# Daniel Burgarth

## Contact Details

NameDaniel Burgarth |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesQuantum Physics (50) Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (3) Mathematical Physics (3) Mathematics - Combinatorics (2) Physics - Statistical Mechanics (2) Computer Science - Discrete Mathematics (1) Physics - Other (1) Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (1) Physics - Disordered Systems and Neural Networks (1) |

## Publications Authored By Daniel Burgarth

We investigate the possibility to suppress interactions between a finite dimensional system and an infinite dimensional environment through a fast sequence of unitary kicks on the finite dimensional system. This method, called dynamical decoupling, is known to work for bounded interactions, but physical environments such as bosonic heat baths are usually modelled with unbounded interactions, whence here we initiate a systematic study of dynamical decoupling for unbounded operators. We develop a sufficient decoupling criterion for arbitrary Hamiltonians and a necessary decoupling criterion for semibounded Hamiltonians. Read More

In this work we derive a lower bound for the minimum time required to implement a target unitary transformation through a classical time-dependent field in a closed quantum system. The bound depends on the target gate, the strength of the internal Hamiltonian and the highest permitted control field amplitude. These findings reveal some properties of the reachable set of operations, explicitly analyzed for a single qubit. Read More

Randomness is an essential tool in many disciplines of modern sciences, such as cryptography, black hole physics, random matrix theory and Monte Carlo sampling. In quantum systems, random operations can be obtained via random circuits thanks to so-called q-designs, and play a central role in the fast scrambling conjecture for black holes. Here we consider a more physically motivated way of generating random evolutions by exploiting the many-body dynamics of a quantum system driven with stochastic external pulses. Read More

We study the interplay of control and parameter estimation on a quantum spin chain. A single qubit probe is attached to one end of the chain, while we wish to estimate a parameter on the other end. We find that control on the probe qubit can substantially improve the estimation performance and discover some interesting connections to quantum state transfer. Read More

In a recent work [D. K. Burgarth et al. Read More

The ability to perform a universal set of logic gates on a quantum simulator would come close to upgrade it into a universal quantum computer. Knowing how to do this is very hard as it requires a precise knowledge of the simulator. In most cases, it also needs to be itself simulated on a classical computer as part of an optimal control algorithm. Read More

Towards the full-fledged quantum computing, what do we need? Obviously, the first thing we need is a (many-body) quantum system, which is reasonably isolated from its environment in order to reduce the unwanted effect of noise, and the second might be a good technique to fully control it. Although we would also need a well-designed quantum code for information processing for fault-tolerant computation, from a physical point of view, the primary requisites are a system and a full control for it. Designing and fabricating a controllable quantum system is a hard work in the first place, however, we shall focus on the subsequent steps that cannot be skipped and are highly nontrivial. Read More

No. Read More

The question of open-loop control in the Gaussian regime may be cast by asking which Gaussian unitary transformations are reachable by turning on and off a given set of quadratic Hamiltonians. For compact groups, including finite dimensional unitary groups, the well known Lie algebra rank criterion provides a sufficient and necessary condition for the reachable set to cover the whole group. Because of the non-compact nature of the symplectic group, which corresponds to Gaussian unitary transformations, this criterion turns out to be still necessary but not sufficient for Gaussian systems. Read More

For finite-dimensional quantum systems, such as qubits, a well established strategy to protect such systems from decoherence is dynamical decoupling. However many promising quantum devices, such as oscillators, are infinite dimensional, for which the question if dynamical decoupling could be applied remained open. Here we first show that not every infinite-dimensional system can be protected from decoherence through dynamical decoupling. Read More

On the basis of the quantum Zeno effect it has been recently shown [D. K. Burgarth et al. Read More

We demonstrate how quantum optimal control can be used to enhance quantum resources for bipartite one-way protocols, specifically EPR-steering with qubit measurements. Steering is relevant for one-sided device-independent key distribution, the realistic implementations of which necessitate the study of noisy scenarios. So far mainly the case of imperfect detection efficiency has been considered; here we look at the effect of dynamical noise responsible for decoherence and dissipation. Read More

