D. Abbott - The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration

D. Abbott
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D. Abbott
The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration

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Quantum Physics (10)
Computer Science - Cryptography and Security (7)
Physics - Classical Physics (7)
Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (5)
Mathematical Physics (5)
Physics - Optics (4)
Nuclear Experiment (4)
Physics - General Physics (3)
Physics - Materials Science (3)
Physics - History of Physics (2)
High Energy Physics - Experiment (2)
Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (2)
Computer Science - Neural and Evolutionary Computing (2)
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (2)
Physics - Instrumentation and Detectors (1)
Physics - Physics Education (1)
Physics - Computational Physics (1)
Mathematics - History and Overview (1)
Physics - Popular Physics (1)
Mathematics - Information Theory (1)
Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (1)
Mathematics - Rings and Algebras (1)
Physics - Accelerator Physics (1)
Statistics - Applications (1)
Computer Science - Other (1)
Computer Science - Computer Science and Game Theory (1)
Physics - Data Analysis; Statistics and Probability (1)
Nonlinear Sciences - Adaptation and Self-Organizing Systems (1)
Computer Science - Information Theory (1)

Publications Authored By D. Abbott

A physical unclonable function (PUF), analogous to a human fingerprint, has gained an enormous amount of attention from both academia and industry. SRAM PUF is among one of the popular silicon PUF constructions that exploits random initial power-up states from SRAM cells to extract hardware intrinsic secrets for identification and key generation applications. The advantage of SRAM PUFs is that they are widely embedded into commodity devices, thus such a PUF is obtained without a custom design and virtually free of implementation costs. Read More

Physical unclonable functions (PUF) extract secrets from randomness inherent in manufacturing processes. PUFs are utilized for basic cryptographic tasks such as authentication and key generation, and more recently, to realize key exchange and bit commitment requiring a large number of error free responses from a strong PUF. We propose an approach to eliminate the need to implement expensive on-chip error correction logic implementation and the associated helper data storage to reconcile naturally noisy PUF responses. Read More

In this paper we develop a framework allowing a natural extension of the Lorentz transformations. To begin, we show that by expanding conventional four-dimensional spacetime to eight-dimensions that a natural generalization is indeed obtained. We then find with these generalized coordinate transformations acting on Maxwell's equations that the electromagnetic field transformations are nevertheless unchanged. Read More

The Polarized Electrons for Polarized Positrons experiment at the injector of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility has demonstrated for the first time the efficient transfer of polarization from electrons to positrons produced by the polarized bremsstrahlung radiation induced by a polarized electron beam in a high-$Z$ target. Positron polarization up to 82\% have been measured for an initial electron beam momentum of 8.19~MeV/$c$, limited only by the electron beam polarization. Read More

Structure functions, as measured in lepton-nucleon scattering, have proven to be very useful in studying the quark dynamics within the nucleon. However, it is experimentally difficult to separately determine the longitudinal and transverse structure functions, and consequently there are substantially less data available for the longitudinal structure function in particular. Here we present separated structure functions for hydrogen and deuterium at low four--momentum transfer squared, Q^2< 1 GeV^2, and compare these with parton distribution parameterizations and a k_T factorization approach. Read More

We explore the potential of 3D metal printing to realize complex conductive terahertz devices. Factors impacting performance such as printing resolution, surface roughness, oxidation, and material loss are investigated via analytical, numerical, and experimental approaches. The high degree of control offered by a 3D-printed topology is exploited to realize a zone plate operating at 530 GHz. Read More

Decentralized systems can be more resistant to operator mischief than centralized ones, but they are substantially harder to develop, deploy, and maintain. This cost is dramatically reduced if the decentralized part of the system can be made highly generic, and thus incorporated into many different applications. We show how existing anonymization systems can serve this purpose, securing a public database against equivocation by its operator without the need for cooperation by the database owner. Read More

