# D. Qian - Princeton University

## Contact Details

NameD. Qian |
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AffiliationPrinceton University |
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CityPrinceton |
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CountryUnited States |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## External Links |
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## Pub CategoriesPhysics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (24) Physics - Superconductivity (17) Physics - Materials Science (14) Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (12) Physics - Disordered Systems and Neural Networks (5) Physics - Physics and Society (3) Nonlinear Sciences - Pattern Formation and Solitons (2) Physics - Other (2) Nonlinear Sciences - Chaotic Dynamics (1) Quantum Physics (1) Computer Science - Software Engineering (1) Physics - Data Analysis; Statistics and Probability (1) Mathematics - Combinatorics (1) Computer Science - Distributed; Parallel; and Cluster Computing (1) |

## Publications Authored By D. Qian

Surface interaction is extremely important to both fundamental research and practical application. Physisorption can induce shape and structural distortion (i.e. Read More

Electronic structure of single crystalline Ba(Zn$_{0.875}$Mn$_{0.125}$)$_{2}$As$_{2}$, parent compound of the recently founded high-temperature ferromagnetic semiconductor, was studied by high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Read More

Single monolayer (ML) FeSe films grown on Nb-doped SrTiO3(001) substrates show the highest superconducting transition temperature (TC ~ 100 K) among the iron-based superconductors (iron-pnictide), while TC of bulk FeSe is only ~ 8 K. Antiferromagnetic (AFM) spin fluctuations were proposed to be crucial in iron-pnictides, which has inspired several proposals to understand the FeSe/SrTiO3 system. Although bulk FeSe does not show AFM order, calculations suggest that the parent FeSe/SrTiO3 films are AFM and the AFM interaction could be enhanced at the interface. Read More

Majorana fermion (MF) whose antiparticle is itself has been predicted in condensed matter systems. Signatures of the MFs have been reported as zero energy modes in various systems. More definitive evidences are highly desired to verify the existence of the MF. Read More

Recently virtual platforms and virtual prototyping techniques have been widely applied for accelerating software development in electronics companies. It has been proved that these techniques can greatly shorten time-to-market and improve product quality. One challenge is how to test and validate a virtual prototype. Read More

Using high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy, the atomic and low energy electronic structure of the Sr-doped superconducting topological insulators (SrxBi2Se3) was studied. Scanning tunneling microscopy shows that most of the Sr atoms are not in the van der Waals gap. After Sr doping, the Fermi level was found to move further upwards when compared with the parent compound Bi2Se3, which is consistent with the low carrier density in this system. Read More

Using high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, the electronic structure near the Fermi level and the topological property of the Bi(111) films grown on the Bi$_2$Te$_3$(111) substrate were studied. Very different from the bulk Bi, we found another surface band near the $\bar{M}$ point besides the two well-known surface bands on the Bi(111) surface. With this new surface band, the bulk valence band and the bulk conduction band of Bi can be connected by the surface states. Read More

Ultrathin semiconductors present various novel electronic properties. The first experimental realized two-dimensional (2D) material is graphene. Searching 2D materials with heavy elements bring the attention to Si, Ge and Sn. Read More

The proliferation of multi-core and multiprocessor-based computer systems has led to explosive development of parallel applications and hence the need for efficient schedulers. In this paper, we study hierarchical scheduling for malleable parallel jobs on multiprocessor-based systems, which appears in many distributed and multilayered computing environments. We propose a hierarchical scheduling algorithm, named AC-DS, that consists of a feedback-driven adaptive scheduler, a desire aggregation scheme and an efficient resource allocation policy. Read More

Recently, interface has been employed to enhance superconductivity in the single-layer FeSe films grown on SrTiO3(001)(STO) with a possible Tc of ~ 80 K, which is nearly ten times of the Tc of bulk FeSe and is above the Tc record of 56 K for the bulk Fe-based superconductors. This work together with those on superconducting oxides interfaces revives the long-standing idea that electron pairing at a two-dimensional (2D) interface between two different materials is a potential path to high transition temperature (Tc) superconductivity. Subsequent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) measurements revealed different electronic structure from those of bulk FeSe with a superconducting-like energy gap closing at around 65K. Read More