We investigate the problem of what evolutions an open quantum system described by a time-local Master equation can undergo with universal coherent controls. A series of conditions are given which exclude channels from being reachable by any unitary controls, assuming that the coupling to the environment is not being modified. These conditions primarily arise by defining decay rates for the generator of the dynamics of the open system, and then showing that controlling the system can only make these rates more isotropic. Read More

The problem of estimating a parameter of a quantum system through a series of measurements performed sequentially on a quantum probe is analyzed in the general setting where the underlying statistics is explicitly non-i.i.d. Read More

What can one do with a given tunable quantum device? We provide complete symmetry criteria deciding whether some effective target interaction(s) can be simulated by a set of given interactions. Symmetries lead to a better understanding of simulation and permit a reasoning beyond the limitations of the usual explicit Lie closure. Conserved quantities induced by symmetries pave the way to a resource theory for simulability. Read More

The simulation of quantum systems has been a key aim of quantum technologies for decades, and the generalisation to open systems is necessary to include physically realistic systems. We introduce an approach for quantum simulations of open system dynamics in terms of an environment of minimal size and a time-dependent Hamiltonian. This enables the implementation of a continuous-time simulation with a finite environment, whereas state of the art methods require an infinite environment or only match the simulation at discrete times. Read More

The problem of Hamiltonian purification introduced by Burgarth et al. [D. K. Read More

A longstanding challenge in the foundations of quantum mechanics is the verification of alternative collapse theories despite their mathematical similarity to decoherence. To this end, we suggest a novel method based on dynamical decoupling. Experimental observation of nonzero saturation of the decoupling error in the limit of fast decoupling operations can provide evidence for alternative quantum theories. Read More

We discuss a few mathematical aspects of random dynamical decoupling, a key tool procedure in quantum information theory. In particular, we place it in the context of discrete stochastic processes, limit theorems and CPT semigroups on matrix algebras. We obtain precise analytical expressions for expectation and variance of the density matrix and fidelity over time in the continuum-time limit depending on the system Lindbladian, which then lead to rough short-time estimates depending only on certain coupling strengths. Read More

Universal quantum computation requires the implementation of arbitrary control operations on the quantum register. In most cases, this is achieved by external control fields acting selectively on each qubit to drive single-qubit operations. In combination with a drift Hamiltonian containing interactions between the qubits, this allows the implementation of any required gate operation. Read More

We show that mere observation of a quantum system can turn its dynamics from a very simple one into a universal quantum computation. This effect, which occurs if the system is regularly observed at short time intervals, can be rephrased as a modern version of Plato's Cave allegory. More precisely, while in the original version of the myth, the reality perceived within the Cave is described by the projected shadows of some more fundamental dynamics which is intrinsically more complex, we found that in the quantum world the situation changes drastically as the "projected" reality perceived through sequences of measurements can be more complex than the one that originated it. Read More

**Category:**Quantum Physics

We provide a general framework for the identification of open quantum systems. By looking at the input-output behavior, we try to identify the system inside a black box in which some Markovian time-evolution takes place. Due to the generally irreversible nature of the dynamics, it is difficult to assure full controllability over the system. Read More

We study the controllability of a central spin guided by a classical field and interacting with a spin bath, showing that the central spin is fully controllable independently of the number of bath spins. Additionally we find that for unequal system-bath couplings even the bath becomes controllable by acting on the central spin alone. We then analyze numerically how the time to implement gates on the central spin scales with the number of bath spins and conjecture that for equal system-bath couplings it reaches a saturation value. Read More

A major challenge to the control of infinite dimensional quantum systems is the irreversibility which is often present in the system dynamics. Here we consider systems with discrete-spectrum Hamiltonians operating over a Schwartz space domain, and show that by utilizing the implications of the Quantum Recurrence Theorem this irreversibility may be overcome, in the case of individual states more generally, but also in certain specified cases over larger subsets of the Hilbert space. We discuss briefly the possibility of using these results in the control of infinite dimensional coupled harmonic oscillators, and also draw attention to some of the issues and open questions arising from this and related work. Read More

