D. Akimov - National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia

D. Akimov
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D. Akimov
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National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia
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Physics - Instrumentation and Detectors (27)
 
High Energy Physics - Experiment (24)
 
Nuclear Experiment (7)
 
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (7)
 
Astrophysics (4)
 
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (2)
 
Physics - Materials Science (1)
 
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Publications Authored By D. Akimov

A SensL MicroFC-SMT-60035 6x6 mm$^2$ silicon photo-multiplier coated with a NOL-1 wavelength shifter have been tested in the liquid xenon to detect the 175-nm scintillation light. For comparison, a Hamamatsu vacuum ultraviolet sensitive MPPC VUV3 3x3 mm$^2$ was tested under the same conditions. The photodetection efficiency of $13. Read More

2017Mar
Authors: B. J. Mount, S. Hans, R. Rosero, M. Yeh, C. Chan, R. J. Gaitskell, D. Q. Huang, J. Makkinje, D. C. Malling, M. Pangilinan, C. A. Rhyne, W. C. Taylor, J. R. Verbus, Y. D. Kim, H. S. Lee, J. Lee, D. S. Leonard, J. Li, J. Belle, A. Cottle, W. H. Lippincott, D. J. Markley, T. J. Martin, M. Sarychev, T. E. Tope, M. Utes, R. Wang, I. Young, H. M. Araújo, A. J. Bailey, D. Bauer, D. Colling, A. Currie, S. Fayer, F. Froborg, S. Greenwood, W. G. Jones, V. Kasey, M. Khaleeq, I. Olcina, B. López Paredes, A. Richards, T. J. Sumner, A. Tomás, A. Vacheret, P. Brás, A. Lindote, M. I. Lopes, F. Neves, J. P. Rodrigues, C. Silva, V. N. Solovov, M. J. Barry, A. Cole, A. Dobi, W. R. Edwards, C. H. Faham, S. Fiorucci, N. J. Gantos, V. M. Gehman, M. G. D. Gilchriese, K. Hanzel, M. D. Hoff, K. Kamdin, K. T. Lesko, C. T. McConnell, K. O'Sullivan, K. C. Oliver-Mallory, S. J. Patton, J. S. Saba, P. Sorensen, K. J. Thomas, C. E. Tull, W. L. Waldron, M. S. Witherell, A. Bernstein, K. Kazkaz, J. Xu, D. Yu. Akimov, A. I. Bolozdynya, A. V. Khromov, A. M. Konovalov, A. V. Kumpan, V. V. Sosnovtsev, C. E. Dahl, D. Temples, M. C. Carmona-Benitez, L. de