Electronic structures of single crystalline black phosphorus were studied by state-of-art angleresolved photoemission spectroscopy. Through high resolution photon energy dependence measurements, the band dispersions along out-of-plane and in-plane directions are experimentally determined. The electrons were found to be more localized in the ab-plane than that is predicted in calculations. Read More

We report high resolution neutron scattering measurements on the triangular lattice Mott insulator Na$_x$CrO$_2$ ($x$=1) which has recently been shown to exhibit an unusually broad fluctuating crossover regime extending far below the onset of spin freezing ($T_c\sim$41K). Our results show that below some crossover temperature ($T\sim0.75T_c$) a small incommensuration develops which helps resolve the spin frustration and drives three-dimensional magnetic order supporting coherent spin wave modes. Read More

**Authors:**Lin Miao, Z. F. Wang, Meng-Yu Yao, Fengfeng Zhu, J. H. Dil, C. L. Gao, Canhua Liu, Feng Liu, Dong Qian, Jin-Feng Jia

Combining first-principles calculations and spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements, we identify the helical spin textures for three different Dirac cone states in the interfaced systems of a 2D topological insulator (TI) of Bi(111) bilayer and a 3D TI Bi2Se3 or Bi2Te3. The spin texture is found to be the same for the intrinsic Dirac cone of Bi2Se3 or Bi2Te3 surface state, the extrinsic Dirac cone of Bi bilayer state induced by Rashba effect, and the hybridized Dirac cone between the former two states. Further orbit- and atom-resolved analysis shows that s and pz orbits have a clockwise (counterclockwise) spin rotation tangent to the iso-energy contour of upper (lower) Dirac cone, while px and py orbits have an additional radial spin component. Read More

**Authors:**Kai Zhu, Lin Wu, Xinxin Gong, Shunhao Xiao, Shiyan Li, Xiaofeng Jin, Mengyu Yao, Dong Qian, Meng Wu, Ji Feng, Qian Niu, Fernando de Juan, Dung-Hai Lee

Quantum transport measurements including the Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak (AAS) and Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effects, universal conductance fluctuations (UCF), and weak anti-localization (WAL) have been carried out on epitaxial Bi thin films ($10-70$ bilayers) on Si(111). The results show that while the film interior is insulating all six surfaces of the Bi thin films are robustly metallic. We propose that these properties are the manifestation of a novel phenomenon, namely, a topologically trivial bulk system can become topologically non-trivial when it is made into a thin film. Read More

**Authors:**D. J. Yu, F. Yang, Lin Miao, C. Q. Han, Meng-Yu Yao, Fengfeng Zhu, Y. R. Song, K. F. Zhang, J. F. Ge, X. Yao, Z. Q. Zou, Z. J. Li, B. Gao, D. D. Guan, Canhua Liu, C. L. Gao, Dong Qian, Jin-feng Jia

**Category:**Physics - Superconductivity

Due to the large spin-orbital coupling in the layered 5d-transition metal chalcogenides compound, the occurrence of superconductivity in Ir2-xPdxTe2 offers a good chance to search for possible topological superconducting states in this system. We did comprehensive studies on the superconducting properties and electronic structures of single crystalline Ir0.95Pd0. Read More

Majorana fermions have been intensively studied in recent years for their importance to both fundamental science and potential applications in topological quantum computing1,2. Majorana fermions are predicted to exist in a vortex core of superconducting topological insulators3. However, they are extremely difficult to be distinguished experimentally from other quasiparticle states for the tiny energy difference between Majorana fermions and these states, which is beyond the energy resolution of most available techniques. Read More

Topological superconductors (TSCs) have a full gap in the bulk and gapless surface states consisting of Majorana fermions, which have potential applications in fault-tolerant topological quantum computation. Because TSCs are very rare in nature, an alternative way to study the TSC is to artificially introduce superconductivity into the surface states of a topological insulator (TI) through proximity effect (PE)1-4. Here we report the first experimental realization of the PE induced TSC in Bi2Te3/NbSe2 thin films as demonstrated by the density of states probed using scanning tunneling microscope. Read More

