first discuss it from the bulk point of view. Read More

In previous work it was shown that, in accord with the Brandenberger-Vafa mechanism, three is the maximum number of spatial dimensions that can grow large cosmologically from an initial thermal fluctuation. Here we complement that work by considering the possibility of successive fluctuations. Suppose an initial fluctuation causes at least one dimension to grow, and suppose successive fluctuations occur on timescales of order alpha'^{1/2}. Read More

We study the interaction between two parallel cosmic strings induced by gauge fields and by scalar fields with non-minimal couplings to curvature. For small deficit angles the gauge field behaves like a collection of non-minimal scalars with a specific value for the non-minimal coupling. We check this equivalence by computing the interaction energy between strings at first order in the deficit angles. Read More

We develop the representation of bulk fields with spin one and spin two in anti-de Sitter space, as non-local observables in the dual CFT. Working in holographic gauge in the bulk, at leading order in 1/N bulk gauge fields are obtained by smearing boundary currents over a sphere on the complexified boundary, while linearized metric fluctuations are obtained by smearing the boundary stress tensor over a ball. This representation respects AdS covariance up to a compensating gauge transformation. Read More

We study the interplay of thermal and diffractive effects in Casimir energies. We consider plates with edges, oriented either parallel or perpendicular to each other, as well as a single plate with a slit. We compute the Casimir energy at finite temperature using a formalism in which the diffractive effects are encoded in a lower dimensional non-local field theory that lives in the gap between the plates. Read More

Local operators in the bulk of AdS can be represented as smeared operators in the dual CFT. We show how to construct these bulk observables by requiring that the bulk operators commute at spacelike separation. This extends our previous work by taking interactions into account. Read More

We study the leading long-distance attractive force between two holes in a plate arising from a scalar field with Dirichlet boundary conditions on the plate. We use a formalism in which the interaction is governed by a non-local field theory which lives on the two holes. The interaction energy is proportional to Q_1 Q_2/r^7 at large separation r, where Q_1 and Q_2 are certain charges associated with the holes. Read More

The prototypical Casimir effect arises when a scalar field is confined between parallel Dirichlet boundaries. We study corrections to this when the boundaries themselves have apertures and edges. We consider several geometries: a single plate with a slit in it, perpendicular plates separated by a gap, and two parallel plates, one of which has a long slit of large width, related to the case of one plate being semi-infinite. Read More

The universe may have extra spatial dimensions with large volume that we cannot perceive because the energy required to excite modes in the extra directions is too high. Many examples are known of such manifolds with a large volume and a large mass gap. These compactifications can help explain the weakness of four-dimensional gravity and, as we show here, they also have the capacity to produce reasonable potentials for an inflaton field. Read More

We show that, in the presence of a string gas, simple higher-derivative modifications to the effective action for gravity can lead to bouncing and cyclic cosmological models. The modifications bound the expansion rate and avoid singularities at finite times. In these models the scale factors can have long loitering phases that solve the horizon problem. Read More

We discuss models that can account for today's dark energy. The underlying cosmological constant may be Planck scale but starts as a redundant coupling which can be eliminated by a field redefinition. The observed vacuum energy arises when the redundancy is explicitly broken, say by a non-minimal coupling to curvature. Read More

This paper has two parts. First we review the description of local bulk operators in Lorentzian AdS in terms of non-local operators in the boundary CFT. We discuss how bulk locality arises in pure AdS backgrounds and how it is modified at finite N. Read More

To gain insight into how bulk locality emerges from the holographic conformal field theory, we reformulate the bulk to boundary map in as local a way as possible. In previous work, we carried out this program for Lorentzian AdS, and showed the support on the boundary could always be reduced to a compact region spacelike separated from the bulk point. In the present work the idea is extended to a complexified boundary, where spatial coordinates are continued to imaginary values. Read More

The Lorentzian AdS/CFT correspondence implies a map between local operators in supergravity and non-local operators in the CFT. By explicit computation we construct CFT operators which are dual to local bulk fields in the semiclassical limit. The computation is done for general dimension in global, Poincare and Rindler coordinates. Read More