Is it possible for a large sequence of measurements or observations, which support a hypothesis, to counterintuitively decrease our confidence? Can unanimous support be too good to be true? The assumption of independence is often made in good faith, however rarely is consideration given to whether a systemic failure has occurred. Taking this into account can cause certainty in a hypothesis to decrease as the evidence for it becomes apparently stronger. We perform a probabilistic Bayesian analysis of this effect with examples based on (i) archaeological evidence, (ii) weighing of legal evidence, and (iii) cryptographic primality testing. Read More

Understanding the nature of time remains a key unsolved problem in science. Newton in the Principia asserted an absolute universal time that {\it `flows equably'}. Hamilton then proposed a mathematical unification of space and time within the framework of the quaternions that ultimately lead to the famous Minkowski formulation in 1908 using four-vectors. Read More

There are a wide variety of different vector formalisms currently utilized in engineering and physics. For example, Gibbs' three-vectors, Minkowski four-vectors, complex spinors in quantum mechanics, quaternions used to describe rigid body rotations and vectors defined in Clifford geometric algebra. With such a range of vector formalisms in use, it thus appears that there is as yet no general agreement on a vector formalism suitable for science as a whole. Read More

Are there two-player games in which a strategy pair can exist as a Nash equilibrium only when the game is played quantum mechanically? To find an answer to this question, we study two-player games that are played in generalized Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen setting. Considering particular strategy pairs, we identify sets of games for which the pair can exist as a Nash equilibrium when Bell's inequality is violated. We thus identify games and players' strategies for which the Nash inequality becomes equivalent to Bell's inequality. Read More

Passive crossbar arrays based upon memristive devices, at crosspoints, hold great promise for the future high-density and non-volatile memories. The most significant challenge facing memristive device based crossbars today is the problem of sneak-path currents. In this paper, we investigate a memristive device with intrinsic rectification behavior to suppress the sneak-path currents in crossbar arrays. Read More

Following Minkowski's formulation of special relativity, it is generally accepted that we live in a four-dimensional world consisting of three space and one time dimension. Due to its fundamental importance, a variety of arguments have been proposed over the years attempting to derive this spacetime structure from underlying physical principles. In our approach, we show how Minkowski spacetime arises from the geometrical properties of three dimensional space. Read More

A significant aspect of the study of quantum strategies is the exploration of the game-theoretic solution concept of the Nash equilibrium in relation to the quantization of a game. Pareto optimality is a refinement on the set of Nash equilibria. A refinement on the set of Pareto optimal outcomes is known as social optimality in which the sum of players' payoffs are maximized. Read More

Background: Measurements of forward exclusive meson production at different squared four-momenta of the exchanged virtual photon, $Q^2$, and at different four-momentum transfer, t, can be used to probe QCD's transition from meson-nucleon degrees of freedom at long distances to quark-gluon degrees of freedom at short scales. Ratios of separated response functions in $\pi^-$ and $\pi^+$ electroproduction are particularly informative. The ratio for transverse photons may allow this transition to be more easily observed, while the ratio for longitudinal photons provides a crucial verification of the assumed pole dominance, needed for reliable extraction of the pion form factor from electroproduction data. Read More

A game-theoretic setting provides a mathematical basis for analysis of strategic interaction among competing agents and provides insights into both classical and quantum decision theory and questions of strategic choice. An outstanding mathematical question, is to understand the conditions under which a classical game-theoretic setting can be transformed to a quantum game, and under which conditions there is an equivalence. In this paper, we consider quantum games as those that allow non-factorizable probabilities. Read More

As is well known, the common elementary functions defined over the real numbers can be generalized to act not only over the complex number field but also over the skew (non-commuting) field of the quaternions. In this paper, we detail a number of elementary functions extended to act over the skew field of Clifford multivectors, in both two and three dimensions. Complex numbers, quaternions and Cartesian vectors can be described by the various components within a Clifford multivector and from our results we are able to demonstrate new inter-relationships between these algebraic systems. Read More