Topological insulators (TIs) and graphene present two unique classes of materials which are characterized by spin polarized (helical) and non-polarized Dirac-cone band structures, respectively. The importance of many-body interactions that renormalize the linear bands near Dirac point in graphene has been well recognized and attracted much recent attention. However, renormalization of the helical Dirac point has not been observed in TIs. Read More

The electronic and magnetic properties of iron-doped topological insulator Bi1.84-xFe0.16CaxSe3 single crystals were studied. Read More

**Authors:**Z. F. Wang, Meng-Yu Yao, Wenmei Ming, Lin Miao, Fengfeng Zhu, Canhua Liu, C. L. Gao, Dong Qian, Jin-Feng Jia, Feng Liu

Topological insulators (TIs) are a unique class of materials characterized by a surface (edge) Dirac cone state of helical Dirac fermions in the middle of bulk (surface) gap. When the thickness (width) of TIs is reduced, however, interaction between the surface (edge) states will open a gap removing the Dirac cone. Using density function theory calculation, we demonstrate the creation of helical Dirac fermions from interfacing two gapped TI films, a single bilayer Bi grown on a single quintuple layer Bi2Se3 or Bi2Te3. Read More

A Z2 topological insulator protected by time-reversal symmetry is realized via spin-orbit interaction driven band inversion. For example, the topological phase in the Bi-Sb system is due to an odd number of band inversions. A related spin-orbit system, the (Pb/Sn)Te class, has been known to contain an even number of inversions based on band theory. Read More

We present a polarization resolved study of the low energy band structure in the optimally doped iron pnictide superconductor Ba$_{0.6}$K$_{0.4}$Fe$_2$As$_2$ (T$_c$=37K) using angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Read More

We perform systematic angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopic measurements on the lead tin telluride Pb1-xSnxTe pseudobinary alloy system. We show that the (001) crystalline surface, which is a crystalline surface symmetric about the (110) mirror planes of the Pb1-xSnxTe crystal, pos- sesses four metallic surface states within its surface Brillouin zone. Our systematic Fermi surface and band topology measurements show that the observed Dirac-like surface states lie on the symmetric momentum-space cuts. Read More

We study the diffusion behavior of real-time information. Typically, real-time information is valuable only for a limited time duration, and hence needs to be delivered before its "deadline." Therefore, real-time information is much easier to spread among a group of people with frequent interactions than between isolated individuals. Read More

We consider a cyber-physical system consisting of two interacting networks, i.e., a cyber-network overlaying a physical-network. Read More

We study the diffusion of information in an overlaying social-physical network. Specifically, we consider the following set-up: There is a physical information network where information spreads amongst people through conventional communication media (e.g. Read More

This paper has been withdrawn by the author due to journal requirement. Read More

Let $G=(V,E)$ be a random electronic network with the boundary vertices which is obtained by assigning a resistance of each edge in a random graph in $\mathbb{G}(n,p)$ and the voltages on the boundary vertices. In this paper, we prove that the potential distribution of all vertices of $G$ except for the boundary vertices are very close to a constant with high probability for $p=\frac{c\ln n}{n}$ and $c>1$. Read More

Single-Dirac-cone topological insulators (TI) are the first experimentally discovered class of three dimensional topologically ordered electronic systems, and feature robust, massless spin-helical conducting surface states that appear at any interface between a topological insulator and normal matter that lacks the topological insulator ordering. This topologically defined surface environment has been theoretically identified as a promising platform for observing a wide range of new physical phenomena, and possesses ideal properties for advanced electronics such as spin-polarized conductivity and suppressed scattering. A key missing step in enabling these applications is to understand how topologically ordered electrons respond to the interfaces and surface structures that constitute a device. Read More

**Authors:**Su-Yang Xu, Y. Xia, L. A. Wray, D. Qian, Shuang Jia, J. H. Dil, F. Meier, J. Osterwalder, B. Slomski, H. Lin, R. J. Cava, M. Z. Hasan

