D. E. Ruiz

D. E. Ruiz
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Mathematics - Analysis of PDEs (21)
 
Physics - Plasma Physics (8)
 
Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (3)
 
Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (2)
 
Mathematical Physics (2)
 
Mathematics - Number Theory (2)
 
Physics - Physics and Society (1)
 
Physics - Data Analysis; Statistics and Probability (1)
 
Quantitative Biology - Other (1)
 
Physics - Optics (1)
 
Physics - Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics (1)
 
Physics - Medical Physics (1)

Publications Authored By D. E. Ruiz

High-frequency photons traveling in plasma exhibit a linear polarizability that can influence the dispersion of linear plasma waves. We present a detailed calculation of this effect for Langmuir waves as a characteristic example. Two alternative formulations are given. Read More

Even diffraction aside, the well-known equations of geometrical optics (GO) are not entirely accurate. Traditional GO treats wave rays as classical particles, which are completely described by their coordinates and momenta, but rays have another degree of freedom, namely, polarization. The polarization degree of freedom manifests itself as an effective (classical) spin that can be assigned to rays and can affect the wave dynamics accordingly. Read More

In this paper we consider a mean field problem on a compact surface with conical singularities. This problem appears in the Gaussian curvature prescription problem in Geometry, and also in the Electroweak Theory and in the abelian Chern-Simons-Higgs model in Physics. In this paper we focus on the case of sign-changing potentials, and we give results on compactness, existence and multiplicity of solutions. Read More

Applications of variational methods are typically restricted to conservative systems. Some extensions to dissipative systems have been reported too but require ad hoc techniques such as the artificial doubling of the dynamical variables. Here, a different approach is proposed. Read More

In this paper we construct nontrivial exterior domains $\Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^N$, for all $N\geq 2$, such that the problem $$\left\{ {ll} -\Delta u +u -u^p=0,\ u >0 & \mbox{in }\; \Omega, {1mm] \ u= 0 & \mbox{on }\; \partial \Omega, [1mm] \ \frac{\partial u}{\partial \nu} = \mbox{cte} & \mbox{on }\; \partial \Omega, \right.$$ admits a positive bounded solution. This result gives a negative answer to the Berestycki-Caffarelli-Nirenberg conjecture on overdetermined elliptic problems in dimension 2, the only dimension in which the conjecture was still open. Read More

Similarly to how charged particles experience time-averaged ponderomotive forces in high-frequency fields, linear waves also experience time-averaged refraction in modulated media. Here we propose a covariant variational theory of this "ponderomotive effect on waves" for a general nondissipative linear medium. Using the Weyl calculus, our formulation accommodates waves with temporal and spatial period comparable to that of the modulation (provided that parametric resonances are avoided). Read More

The wave kinetic equation (WKE) describing drift-wave (DW) turbulence is widely used in studies of zonal flows (ZFs) emerging from DW turbulence. However, this formulation neglects the exchange of enstrophy between DWs and ZFs and also ignores effects beyond the geometrical-optics limit. We derive a modified theory that takes both of these effects into account, while still treating DW quanta ("driftons") as particles in phase space. Read More

We consider the Choquard equation (also known as stationary Hartree equation or Schr\"odinger--Newton equation) \[ -\Delta u + u = (I_\alpha \star |u|^p) |u|^{p - 2}u. \] Here $I_\alpha$ stands for the Riesz potential of order $\alpha \in (0,N)$, and $\frac{N - 2}{N + \alpha} < \frac{1}{p} \le \frac{1}{2}$. We prove that least energy nodal solutions have an odd symmetry with respect to a hyperplane when $\alpha $ is either close to $0$ or close to $N$. Read More

We report a point-particle ponderomotive model of a Dirac electron oscillating in a high-frequency field. Starting from the Dirac Lagrangian density, we derive a reduced phase-space Lagrangian that describes the relativistic time-averaged dynamics of such a particle in a geometrical-optics laser pulse propagating in vacuum. The pulse is allowed to have an arbitrarily large amplitude (provided radiation damping and pair production are negligible) and a wavelength comparable to the particle de Broglie wavelength. Read More

The propagation of electromagnetic waves in isotropic dielectric media with local dispersion is studied under the assumption of small but nonvanishing $\lambda/l$, where $\lambda$ is the wavelength, and $l$ is the characteristic inhomogeneity scale. It is commonly known that, due to nonzero $\lambda/l$, such waves can experience polarization-driven bending of ray trajectories and polarization dynamics that can be interpreted as the precession of the wave "spin". The present work reports how Lagrangians describing these effects can be deduced, rather than guessed, within a strictly classical theory. Read More