Viveiros, D. S. Akerib, H. Auyeung, T. P. Biesiadzinski, M. Breidenbach, R. Bramante, R. Conley, W. W. Craddock, A. Fan, A. Hau, C. M. Ignarra, W. Ji, H. J. Krebs, R. Linehan, C. Lee, S. Luitz, E. Mizrachi, M. E. Monzani, F. G. O'Neill, S. Pierson, M. Racine, B. N. Ratcliff, G. W. Shutt, T. A. Shutt, K. Skarpaas, K. Stifter, W. H. To, J. Va'vra, T. J. Whitis, W. J. Wisniewski, X. Bai, R. Bunker, R. Coughlen, C. Hjemfelt, R. Leonard, E. H. Miller, E. Morrison, J. Reichenbacher, R. W. Schnee, M. R. Stark, K. Sundarnath, D. R. Tiedt, M. Timalsina, P. Bauer, B. Carlson, M. Horn, M. Johnson, J. Keefner, C. Maupin, D. J. Taylor, S. Balashov, P. Ford, V. Francis, E. Holtom, A. Khazov, A. Kaboth, P. Majewski, J. A. Nikkel, J. O'Dell, R. M. Preece, M. G. D. van der Grinten, S. D. Worm, R. L. Mannino, T. M. Stiegler, P. A. Terman, R. C. Webb, C. Levy, J. Mock, M. Szydagis, J. K. Busenitz, M. Elnimr, J. Y-K. Hor, Y. Meng, A. Piepke, I. Stancu, L. Kreczko, B. Krikler, B. Penning, E. P. Bernard, R. G. Jacobsen, D. N. McKinsey, R. Watson, J. E. Cutter, S. El-Jurf, R. M. Gerhard, D. Hemer, S. Hillbrand, B. Holbrook, B. G. Lenardo, A. G. Manalaysay, J. A. Morad, S. Stephenson, J. A. Thomson, M. Tripathi, S. Uvarov, S. J. Haselschwardt, S. Kyre, C. Nehrkorn, H. N. Nelson, M. Solmaz, D. T. White, M. Cascella, J. E. Y. Dobson, C. Ghag, X. Liu, L. Manenti, L. Reichhart, S. Shaw, U. Utku, P. Beltrame, T. J. R. Davison, M. F. Marzioni, A. St. J. Murphy, A. Nilima, B. Boxer, S. Burdin, A. Greenall, S. Powell, H. J. Rose, P. Sutcliffe, J. Balajthy, T. K. Edberg, C. R. Hall, J. S. Silk, S. Hertel, C. W. Akerlof, M. Arthurs, W. Lorenzon, K. Pushkin, M. Schubnell, K. E. Boast, C. Carels, T. Fruth, H. Kraus, F. -T. Liao, J. Lin, P. R. Scovell, E. Druszkiewicz, D. Khaitan, M. Koyuncu, W. Skulski, F. L. H. Wolfs, J. Yin, E. V. Korolkova, V. A. Kudryavtsev, P. Rossiter, D. Woodward, A. A. Chiller, C. Chiller, D. -M. Mei, L. Wang, W. -Z. Wei, M. While, C. Zhang, S. K. Alsum, T. Benson, D. L. Carlsmith, J. J. Cherwinka, S. Dasu, G. Gregerson, B. Gomber, A. Pagac, K. J. Palladino, C. O. Vuosalo, Q. Xiao, J. H. Buckley, V. V. Bugaev, M. A. Olevitch, E. M. Boulton, W. T. Emmet, T. W. Hurteau, N. A. Larsen, E. K. Pease, B. P. Tennyson, L. Tvrznikova