A connection is estabilished between the non-Abelian phases obtained via adiabatic driving and those acquired via a quantum Zeno dynamics induced by repeated projective measurements. In comparison to the adiabatic case, the Zeno dynamics is shown to be more flexible in tuning the system evolution, which paves the way to the implementation of unitary quantum gates and applications in quantum control. Read More

The paper provides a systematic characterization of quantum ergodic and mixing channels in finite dimensions and a discussion of their structural properties. In particular, we discuss ergodicity in the general case where the fixed point of the channel is not a full-rank (faithful) density matrix. Notably, we show that ergodicity is stable under randomizations, namely that every random mixture of an ergodic channel with a generic channel is still ergodic. Read More

Symmetry is a fundamentally important concept in many branches of physics. In this work, we discuss two types of symmetries, external symmetry and internal symmetry, which appear frequently in controlled quantum spin chains and apply them to study various controllability problems. For spin chains under single local end control when external symmetries exists, we can rigorously prove that the system is controllable in each of the invariant subspaces for both XXZ and XYZ chains, but not for XX or Ising chains. Read More

It has been shown that inter-spin interaction strengths in a spins-1/2 chain can be evaluated by accessing one of the edge spins only. We demonstrate this experimentally for the simplest case, a three-spin chain, with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique. The three spins in the chain interact through nearest-neighbor Ising interactions under site-dependent transverse fields. Read More

We study the dynamics of systems on networks from a linear algebraic perspective. The control theoretic concept of controllability describes the set of states that can be reached for these systems. Under appropriate conditions, there is a connection between the quantum (Lie theoretic) property of controllability and the linear systems (Kalman) controllability condition. Read More

The identification of parameters in the Hamiltonian that describes complex many-body quantum systems is generally a very hard task. Recent attention has focused on such problems of Hamiltonian tomography for networks constructed with two-level systems. For open quantum systems, the fact that injected signals are likely to decay before they accumulate sufficient information for parameter estimation poses additional challenges. Read More

Controllability -- the possibility of performing any target dynamics by applying a set of available operations -- is a fundamental requirement for the practical use of any physical system. For finite-dimensional systems, as for instance spin systems, precise criterions to establish controllability, such as the so called rank criterion, are well known. However most physical systems require a description in terms of an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space whose controllability properties are poorly understood. Read More

We design logic circuits based on the notion of zero forcing on graphs; each gate of the circuits is a gadget in which zero forcing is performed. We show that such circuits can evaluate every monotone Boolean function. By using two vertices to encode each logical bit, we obtain universal computation. Read More

The aim of quantum system identification is to estimate the ingredients inside a black box, in which some quantum-mechanical unitary process takes place, by just looking at its input-output behavior. Here we establish a basic and general framework for quantum system identification, that allows us to classify how much knowledge about the quantum system is attainable, in principle, from a given experimental setup. Prior knowledge on some elements of the black box helps the system identification. Read More

We investigate anisotropic $XXZ$ Heisenberg spin-1/2 chains with control fields acting on one of the end spins, with the aim of exploring local quantum control in arrays of interacting qubits. In this work, which uses a recent Lie-algebraic result on the local controllability of spin chains with "always-on" interactions, we determine piecewise-constant control pulses corresponding to optimal fidelities for quantum gates such as spin-flip (NOT), controlled-NOT (CNOT), and square-root-of-SWAP ($\sqrt{\textrm{SWAP}}$). We find the minimal times for realizing different gates depending on the anisotropy parameter $\Delta$ of the model, showing that the shortest among these gate times are achieved for particular values of $\Delta$ larger than unity. Read More

Motivated by some recent results of quantum control theory, we discuss the feasibility of local operator control in arrays of interacting qubits modeled as isotropic Heisenberg spin chains. Acting on one of the end spins, we aim at finding piecewise-constant control pulses that lead to optimal fidelities for a chosen set of quantum gates. We analyze the robustness of the obtained results f or the gate fidelities to random errors in the control fields, finding that with faster switching between piecewise-constant controls the system is less susceptible to these errors. Read More