The recently discovered three dimensional or bulk topological insulators are expected to exhibit exotic quantum phenomena. It is believed that a trivial insulator can be twisted into a topological state by modulating the spin-orbit interaction or the crystal lattice via odd number of band inversions, driving the system through a topological quantum phase transition. By directly measuring the topological invariants (for the method to directly measure Fu-Kane {$\nu_0$}, see Hsieh \textit{et. Read More

The Bi$_2$Se$_3$ class of topological insulators has recently been shown to undergo a superconducting transition upon hole or electron doping (Cu$_x$-Bi$_2$Se$_3$ with T$_C$=3.8$^o$K and Pd$_x$-Bi$_2$Te$_3$ with T$_C$=5$^o$K), raising the possibilities that these are the first known "topological superconductors" or realizes a superconducting state that can be potentially used as Majorana platforms (L.A. Read More

Topological insulators embody a new state of matter characterized entirely by the topological invariants of the bulk electronic structure rather than any form of spontaneously broken symmetry. Unlike the 2D quantum Hall or quantum spin-Hall-like systems, the three dimensional (3D) topological insulators can host magnetism and superconductivity which has generated widespread research activity in condensed-matter and materials-physics communities. Thus there is an explosion of interest in understanding the rich interplay between topological and the broken-symmetry states (such as superconductivity), greatly spurred by proposals that superconductivity introduced into certain band structures will host exotic quasiparticles which are of interest in quantum information science. Read More

We apply the averaging method to analyze spatio-temportal structures in nonlinear Schr\"odinger equations and thereby study the dynamics of quasi-one-dimensional collisionally inhomogeneous Bose-Einstein condensates with the scattering length varying periodically in spatial and crossing zero. Infinitely many (positive measure set) modulated amplitude waves (periodic and quasi-periodic), which are instable, can be proved to exist by adjusting the intergration constant c on some open interval. Finally, some numerical simulations support our results. Read More

In this paper we give a frame for application of the averaging method to Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) and obtain an abstract result upon the dynamics of BECs. Using aver- aging method, we determine the location where the modulated amplitude waves (periodic or quasi-periodic) exist and we also study the stability and instability of modulated amplitude waves (periodic or quasi-periodic). Compared with the previous work, modulated amplitude waves studied in this paper have nontrivial phases and this makes the problem become more diffcult, since it involves some singularities. Read More

**Authors:**D. Hsieh, Y. Xia, L. Wray, D. Qian, J. H. Dil, F. Meier, L. Patthey, J. Osterwalder, G. Bihlmayer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, M. Z. Hasan

We report high-resolution spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (Spin-ARPES) measurements on the parent compound Sb of the first discovered 3D topological insulator Bi{1-x}Sb{x} [D. Hsieh et al., Nature 452, 970 (2008) Submitted 2007]. Read More

**Authors:**Y. S. Hor, P. Roushan, H. Beidenkopf, J. Seo, D. Qu, J. G. Checkelsky, L. A. Wray, Y. Xia, S. -Y. Xu, D. Qian, M. Z. Hasan, N. P. Ong, A. Yazdani, R. J. Cava

The development of ferromagnetism in Mn-doped Bi2Te3 is characterized through measurements on a series of single crystals with different Mn content. Scanning tunneling microscopy analysis shows that the Mn substitutes on the Bi sites, forming compounds of the type Bi2-xMnxTe3, and that the Mn substitutions are randomly distributed, not clustered. Mn doping first gives rise to local magnetic moments with Curie-like behavior, but by the compositions Bi1. Read More

**Authors:**D. Hsieh, Y. Xia, D. Qian, L. Wray, J. H. Dil, F. Meier, J. Osterwalder, L. Patthey, J. G. Checkelsky, N. P. Ong, A. V. Fedorov, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, M. Z. Hasan

Both the theoretical and experimental discovery of single-Dirac-cone topological-insulator-class was reported at arXiv:0812.2078 (2008) [Y. Xia et. Read More