In this Technical Design Report (TDR) we describe the LZ detector to be built at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF). The LZ dark matter experiment is designed to achieve sensitivity to a WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section of three times ten to the negative forty-eighth square centimeters. Read More

2017Feb
Authors: D. S. Akerib, C. W. Akerlof, D. Yu. Akimov, S. K. Alsum, H. M. Araújo, I. J. Arnquist, M. Arthurs, X. Bai, A. J. Bailey, J. Balajthy, S. Balashov, M. J. Barry, J. Belle, P. Beltrame, T. Benson, E. P. Bernard, A. Bernstein, T. P. Biesiadzinski, K. E. Boast, A. Bolozdynya, B. Boxer, R. Bramante, P. Brás, J. H. Buckley, V. V. Bugaev, R. Bunker, S. Burdin, J. K. Busenitz, C. Carels, D. L. Carlsmith, B. Carlson, M. C. Carmona-Benitez, C. Chan, J. J. Cherwinka, A. A. Chiller, C. Chiller, A. Cottle, R. Coughlen, W. W. Craddock, A. Currie, C. E. Dahl, T. J. R. Davison, A. Dobi, J. E. Y. Dobson, E. Druszkiewicz, T. K. Edberg, W. R. Edwards, W. T. Emmet, C. H. Faham, S. Fiorucci, T. Fruth, R. J. Gaitskell, N. J. Gantos, V. M. Gehman, R. M. Gerhard, C. Ghag, M. G. D. Gilchriese, B. Gomber, C. R. Hall, S. Hans, K. Hanzel, S. J. Haselschwardt, S. A. Hertel, S. Hillbrand, C. Hjemfelt, M. D. Hoff, B. Holbrook, E. Holtom, E. W. Hoppe, J. Y-K. Hor, M. Horn, D. Q. Huang, T. W. Hurteau, C. M. Ignarra, R. G. Jacobsen, W. Ji, A. Kaboth, K. Kamdin, K. Kazkaz, D. Khaitan, A. Khazov, A. V. Khromov, A. M. Konovalov, E. V. Korolkova, M. Koyuncu, H. Kraus, H. J. Krebs, V. A. Kudryavtsev, A. V. Kumpan, S. Kyre, C. Lee, H. S. Lee, J. Lee, D. S. Leonard, R. Leonard, K. T. Lesko, C. Levy, F. -T. Liao, J. Lin, A. Lindote, R. E. Linehan, W. H. Lippincott, X. Liu, M. I. Lopes, B. Lopez Paredes, W. Lorenzon, S. Luitz, P. Majewski, A. Manalaysay, L. Manenti, R. L. Mannino, D. J. Markley, T. J. Martin, M. F. Marzioni, C. T. McConnell, D. N. McKinsey, D. -M. Mei, Y. Meng, E. H. Miller, E. Mizrachi, J. Mock, M. E. Monzani, J. A. Morad, B. J. Mount, A. St. J. Murphy, C. Nehrkorn, H. N. Nelson, F. Neves, J. A. Nikkel, J. O'Dell, K. O'Sullivan, I. Olcina, M. A. Olevitch, K. C. Oliver-Mallory, K. J. Palladino, E. K. Pease, A. Piepke, S. Powell, R. M. Preece, K. Pushkin, B. N. Ratcliff, J. Reichenbacher, L. Reichhart, C. A. Rhyne, A. Richards, J. P. Rodrigues, H. J. Rose, R. Rosero, P. Rossiter, J. S. Saba, M. Sarychev, R. W. Schnee, M. Schubnell, P. R. Scovell, S. Shaw, T. A. Shutt, C. Silva, K. Skarpaas, W. Skulski, M. Solmaz, V. N. Solovov, P. Sorensen, V. V. Sosnovtsev, I. Stancu, M. R. Stark, S. Stephenson, T. M. Stiegler, K. Stifter, T. J. Sumner, M. Szydagis, D. J. Taylor, W. C. Taylor, D. Temples, P. A. Terman, K. J. Thomas, J. A. Thomson, D. R. Tiedt, M. Timalsina, W. H. To, A. Tomás, T. E. Tope, M. Tripathi, L. Tvrznikova, J. Va'vra, A. Vacheret, M. G. D. van der Grinten, J. R. Verbus, C. O. Vuosalo, W. L. Waldron, R. Wang, R. Watson, R. C. Webb, W. -Z. Wei, M. While, D. T. White, T. J. Whitis, W. J. Wisniewski, M. S. Witherell, F. L. H. Wolfs, D. Woodward, S. Worm, J. Xu, M. Yeh, J. Yin, C. Zhang

The LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) experiment will search for dark matter particle interactions with a detector containing a total of 10 tonnes of liquid xenon within a double-vessel cryostat. The large mass and proximity of the cryostat to the active detector volume demand the use of material with extremely low intrinsic radioactivity. We report on the radioassay campaign conducted to identify suitable metals, the determination of factors limiting radiopure production, and the selection of titanium for construction of the LZ cryostat and other detector components. Read More

Krypton-85 is an anthropogenic beta-decaying isotope which produces low energy backgrounds in dark matter and neutrino experiments, especially those based upon liquid xenon. Several technologies have been developed to reduce the Kr concentration in such experiments. We propose to augment those separation technologies by first adding to the xenon an 85Kr-free sample of krypton in an amount much larger than the natural krypton that is already present. Read More

The COHERENT collaboration's primary objective is to measure coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEvNS) using the unique, high-quality source of tens-of-MeV neutrinos provided by the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In spite of its large cross section, the CEvNS process has never been observed, due to tiny energies of the resulting nuclear recoils which are out of reach for standard neutrino detectors. The measurement of CEvNS has now become feasible, thanks to the development of ultra-sensitive technology for rare decay and weakly-interacting massive particle (dark matter) searches. Read More