**Category:**Quantum Physics

In this addendum of our paper [D. Burgarth and V. Giovannetti, Phys. Read More

A number of many-body problems can be formulated using Hamiltonians that are quadratic in the creation and annihilation operators. Here, we show how such quadratic Hamiltonians can be efficiently estimated indirectly, employing very few resources. We find that almost all properties of the Hamiltonian are determined by its surface, and that these properties can be measured even if the system can only be initialised to a mixed state. Read More

A scheme for preparing two fixed non-interacting qubits in a maximally entangled state is presented. By repeating on- and off-resonant scattering of ancilla qubits, the state of the target qubits is driven from an arbitrary initial state into the singlet state with probability 1 (perfect efficiency). Neither the preparation nor the post-selection of the ancilla spin state is required. Read More

We apply quantum control techniques to control a large spin chain by only acting on two qubits at one of its ends, thereby implementing universal quantum computation by a combination of quantum gates on the latter and swap operations across the chain. It is shown that the control sequences can be computed and implemented efficiently. We discuss the application of these ideas to physical systems such as superconducting qubits in which full control of long chains is challenging. Read More

Identifying the nature of interactions in a quantum system is essential in understanding any physical phenomena. Acquiring information on the Hamiltonian can be a tough challenge in many-body systems because it generally requires access to all parts of the system. We show that if the coupling topology is known, the Hamiltonian identification is indeed possible indirectly even though only a small gateway to the system is used. Read More

We implement an iterative quantum state transfer exploiting the natural dipolar couplings in a spin chain of a liquid crystal NMR system. During each iteration a finite part of the amplitude of the state is transferred and by applying an external operation on only the last two spins the transferred state is made to accumulate on the spin at the end point. The transfer fidelity reaches one asymptotically through increasing the number of iterations. Read More

Quantum control requires full knowledge of the system many-body Hamiltonian. In many cases this information is not directly available due to restricted access to the system. Here we show how to indirectly estimate all the coupling strengths in a spin chain by measuring one spin at the end of the chain. Read More

A chain of interacting spin behaves like a quantum mediator (quantum link) which allows two distant parties that control the ends of the chain to exchange quantum messages. We show that over repeated uses without resetting the study of a quantum link can be connected to correlated quantum channels with finite dimensional environment (finite memory quantum channel). Then, using coding arguments for such kind of channels and results on mixing channels we present a protocol that allows us to achieve perfect information transmission through a quantum link. Read More

The dynamics of a simple spin chain (2 spins) coupled to bosonic baths at different temperatures is studied. The analytical solution for the reduced density matrix of the system is found. The dynamics and temperature dependence of spin-spin entanglement is analyzed. Read More

We give a sufficient criterion that guarantees that a many-body quantum system can be controlled by properly manipulating the (local) Hamiltonian of one of its subsystems. The method can be applied to a wide range of systems: it does not depend on the details of the couplings but only on their associated topology. As a special case, we prove that Heisenberg and Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki chains can be controlled by operating on one of the spins at their ends. Read More

We discuss an explicit protocol which allows one to externally cool and control a composite system by operating on a small subset of it. The scheme permits to transfer arbitrary and unknown quantum states from a memory on the network ("upload access") as well as the inverse ("download access"). In particular it yields a method for cooling the system. Read More

Homogenization protocols model the quantum mechanical evolution of a system to a fixed state independently from its initial configuration by repeatedly coupling it with a collection of identical ancillas. Here we analyze these protocols within the formalism of "relaxing" channels providing an easy to check sufficient condition for homogenization. In this context we describe mediated homogenization schemes where a network of connected qudits relaxes to a fixed state by only partially interacting with a bath. Read More

One of the most basic tasks required for Quantum Information Technology is the ability to connect different components of a Quantum Computer by quantum wires that obey the superposition principle. Since superpositions can be very sensitive to noise this turns out to be already quite difficult. Recently, it was suggested to use chains of permanently coupled spin-1/2 particles (quantum chains) for this purpose. Read More

We demonstrate a scheme for controlling a large quantum system by acting on a small subsystem only. The local control is mediated to the larger system by some fixed coupling Hamiltonian. The scheme allows to transfer arbitrary and unknown quantum states from a memory on the large system (``upload access'') as well as the inverse (``download access''). Read More

The thesis covers various aspects of quantum state transfer in permanently coupled spin systems. Read More