This paper deals with the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) classical statistical physical key exchange method and surveys criticism - often stemming from a lack of understanding of its underlying premises or from other errors - and our related responses against these, often unphysical, claims. Some of the attacks are valid, however, an extended KLJN system remains protected against all of them, implying that its unconditional security is not impacted. Read More

Affiliations: 1The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 2The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 3The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 4The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 5The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 6The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 7The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 8The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 9The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 10The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 11The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 12The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 13The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 14The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 15The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 16The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 17The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 18The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 19The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 20The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 21The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 22The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 23The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 24The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 25The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 26The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 27The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 28The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 29The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 30The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 31The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 32The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 33The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 34The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 35The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 36The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 37The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 38The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 39The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 40The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 41The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 42The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 43The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 44The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 45The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 46The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 47The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 48The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 49The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 50The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 51The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 52The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 53The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 54The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 55The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 56The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 57The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 58The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 59The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 60The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 61The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 62The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 63The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 64The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 65The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 66The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 67The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 68The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 69The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 70The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 71The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 72The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 73The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 74The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 75The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 76The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 77The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 78The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 79The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 80The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 81The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 82The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 83The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 84The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 85The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 86The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 87The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration, 88The Jefferson Lab Fpi Collaboration

The study of exclusive $\pi^{\pm}$ electroproduction on the nucleon, including separation of the various structure functions, is of interest for a number of reasons. The ratio $R_L=\sigma_L^{\pi^-}/\sigma_L^{\pi^+}$ is sensitive to isoscalar contamination to the dominant isovector pion exchange amplitude, which is the basis for the determination of the charged pion form factor from electroproduction data. A change in the value of $R_T=\sigma_T^{\pi^-}/\sigma_T^{\pi^+}$ from unity at small $-t$, to 1/4 at large $-t$, would suggest a transition from coupling to a (virtual) pion to coupling to individual quarks. Read More

The Kish key distribution system has been proposed as a class ical alternative to quantum key distribution. The idealized Kish scheme elegantly promise s secure key distribution by exploiting thermal noise in a transmission line. However, we demonstrate that it is vulnerable to nonidealities in its components, such as the finite resistance of the transmission line connecting its endpoints. Read More

Recently, Bennett and Riedel (BR) (http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.7435v1) argued that thermodynamics is not essential in the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) classical physical cryptographic exchange method in an effort to disprove the security of the KLJN scheme. Read More

While information-theoretic security is often associated with the one-time pad and quantum key distribution, noisy transport media leave room for classical techniques and even covert operation. Transit times across the public internet exhibit a degree of randomness, and cannot be determined noiselessly by an eavesdropper. We demonstrate the use of these measurements for information-theoretically secure communication over the public internet. Read More

Triplet-based Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity (TSTDP) is a powerful synaptic plasticity rule that acts beyond conventional pair-based STDP (PSTDP). Here, the TSTDP is capable of reproducing the outcomes from a variety of biological experiments, while the PSTDP rule fails to reproduce them. Additionally, it has been shown that the behaviour inherent to the spike rate-based Bienenstock-Cooper-Munro (BCM) synaptic plasticity rule can also emerge from the TSTDP rule. Read More

The idealized Kish-Sethuraman (KS) cipher is theoretically known to offer perfect security through a classical information channel. However, realization of the protocol is hitherto an open problem, as the required mathematical operators have not been identified in the previous literature. A mechanical analogy of this protocol can be seen as sending a message in a box using two padlocks; one locked by the Sender and the other locked by the Receiver, so that theoretically the message remains secure at all times. Read More

We develop a method for systematically constructing Lagrangian functions for dissipative mechanical, electrical and, mechatronic systems. We derive the equations of motion for some typical mechatronic systems using deterministic principles that are strictly variational. We do not use any ad hoc features that are added on after the analysis has been completed, such as the Rayleigh dissipation function. Read More