2015Sep
Authors: The LZ Collaboration, D. S. Akerib, C. W. Akerlof, D. Yu. Akimov, S. K. Alsum, H. M. Araújo, X. Bai, A. J. Bailey, J. Balajthy, S. Balashov, M. J. Barry, P. Bauer, P. Beltrame, E. P. Bernard, A. Bernstein, T. P. Biesiadzinski, K. E. Boast, A. I. Bolozdynya, E. M. Boulton, R. Bramante, J. H. Buckley, V. V. Bugaev, R. Bunker, S. Burdin, J. K. Busenitz, C. Carels, D. L. Carlsmith, B. Carlson, M. C. Carmona-Benitez, M. Cascella, C. Chan, J. J. Cherwinka, A. A. Chiller, C. Chiller, W. W. Craddock, A. Currie, J. E. Cutter, J. P. da Cunha, C. E. Dahl, S. Dasu, T. J. R. Davison, L. de Viveiros, A. Dobi, J. E. Y. Dobson, E. Druszkiewicz, T. K. Edberg, B. N. Edwards, W. R. Edwards, M. M. Elnimr, W. T. Emmet, C. H. Faham, S. Fiorucci, P. Ford, V. B. Francis, C. Fu, R. J. Gaitskell, N. J. Gantos, V. M. Gehman, R. M. Gerhard, C. Ghag, M. G. D. Gilchriese, B. Gomber, C. R. Hall, A. Harris, S. J. Haselschwardt, S. A. Hertel, M. D. Hoff, B. Holbrook, E. Holtom, D. Q. Huang, T. W. Hurteau, C. M. Ignarra, R. G. Jacobsen, W. Ji, X. Ji, M. Johnson, Y. Ju, K. Kamdin, K. Kazkaz, D. Khaitan, A. Khazov, A. V. Khromov, A. M. Konovalov, E. V. Korolkova, H. Kraus, H. J. Krebs, V. A. Kudryavtsev, A. V. Kumpan, S. Kyre, N. A. Larsen, C. Lee, B. G. Lenardo, K. T. Lesko, F. -T. Liao, J. Lin, A. Lindote, W. H. Lippincott, J. Liu, X. Liu, M. I. Lopes, W. Lorenzon, S. Luitz, P. Majewski, D. C. Malling, A. G. Manalaysay, L. Manenti, R. L. Mannino, D. J. Markley, T. J. Martin, M. F. Marzioni, D. N. McKinsey, D. -M. Mei, Y. Meng, E. H. Miller, J. Mock, M. E. Monzani, J. A. Morad, A. St. J. Murphy, H. N. Nelson, F. Neves, J. A. Nikkel, F. G. O'Neill, J. O'Dell, K. O'Sullivan, M. A. Olevitch, K. C. Oliver-Mallory, K. J. Palladino, M. Pangilinan, S. J. Patton, E. K. Pease, A. Piepke, S. Powell, R. M. Preece, K. Pushkin, B. N. Ratcliff, J. Reichenbacher, L. Reichhart, C. Rhyne, J. P. Rodrigues, H. J. Rose, R. Rosero, J. S. Saba, M. Sarychev, R. W. Schnee, M. S. G. Schubnell, P. R. Scovell, S. Shaw, T. A. Shutt, C. Silva, K. Skarpaas, W. Skulski, V. N. Solovov, P. Sorensen, V. V. Sosnovtsev, I. Stancu, M. R. Stark, S. Stephenson, T. M. Stiegler, T. J. Sumner, K. Sundarnath, M. Szydagis, D. J. Taylor, W. Taylor, B. P. Tennyson, P. A. Terman, K. J. Thomas, J. A. Thomson, D. R. Tiedt, W. H. To, A. Tomás, M. Tripathi, C. E. Tull, L. Tvrznikova, S. Uvarov, J. Va'vra, M. G. D. van der Grinten, J. R. Verbus, C. O. Vuosalo, W. L. Waldron, L. Wang, R. C. Webb, W. -Z. Wei, M. While, D. T. White, T. J. Whitis, W. J. Wisniewski, M. S. Witherell, F. L. H. Wolfs, E. Woods, D. Woodward, S. D. Worm, M. Yeh, J. Yin, S. K. Young, C. Zhang