We compute the force between oppositely charged W bosons in the large N limit of Yang-Mills with 16 supercharges broken to SU(N) x U(1) by a finite Higgs vev. We clarify some issues regarding Wilson line computations and show that there is a regime in which the force between W bosons is independent of separation distance. Read More

We develop the representation of local bulk fields in AdS by non-local operators on the boundary, working in the semiclassical limit and using AdS_2 as our main example. In global coordinates we show that the boundary operator has support only at points which are spacelike separated from the bulk point. We construct boundary operators that represent local bulk operators inserted behind the horizon of the Poincare patch and inside the Rindler horizon of a two dimensional black hole. Read More

We study string dynamics in the early universe. Our motivation is the proposal of Brandenberger and Vafa, that string winding modes may play a key role in decompactifying three spatial dimensions. We model the universe as a homogeneous but anisotropic 9-torus filled with a gas of excited strings. Read More

We show that the amount of particle production in an arbitrary cosmological background can be determined using only the late-time positive-frequency modes. We don't refer to modes at early times, so there is no need for a Bogolubov transformation. We also show that particle production can be extracted from the Feynman propagator in an auxiliary spacetime. Read More

We consider the thermodynamic and cosmological properties of brane gases in the early universe. Working in the low energy limit of M-theory we assume the universe is a homogeneous but anisotropic 10-torus containing wrapped 2-branes and a supergravity gas. We describe the thermodynamics of this system and estimate a Hagedorn temperature associated with excitations on the branes. Read More

We propose that stretched horizons can be described in terms of a gas of non-interacting quasiparticles. The quasiparticles are unstable, with a lifetime set by the imaginary part of the lowest quasinormal mode frequency. If the horizon arises from an AdS/CFT style duality the quasiparticles are also the effective low-energy degrees of freedom of the finite-temperature CFT. Read More

We propose an effective description of 0-brane black holes, in which the black hole is modeled as a gas of non-interacting quasi-particles in the dual quantum mechanics. This simple model is shown to account for many of the static thermodynamic properties of the black hole. It also accounts for dynamical properties, such as the rate at which energy gets thermalized by the black hole. Read More

Affiliations: 1Columbia University, 2Columbia University, 3Columbia University, 4Columbia University

We investigate the late-time behavior of a universe containing a supergravity gas and wrapped 2-branes in the context of M-theory compactified on T^10. The supergravity gas tends to drive uniform expansion, while the branes impede the expansion of the directions about which they are wrapped. Assuming spatial homogeneity, we study the dynamics both numerically and analytically. Read More

We study the response of the QCD vacuum to strong magnetic fields, using a potential model for the quark-antiquark interaction. We find that production of spin-polarized u-ubar pairs is energetically favorable for fields B > B_crit \sim 10 GeV^2. We contrast the resulting u-ubar condensate with the quark condensate which is present at zero magnetic field, and we estimate the corresponding magnetization as a function of B. Read More

Affiliations: 1Columbia University, 2University of Haifa

We propose that the entropy of de Sitter space can be identified with the mutual entropy of a dual conformal field theory. We argue that unitary time evolution in de Sitter space restricts the total number of excited degrees of freedom to be bounded by the de Sitter entropy, and we give a CFT interpretation of this restriction. We also clarify issues arising from the fact that both de Sitter and anti de Sitter have dual descriptions in terms of conformal field theory. Read More

We use a 0-brane to probe a ten-dimensional near-extremal black hole with N units of 0-brane charge. We work directly in the dual strongly-coupled quantum mechanics, using mean-field methods to describe the black hole background non-perturbatively. We obtain the distribution of W boson masses, and find a clear separation between light and heavy degrees of freedom. Read More

We present the details of a mean-field approximation scheme for the quantum mechanics of N D0-branes at finite temperature. The approximation can be applied at strong 't Hooft coupling. We find that the resulting entropy is in good agreement with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of a ten-dimensional non-extremal black hole with 0-brane charge. Read More