We explore the consequences of space and time described within the Clifford multivector of three dimensions $ Cl_{3,0}$, where space consists of three-vectors and time is described with the three bivectors of this space. When describing the curvature around massive bodies, we show that this model of spacetime when including the Hubble expansion naturally produces the correct galaxy rotation curves without the need for dark matter. Read More

A Bayesian game is a game of incomplete information in which the rules of the game are not fully known to all players. We consider the Bayesian game of Battle of Sexes that has several Bayesian Nash equilibria and investigate its outcome when the underlying probability set is obtained from generalized Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiments. We find that this probability set, which may become non-factorizable, results in a unique Bayesian Nash equilibrium of the game. Read More

Large astronomical objects such as stars or planets, produce approximately spherical shapes due to the large gravitational forces, and if the object is rotating rapidly, it becomes an oblate spheroid. In juxtaposition to this, we conduct a thought experiment regarding the properties of a planet being in the form of a perfect cube. We firstly calculate the gravitational potential and from the equipotentials, we deduce the shape of the lakes that would form on the surface of such an object. Read More

Following the development of the special theory of relativity in 1905, Minkowski proposed a unified space and time structure consisting of three space dimensions and one time dimension, with relativistic effects then being natural consequences of this spacetime geometry. In this paper, we illustrate how Clifford's geometric algebra that utilizes multivectors to represent spacetime, provides an elegant mathematical framework for the study of relativistic phenomena. We show, with several examples, how the application of geometric algebra leads to the correct relativistic description of the physical phenomena being considered. Read More

The Bienenstock-Cooper-Munro (BCM) and Spike Timing-Dependent Plasticity (STDP) rules are two experimentally verified form of synaptic plasticity where the alteration of synaptic weight depends upon the rate and the timing of pre- and post-synaptic firing of action potentials, respectively. Previous studies have reported that under specific conditions, i.e. Read More

Spike-Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP) is believed to play an important role in learning and the formation of computational function in the brain. The classical model of STDP which considers the timing between pairs of pre-synaptic and post-synaptic spikes (p-STDP) is incapable of reproducing synaptic weight changes similar to those seen in biological experiments which investigate the effect of either higher order spike trains (e.g. Read More

The $N$-player quantum game is analyzed in the context of an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) experiment. In this setting, a player's strategies are not unitary transformations as in alternate quantum game-theoretic frameworks, but a classical choice between two directions along which spin or polarization measurements are made. The players' strategies thus remain identical to their strategies in the mixed-strategy version of the classical game. Read More

Planar metamaterials have been recently proposed for thin dielectric film sensing in the terahertz frequency range. Although the thickness of the dielectric film can be very small compared with the wavelength, the required area of sensed material is still determined by the diffraction-limited spot size of the terahertz beam excitation. In this article, terahertz near-field sensing is utilized to reduce the spot size. Read More

Quantum strategies are introduced into evolutionary games. The agents using quantum strategies are regarded as invaders whose fraction generally is 1% of a population in contrast to the 50% defectors. In this paper, the evolution of strategies on networks is investigated in a defector-dominated population, when three networks (Regular Lattice, Newman-Watts small world network, scale-free network) are constructed and three games (Prisoners' Dilemma, Snowdrift, Stag-Hunt) are employed. Read More

For a known weak signal in additive white noise, the asymptotic performance of a locally optimum processor (LOP) is shown to be given by the Fisher information (FI) of a standardized even probability density function (PDF) of noise in three cases: (i) the maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gain for a periodic signal; (ii) the optimal asymptotic relative efficiency (ARE) for signal detection; (iii) the best cross-correlation gain (CG) for signal transmission. The minimal FI is unity, corresponding to a Gaussian PDF, whereas the FI is certainly larger than unity for any non-Gaussian PDFs. In the sense of a realizable LOP, it is found that the dichotomous noise PDF possesses an infinite FI for known weak signals perfectly processed by the corresponding LOP. Read More