The design and performance of the LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) detector is described as of March 2015 in this Conceptual Design Report. LZ is a second-generation dark-matter detector with the potential for unprecedented sensitivity to weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) of masses from a few GeV/c2 to hundreds of TeV/c2. With total liquid xenon mass of about 10 tonnes, LZ will be the most sensitive experiment for WIMPs in this mass region by the end of the decade. Read More

We have shown that high voltage biased Hamamatsu R11410-20 photomultipliers with a dark count rate above 10 kHz emit single photons. The effect has been observed in a few units at room temperature and temperatures reduced down to -60 degrees Celsius. The effect should be taken into account in experiments aimed on search for rare events with small energy depositions in massive liquid xenon detectors. Read More

We present the results of the first experimental study of ionization yield of electron recoils with energies below 100 keV produced in liquid xenon by the isotopes: 37Ar, 83mKr, 241Am, 129Xe, 131Xe. It is confirmed by a direct measurement with 37Ar isotope (2.82 keV) that the ionization yield is growing up with the energy decrease in the energy range below ~ 10 keV accordingly to the NEST predictions. Read More

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, provides an intense flux of neutrinos in the few tens-of-MeV range, with a sharply-pulsed timing structure that is beneficial for background rejection. In this white paper, we describe how the SNS source can be used for a measurement of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CENNS), and the physics reach of different phases of such an experimental program (CSI: Coherent Scattering Investigations at the SNS). Read More

2012Dec
Affiliations: 1National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia, 2National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia, 3National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Russia, 4National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia, 5National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia, 6National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia, 7National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia, 8National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia, 9Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Russia, 10National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia, 11SSC RF Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Russia, 12National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia, 13National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia, 14National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia, 15National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia, 16National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia, 17National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia, 18National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia, 19National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia, 20National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia, 21National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia, 22National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia, 23National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia, 24National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia, 25National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia, 26National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia, 27National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Russia, 28National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia, 29National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia, 30National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia, 31National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Russia, 32National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia, 33National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Russia, 34National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Russia, 35National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia, 36National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia, 37National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia, 38National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia, 39National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia, 40National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia, 41National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia, 42National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Russia, 43National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Russia, 44National Nuclear Research University, MEPhI, Russia, 45SSC RF Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Russia

We propose to detect and to study neutrino neutral current coherent scattering off atomic nuclei with a two-phase emission detector using liquid xenon as a working medium. Expected signals and backgrounds are calculated for two possible experimental sites: Kalinin Nuclear Power Plant in the Russian Federation and Spallation Neutron Source at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the USA. Both sites have advantages as well as limitations. Read More

Two-phase Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors (CRADs) with GEM and THGEM multipliers have become an emerging potential technique for charge recording in rare-event experiments. In this work we present the performance of two-phase CRADs operated in Ar and Ar+N2. Detectors with sensitive area of 10x10 cm2, reaching a litre-scale active volume, yielded gains of the order of 1000 with a double-THGEM multiplier. Read More

We studied the application of statistical reconstruction algorithms, namely maximum likelihood and least squares methods, to the problem of event reconstruction in a dual phase liquid xenon detector. An iterative method was developed for in-situ reconstruction of the PMT light response functions from calibration data taken with an uncollimated gamma-ray source. Using the techniques described, the performance of the ZEPLIN-III dark matter detector was studied for 122 keV gamma-rays. Read More