Let $f:[0,+\infty) \to \mathbb{R}$ be a (locally) Lipschitz function and $\Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^2$ a $C^{1,\alpha}$ domain whose boundary is unbounded and connected. If there exists a positive bounded solution to the overdetermined elliptic problem $$ \left\{\begin{array} {ll} \Delta u + f(u) = 0 & \mbox{in }\; \Omega \\ u= 0\, \, \, , \, \, \, \frac{\partial u}{\partial \vec{\nu}}=1 &\mbox{on }\; \partial \Omega \end{array}\right. $$ we prove that $\Omega$ is a half-plane. Read More

Classical variational principles can be deduced from quantum variational principles via formal reparameterization of the latter. It is shown that such reparameterization is possible without invoking any assumptions other than classicality and without appealing to dynamical equations. As examples, first principle variational formulations of classical point-particle and cold-fluid motion are derived from their quantum counterparts for Schrodinger, Pauli, and Klein-Gordon particles. Read More

Linear vector waves, both quantum and classical, experience polarization-driven bending of ray trajectories and polarization dynamics that can be interpreted as the precession of the "wave spin". Both phenomena are governed by an effective gauge Hamiltonian, which vanishes in leading-order geometrical optics. This gauge Hamiltonian can be recognized as a generalization of the Stern-Gerlach Hamiltonian that is commonly known for spin-1/2 quantum particles. Read More

This paper is motivated by a gauged Schr\"{o}dinger equation in dimension 2. We are concerned with radial stationary states under the presence of a vortex at the origin. Those states solve a nonlinear nonlocal PDE with a variational structure. Read More

We calculate the cross section for optical absorption of planar 2D Majorana nanowires. Light is described in the dipole approximation. We discuss the signatures on the cross section of a near-zero-energy mode. Read More

We consider the so-called Toda system in a smooth planar domain under homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions. We prove the existence of a continuum of solutions for which both components blow-up at the same point. This blow-up behavior is asymmetric, and moreover one component includes also a certain global mass. Read More

In this paper we consider the so-called Toda System in planar domains under Dirichlet boundary condition. We show the existence of continua of solutions for which one component is blowing up at a certain number of points. The proofs use singular perturbation methods. Read More

We investigate the effects that a tilting of the magnetic field from the parallel direction has on the states of a 1D Majorana nanowire. Particularly, we focus on the conditions for the existence of Majorana zero modes, uncovering an analytical relation (the sine rule) between the field orientation relative to the wire, its magnitude and the superconducting parameter of the material. The study is then extended to junctions of nanowires, treated as magnetically inhomogeneous straight nanowires composed of two homogeneous arms. Read More

In this paper we study the problem of prescribing the Gaussian curvature under a conformal change of the metric. We are concerned with the problem posed on a subdomain of the 2-sphere under Neumann boundary conditions of the conformal factor. If the area of the subdomain is greater than 2\pi, the associated energy functional is no longer bounded from below. Read More

In this paper we consider the so-called Toda system of equations on a compact surface. In particular, we discuss the parity of the Leray-Schauder degree of that problem. Our main tool is a theorem of Krasnoselskii and Zabreiko on the degree of maps symmetric with respect to a subspace. Read More

A set A is a Sidon set in an additive group G if every element of G can be written at most one way as sum of two elements of A. A particular case of two-dimensional Sidon sets are the sonar sequences, which are two-dimensional synchronization patterns. The main known constructions of sonar sequences are reminiscent of Costas arrays constructions (Welch and Golomb). Read More

This paper is motivated by a gauged Schrodinger equation in dimension 2 including the so-called Chern-Simons term. The radially symmetric case leads to an elliptic problem with a nonlocal defocusing term, in competition with a local focusing nonlinearity. In this work we pose the equations in a ball under homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions. Read More

In this paper we consider the Toda system of equations on a compact surface, which is motivated by the study of models in non-abelian Chern-Simons theory. We prove a general existence result using variational methods. The same analysis applies to a mean field equation which arises in fluid dynamics. Read More