**Authors:**D. Hsieh

^{1}, L. A. Wray

^{2}, D. Qian

^{3}, Y. Xia

^{4}, Y. S. Hor

^{5}, R. J. Cava

^{6}, M. Z. Hasan

^{7}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Princeton University,

^{2}Princeton University,

^{3}Princeton University,

^{4}Princeton University,

^{5}Princeton University,

^{6}Princeton University,

^{7}Princeton University

We report high-resolution spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (Spin-ARPES) measurements on the parent compound Sb of the recently discovered 3D topological insulator Bi1-xSbx [D. Hsieh et al., Nature 452, 970 (2008)]. Read More

**Authors:**L. A. Wray, D. Hsieh, Y. Xia, S. -Y. Xu, D. Qian, G. F. Chen, J. L. Luo, N. L. Wang, M. Z. Hasan

We present a polarization and topology resolved study of the low energy band structure in optimally doped superconducting Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2 using angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Read More

**Authors:**L. Wray

^{1}, S. Xu

^{2}, J. Xiong

^{3}, Y. Xia

^{4}, D. Qian

^{5}, H. Lin

^{6}, A. Bansil

^{7}, Y. Hor

^{8}, R. J. Cava

^{9}, M. Z. Hasan

^{10}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Princeton University,

^{2}Princeton University,

^{3}Princeton University,

^{4}Princeton University,

^{5}Princeton University,

^{6}Princeton University,

^{7}Princeton University,

^{8}Princeton University,

^{9}Princeton University,

^{10}Princeton University

The Cu-doped topological insulator Bi$_2$Se$_3$ has recently been found to undergo a superconducting transition upon cooling, raising the possibilities that it is the first known "topological superconductor" or realizes a novel non-Abelian superconducting state. Its true nature depends critically on the bulk and surface state band topology. We present the first photoemission spectroscopy results where by examining the band topology at many different copper doping values we discover that the topologically protected spin-helical surface states remain well protected and separate from bulk Dirac bands at the Fermi level where Copper pairing occurs in the optimally doped topological insulator. Read More

When electrons are subject to a large external magnetic field, the conventional charge quantum Hall effect \cite{Klitzing,Tsui} dictates that an electronic excitation gap is generated in the sample bulk, but metallic conduction is permitted at the boundary. Recent theoretical models suggest that certain bulk insulators with large spin-orbit interactions may also naturally support conducting topological boundary states in the extreme quantum limit, which opens up the possibility for studying unusual quantum Hall-like phenomena in zero external magnetic fields. Bulk Bi{1-x}Sbx single crystals are predicted to be prime candidates for one such unusual Hall phase of matter known as the topological insulator. Read More

**Authors:**D. Hsieh, Y. Xia, L. Wray, D. Qian, A. Pal, J. H. Dil, F. Meier, J. Osterwalder, G. Bihlmayer, C. L. Kane, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, M. Z. Hasan

A topologically ordered material is characterized by a rare quantum organization of electrons that evades the conventional spontaneously broken symmetry based classification of condensed matter. Exotic spin transport phenomena such as the dissipationless quantum spin Hall effect have been speculated to originate from a novel topological order whose identification requires a spin sensitive measurement. Using Spin-resolved-ARPES, we probe the spin degrees of freedom and demonstrate that topological quantum numbers are uniquely determined from spin-texture Berry Phase imaging measurements. Read More

**Authors:**D. Hsieh, Y. Xia, D. Qian, L. Wray, J. H. Dil, F. Meier, J. Osterwalder, L. Patthey, A. V. Fedorov, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, M. Z. Hasan

We show that the strongly spin-orbit coupled materials Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 (first non-Bi topological insulator) and their derivatives belong to the Z2 (Time-Reversal-Protected, elastic backscattering suppressed) topological-insulator class. Using a combination of first-principles theoretical calculations and photoemission spectroscopy, we directly show that Bi2Te3 is a large spin-orbit-induced indirect bulk band gap (about 150 meV) semiconductor whose surface is characterized by a single topological spin-Dirac cone. The electronic structure of self-doped Sb2Te3 exhibits similar Z2 topological properties. Read More