ZEPLIN-III is a two-phase xenon direct dark matter experiment located at the Boulby Mine (UK). After its first science run in 2008 it was upgraded with: an array of low background photomultipliers, a new anti-coincidence detector system with plastic scintillator and an improved calibration system. After 319 days of data taking the second science run ended in May 2011. Read More

Plastic scintillators are widely used in industry, medicine and scientific research, including nuclear and particle physics. Although one of their most common applications is in neutron detection, experimental data on their response to low-energy nuclear recoils are scarce. Here, the relative scintillation efficiency for neutron-induced nuclear recoils in a polystyrene-based plastic scintillator (UPS-923A) is presented, exploring recoil energies between 125 keV and 850 keV. Read More

We present an experimental study of single electron emission in ZEPLIN-III, a two-phase xenon experiment built to search for dark matter WIMPs, and discuss applications enabled by the excellent signal-to-noise ratio achieved in detecting this signature. Firstly, we demonstrate a practical method for precise measurement of the free electron lifetime in liquid xenon during normal operation of these detectors. Then, using a realistic detector response model and backgrounds, we assess the feasibility of deploying such an instrument for measuring coherent neutrino-nucleus elastic scattering using the ionisation channel in the few-electron regime. Read More

ZE3RA is the software package responsible for processing the raw data from the ZEPLIN-III dark matter experiment and its reduction into a set of parameters used in all subsequent analyses. The detector is a liquid xenon time projection chamber with scintillation and electroluminescence signals read out by an array of 31 photomultipliers. The dual range 62-channel data stream is optimised for the detection of scintillation pulses down to a single photoelectron and of ionisation signals as small as those produced by single electrons. Read More

Scintillation and ionisation yields for nuclear recoils in liquid xenon above 10 keVnr (nuclear recoil energy) are deduced from data acquired using broadband Am-Be neutron sources. The nuclear recoil data from several exposures to two sources were compared to detailed simulations. Energy-dependent scintillation and ionisation yields giving acceptable fits to the data were derived. Read More

The performances of THGEM multipliers in two-phase Xe avalanche mode are presented for the first time. Additional results on THGEM operation in gaseous Xe at cryogenic temperatures are provided. Stable operation of a double-THGEM multiplier was demonstrated in two-phase Xe with gains reaching 600. Read More

The ZEPLIN-III experiment is operating in its second phase at the Boulby Underground Laboratory in search of dark matter WIMPs. The major upgrades to the instrument over its first science run include lower background photomultiplier tubes and installation of a plastic scintillator veto system. Performance results from the veto detector using calibration and science data in its first six months of operation in coincidence with ZEPLIN-III are presented. Read More

A novel concept of optical signal recording in two-phase avalanche detectors, with Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiodes (G-APD) is described. Avalanche-scintillation photons were measured in a thick Gas Electron Multiplier (THGEM) in view of potential applications in rare-event experiments. The effective detection of avalanche scintillations in THGEM holes has been demonstrated in two-phase Ar with a bare G-APD without wavelength shifter, i. Read More

The design, optimisation and construction of an anti-coincidence veto detector to complement the ZEPLIN-III direct dark matter search instrument is described. One tonne of plastic scintillator is arranged into 52 bars individually read out by photomultipliers and coupled to a gadolinium-loaded passive polypropylene shield. Particular attention has been paid to radiological content. Read More

Characteristic properties of a Geiger Mode APD (G-APD) in a THGEM-based cryogenic two-phase Ar avalanche detector were studied in view of potential applications in rare-event experiments. G-APD signal amplitude and noise characteristics at cryogenic temperatures turned out to be superior to those at room temperature. The effective detection of avalanche scintillations from THGEM-multiplier holes in two-phase Ar has been demonstrated using a G-APD without wavelength shifter. Read More

EXO-200 uses 468 large area avalanche photodiodes (LAAPDs) for detection of scintillation light in an ultra-low-background liquid xenon (LXe) detector. We describe initial measurements of dark noise, gain and response to xenon scintillation light of LAAPDs at temperatures from room temperature to 169K - the temperature of liquid xenon. We also describe the individual characterization of more than 800 LAAPDs for selective installation in the EXO-200 detector. Read More