Banks has proposed a relation between the scale of supersymmetry breaking and the cosmological constant in de Sitter space. His proposal has a natural extension to a general FRW cosmology, in which the supersymmetry breaking scale is related to the Hubble parameter. We study one consequence of such a relation, namely that coupling constants change as the universe evolves. Read More

We develop an approximation scheme for the quantum mechanics of N D0-branes at finite temperature in the 't Hooft large-N limit. The entropy of the quantum mechanics calculated using this approximation agrees well with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of a ten-dimensional non-extremal black hole with 0-brane charge. This result is in accord with the duality conjectured by Itzhaki, Maldacena, Sonnenschein and Yankielowicz. Read More

We advocate a set of approximations for studying the finite temperature behavior of strongly-coupled theories in 0+1 dimensions. The approximation consists of expanding about a Gaussian action, with the width of the Gaussian determined by a set of gap equations. The approximation can be applied to supersymmetric systems, provided that the gap equations are formulated in superspace. Read More


We discuss the gauge theory mechanisms which are responsible for the causal structure of the dual supergravity. For D-brane probes we show that the light cone structure and Killing horizons of supergravity emerge dynamically. They are associated with the appearance of new light degrees of freedom in the gauge theory, which we explicitly identify. Read More

Affiliations: 1Institute for Advanced Study, 2Princeton University

Any probe which crosses the horizon of a black hole should be absorbed. In M(atrix) theory, for 0-brane probes of Schwarzschild black holes, we argue that the relevant absorption mechanism is a tachyon instability which sets in at the horizon. We give qualitative arguments, and some quantitative large-N calculations, in support of this claim. Read More


We consider membranes of spherical topology in uncompactified Matrix theory. In general for large membranes Matrix theory reproduces the classical membrane dynamics up to 1/N corrections; for certain simple membrane configurations, the equations of motion agree exactly at finite N. We derive a general formula for the one-loop Matrix potential between two finite-sized objects at large separations. Read More

We study the M(atrix) theory which describes the $E_8 \times E_8$ heterotic string compactified on $S^1$, or equivalently M-theory compactified on an orbifold $(S^1/\integer_2) \times S^1$, in the presence of a Wilson line. We formulate the corresponding M(atrix) gauge theory, which lives on a dual orbifold $S^1 \times (S^1 / \integer_2)$. Thirty-two real chiral fermions must be introduced to cancel gauge anomalies. Read More

Affiliations: 1Rutgers University, 2Rutgers University, 3Rutgers University, 4Rutgers University

We study the behavior of D-branes at distances far shorter than the string length scale~$l_s$. We argue that short-distance phenomena are described by the IR behavior of the D-brane world-volume quantum theory. This description is valid until the brane motion becomes relativistic. Read More

We consider low energy, non-relativistic scattering of two Dirichlet zero-branes as an exercise in quantum mechanics. For weak string coupling and sufficiently small velocity, the dynamics is governed by an effective U(2) gauge theory in 0+1 dimensions. At low energies, D-brane scattering can reliably probe distances much shorter than the string scale. Read More

We compare the one-loop corrections to the entropy of a black hole, from quantum fields of spin zero, one-half, and one, to the entropy of entanglement of the fields. For fields of spin zero and one-half the black hole entropy is identical to the entropy of entanglement. For spin one the two entropies differ by a contact interaction with the horizon which appears in the black hole entropy but not in the entropy of entanglement. Read More

We investigate the canonical quantization of gravity coupled to pointlike matter in 2+1 dimensions. Starting from the usual point particle action in the first order formalism, we introduce auxiliary variables which make the action locally Poincar\'e invariant. A Hamiltonian analysis shows that the gauge group is actually larger than the Poincar\'e group -- certain additional gauge constraints are present which act on the matter degrees of freedom. Read More

We summarize results on the reliability of the eikonal approximation in obtaining the high energy behavior of a two particle forward scattering amplitude. Reliability depends on the spin of the exchanged field. For scalar fields the eikonal fails at eighth order in perturbation theory, when it misses the leading behavior of the exchange-type diagrams. Read More