Recent theories and experiments have suggested that strong spin-orbit coupling effects in certain band insulators can give rise to a new phase of quantum matter, the so-called topological insulator, which can show macroscopic entanglement effects. Such systems feature two-dimensional surface states whose electrodynamic properties are described not by the conventional Maxwell equations but rather by an attached axion field, originally proposed to describe strongly interacting particles. It has been proposed that a topological insulator with a single spin-textured Dirac cone interfaced with a superconductor can form the most elementary unit for performing fault-tolerant quantum computation. Read More

Topological insulators are a new class of insulators in which a bulk gap for electronic excitations is generated by strong spin orbit coupling. These novel materials are distinguished from ordinary insulators by the presence of gapless metallic boundary states, akin to the chiral edge modes in quantum Hall systems, but with unconventional spin textures. Recently, experiments and theoretical efforts have provided strong evidence for both two- and three-dimensional topological insulators and their novel edge and surface states in semiconductor quantum well structures and several Bi-based compounds. Read More

**Authors:**Y. Xia, D. Qian, D. Hsieh, R. Shankar, H. Lin, A. Bansil, A. V. Fedorov, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, M. Z. Hasan

Three dimensional (3D) topological insulators are quantum materials with a spin-orbit induced bulk insulating gap that exhibit quantum-Hall-like phenomena in the absence of applied magnetic fields. The proposed applications of topological insulators in device geometries rely on the ability to tune the chemical potential on their surfaces in the vicinity of the Dirac node. Here, we demonstrate a suite of surface control methods based on a combination of photo-doping and molecular-doping to systematically tune the Dirac fermion density on the topological (111) surface of Bi2Te3. Read More

We report the first photoemission study of Fe$_{1+x}$Te - the host compound of the newly discovered iron-chalcogenide superconductors (maximum T$_c$ $\sim$ 27K). Our results reveal a pair of nearly electron-hole compensated Fermi pockets, strong Fermi velocity renormalization and an absence of a spin-density-wave gap. A shadow hole pocket is observed at the X-point of the Brillouin zone which is consistent with a long-range ordered magneto-structural groundstate. Read More

**Authors:**D. Hsieh, Y. Xia, D. Qian, L. Wray, J. H. Dil, F. Meier, L. Patthey, J. Osterwalder, A. V. Fedorov, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, M. Z. Hasan

Electron systems that possess light-like dispersion relations or the conical Dirac spectrum, such as graphene and bismuth, have recently been shown to harbor unusual collective states in high magnetic fields. Such states are possible because their light-like electrons come in spin pairs that are chiral,which means that their direction of propagation is tied to a quantity called pseudospin that describes their location in the crystal lattice. An emerging direction in quantum materials research is the manipulation of atomic spin-orbit coupling to simulate the effect of a spin dependent magnetic field,in attempt to realize novel spin phases of matter. Read More

**Authors:**D. Hsieh, Y. Xia, L. Wray, D. Qian, A. Pal, J. H. Dil, F. Meier, J. Osterwalder, G. Bihlmayer, C. L. Kane, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, M. Z. Hasan

A topologically ordered material is characterized by a rare quantum organization of electrons that evades the conventional spontaneously broken symmetry based classification of condensed matter. Exotic spin transport phenomena such as the dissipationless quantum spin Hall effect have been speculated to originate from a novel topological order whose identification requires a spin sensitive measurement, which does not exist to this date in any system (neither in Hg(Cd)Te quantum wells nor in the topological insulator BiSb). Using Mott polarimetry, we probe the spin degrees of freedom of these quantum spin Hall states and demonstrate that topological quantum numbers are uniquely determined from spin texture imaging measurements. Read More

When electrons are subject to a large external magnetic field, the conventional charge quantum Hall effect \cite{Klitzing,Tsui} dictates that an electronic excitation gap is generated in the sample bulk, but metallic conduction is permitted at the boundary. Recent theoretical models suggest that certain bulk insulators with large spin-orbit interactions may also naturally support conducting topological boundary states in the extreme quantum limit, which opens up the possibility for studying unusual quantum Hall-like phenomena in zero external magnetic field. Bulk Bi$_{1-x}$Sb$_x$ single crystals are expected to be prime candidates for one such unusual Hall phase of matter known as the topological insulator. Read More