A method is described that allows calibration and assessment of the linearity of response of an array of photomultiplier tubes. The method does not require knowledge of the photomultiplier single photoelectron response model and uses science data directly, thus eliminating the need for dedicated data sets. In this manner all photomultiplier working conditions (e. Read More

Estimation of the signal amplitudes and counting rates for coherent scattering of reactor antineutrino off atomic nuclei in two-phase xenon and argon detectors has been done. A conceptual design of detector based on the existing technologies and experience has been proposed. It is shown that a condensed xenon/argon two-phase detector possesses the necessary sensitivity for the use in experiment on detection of coherent scattering of the reactor antineutrino off nuclei. Read More

The Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) will search for double beta decays of 136Xe. We report the results of a systematic study of trace concentrations of radioactive impurities in a wide range of raw materials and finished parts considered for use in the construction of EXO-200, the first stage of the EXO experimental program. Analysis techniques employed, and described here, include direct gamma counting, alpha counting, neutron activation analysis, and high-sensitivity mass spectrometry. Read More

We present details of the technical design and manufacture of the ZEPLIN-III dark matter experiment. ZEPLIN-III is a two-phase xenon detector which measures both the scintillation light and the ionisation charge generated in the liquid by interacting particles and radiation. The instrument design is driven by both the physics requirements and by the technology requirements surrounding the use of liquid xenon. Read More

We present results from a GEANT4-based Monte Carlo tool for end-to-end simulations of the ZEPLIN-III dark matter experiment. ZEPLIN-III is a two-phase detector which measures both the scintillation light and the ionisation charge generated in liquid xenon by interacting particles and radiation. The software models the instrument response to radioactive backgrounds and calibration sources, including the generation, ray-tracing and detection of the primary and secondary scintillations in liquid and gaseous xenon, and subsequent processing by data acquisition electronics. Read More

2005Feb
Affiliations: 1Department of Physics, Imperial College London, 2Department of Physics, Imperial College London, 3Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow, 4Department of Physics, Imperial College London, 5Department of Physics, Imperial College London, 6Department of Physics, Imperial College London, 7Department of Physics, Imperial College London, 8Department of Physics, Imperial College London, 9Department of Physics, Imperial College London, 10Department of Physics, Imperial College London, 11Department of Physics, Imperial College London, 12Department of Physics, Imperial College London, 13Department of Physics, Imperial College London, 14Department of Physics, Imperial College London, 15Department of Physics, Imperial College London

Scintillation produced in liquid xenon by alpha particles and gamma rays has been studied as a function of applied electric field. For back scattered gamma rays with energy of about 200 keV, the number of scintillation photons was found to decrease by 64+/-2% with increasing field strength. Consequently, the pulse shape discrimination power between alpha particles and gamma rays is found to reduce with increasing field, but remaining non-zero at higher fields. Read More

The ionization of liquefied noble gases by radiation is known to be accompanied by fluctuations much larger than predicted by Poisson statistics. We have studied the fluctuations of both scintillation and ionization in liquid xenon and have measured, for the first time, a strong anti-correlation between the two at a microscopic level, with coefficient $ -0.80 < \rho_{ep} < -0. Read More

A scintillation proportional counter with wavelength shifting fiber readout filled with Xe or Kr under a pressure of up to 20 atm is proposed for the low-background experiments on search for dark matter of the Universe and 2K-decay of 78 Kr. Read More

A gas Xe based scintillation proportional counter with cylindrical geometry and wavelength shifting (WLS) fiber readout for X-rays of energy 0.5 - 100 keV is proposed. With such a design large sizes and sensitive area of the counter with a fairly well uniformity is possible. Read More

Characteristics of a scintillation proportional counter with WLS fiber optics readout is described. The possibility of detection of the proportional scintillation signal produced by the single electron of primary ionization is shown. The counter can be applied for the experiments in "low--background" physics which require a low energy threshold. Read More