This paper is motivated by a gauged Schr\"odinger equation in dimension 2 including the so-called Chern-Simons term. The study of radial stationary states leads to the nonlocal problem: $$ - \Delta u(x) + \left(\omega + \frac{h^2(|x|)}{|x|^2} + \int_{|x|}^{+\infty} \frac{h(s)}{s} u^2(s)\, ds \right) u(x) = |u(x)|^{p-1}u(x), $$ where $$ h(r)= \frac{1}{2}\int_0^{r} s u^2(s) \, ds. $$ This problem is the Euler-Lagrange equation of a certain energy functional. Read More

A subset A of an abelian group G is a Bh[g] set on G if every element of G can be written at most g ways as sum of h elements in A. In this work we present three constructions of Bh[g] sets on product of groups. Read More

The classical Poincar\'e inequality establishes that for any bounded regular domain $\Omega\subset \R^N$ there exists a constant $C=C(\Omega)>0$ such that $$ \int_{\Omega} |u|^2\, dx \leq C \int_{\Omega} |\nabla u|^2\, dx \ \ \forall u \in H^1(\Omega),\ \int_{\Omega} u(x) \, dx=0.$$ In this note we show that $C$ can be taken independently of $\Omega$ when $\Omega$ is in a certain class of domains. Our result generalizes previous results in this direction. Read More

Scoring in a basketball game is a process highly dynamic and non-linear type. The level of NBA teams improve each season. They incorporate to their rosters the best players in the world. Read More

Alzheimer's disease is a sickness that has been studied from various areas of knowledge (biomarkers, brain structure, behavior, cognitive impairment). Our aim was to develop and to apply a protocol of programmed physical activity according to a non-linear methodology to enhance or diminish the deterioration of cognitive and motor functions of adults with this disease, using concepts of complexity theory for planning and programing the program. We evaluated 18 patients (12 women and 6 men) diagnosed with mild and moderate grade. Read More

In this paper we study semiclassical states for the problem $$ -\eps^2 \Delta u + V(x) u = f(u) \qquad \hbox{in} \RN,$$ where $f(u)$ is a superlinear nonlinear term. Under our hypotheses on $f$ a Lyapunov-Schmidt reduction is not possible. We use variational methods to prove the existence of spikes around saddle points of the potential $V(x)$. Read More

In this paper we consider the Toda system of equations on a compact surface. We will give existence results by using variational methods in a non coercive case. A key tool in our analysis is a new Moser-Trudinger type inequality under suitable conditions on the center of mass and the scale of concentration of the two components u_1, u_2. Read More

We consider a singular Liouville equation on a compact surface, arising from the study of Chern-Simons vortices in a self dual regime. Using new improved versions of the Moser-Trudinger inequalities (whose main feature is to be scaling invariant) and a variational scheme, we prove new existence results. Read More

In this paper we prove existence of ground state solutions of the modified nonlinear Schrodinger equation: $$ -\Delta u+V(x)u-{1/2}u \Delta u^{2}=|u|^{p-1}u, x \in \R^N, N \geq 3, $$ under some hypotheses on $V(x)$. This model has been proposed in the theory of superfluid films in plasma physics. As a main novelty with respect to some previous results, we are able to deal with exponents $p\in(1,3)$. Read More

We study the existence of positive and sign-changing multipeak solutions for the stationary Nonlinear Schroedinger Equation. Here no symmetry on $V$ is assumed. It is known that this equation has positive multipeak solutions with all peaks approaching a local maximum of the potential. Read More

In this paper we consider the system in $\R^3$ \label{problemadipartenza0} -\e^2\Delta u+V(x)u+\phi(x)u=u^{p}, Read More

In this paper the following version of the Schrodinger-Poisson-Slater problem is studied: $$ - \Delta u + (u^2 \star \frac{1}{|4\pi x|}) u=\mu |u|^{p-1}u, $$ where $u: \R^3 \to \R$ and $\mu>0$. The case $p <2$ being already studied, we consider here $p \geq 2$. For $p>2$ we study both the existence of ground and bound states. Read More

This paper is motivated by the study of a version of the so-called Schrodinger-Poisson-Slater problem: $$ - \Delta u + \omega u + \lambda (u^2 \star \frac{1}{|x|}) u=|u|^{p-2}u,$$ where $u \in H^1(\R^3)$. We are concerned mostly with $p \in (2,3)$. The behavior of radial minimizers motivates the study of the static case $\omega=0$. Read More

Precise magnetic hysteresis measurements of small single crystals of Mn$_{12}$ acetate of spin 10 have been conducted down to 0.4 K using a high sensitivity Hall magnetometer. At higher temperature (>1. Read More