This Letter presents an investigation on the effects of mutual coupling in a metamaterial comprising two sets of electric-LC (ELC) resonators with different resonance frequencies. Through simulation and experiment, it is found that the two resonances experience significant shifting and weakening as they become spectrally close. An equivalent circuit model suggests that inductive coupling among the two resonator sets is a primary cause of the change in the resonance properties. Read More

We present new computational building blocks based on memristive devices. These blocks, can be used to implement either supervised or unsupervised learning modules. This is achieved using a crosspoint architecture which is an efficient array implementation for nanoscale two-terminal memristive devices. Read More

This paper presents a novel resistive-only Binary and Ternary Content Addressable Memory (B/TCAM) cell that consists of two Complementary Resistive Switches (CRSs). The operation of such a cell relies on a logic$\rightarrow$ON state transition that enables this novel CRS application. Read More

A multichannel thin-film sensor is implemented from a set of microstrip-coupled split-ring resonators (SRR's) with different dimensions. Each SRR exhibits a unique high-Q resonance that is sensitive to the presence of a sample in a particular area. Hence, this SRR-based sensor can function (i) to detect different samples simultaneously to increase the throughput or (ii) to characterise nominally identical samples at multiple frequencies to increase the sensor selectivity. Read More

Minkowski famously introduced the concept of a space-time continuum in 1908, merging the three dimensions of space with an imaginary time dimension $ i c t $, with the unit imaginary producing the correct spacetime distance $ x^2 - c^2 t^2 $, and the results of Einstein's then recently developed theory of special relativity, thus providing an explanation for Einstein's theory in terms of the structure of space and time. As an alternative to a planar Minkowski space-time of two space dimensions and one time dimension, we replace the unit imaginary $ i = \sqrt{-1} $, with the Clifford bivector $ \iota = e_1 e_2 $ for the plane that also squares to minus one, but which can be included without the addition of an extra dimension, as it is an integral part of the real Cartesian plane with the orthonormal basis $ e_1 $ and $ e_2 $. We find that with this model of planar spacetime, using a two-dimensional Clifford multivector, the spacetime metric and the Lorentz transformations follow immediately as properties of the algebra. Read More

As conventional memory technologies are challenged by their technological physical limits, emerging technologies driven by novel materials are becoming an attractive option for future memory architectures. Among these technologies, Resistive Memories (ReRAM) created new possibilities because of their nano-features and unique $I$-$V$ characteristics. One particular problem that limits the maximum array size is interference from neighboring cells due to sneak-path currents. Read More

Quantum phase estimation is one of the key algorithms in the field of quantum computing, but up until now, only approximate expressions have been derived for the probability of error. We revisit these derivations, and find that by ensuring symmetry in the error definitions, an exact formula can be found. This new approach may also have value in solving other related problems in quantum computing, where an expected error is calculated. Read More

Historically, there have been many attempts to produce an appropriate mathematical formalism for modeling the nature of physical space, such as Euclid's geometry, Descartes' system of Cartesian coordinates, the Argand plane, Hamilton's quaternions and Gibbs' vector system using the dot and cross products. We illustrate however, that Clifford's geometric algebra (GA) provides the most elegant description of physical space. Supporting this conclusion, we firstly show how geometric algebra subsumes the key elements of the competing formalisms and secondly how it provides an intuitive representation of the basic concepts of points, lines, areas and volumes. Read More

A new simplified approach for teaching electromagnetism is presented using the formalism of geometric algebra (GA) which does not require vector calculus or tensor index notation, thus producing a much more accessible presentation for students. The four-dimensional spacetime proposed is completely symmetrical between the space and time dimensions, thus fulfilling Minkowski's original vision. In order to improve student reception we also focus on forces and the conservation of energy and momentum, which take a very simple form in GA, so that students can easily build on established intuitions in using these laws developed from studying Newtonian mechanics. Read More

Alternative designs to an electric-LC (ELC) resonator, which is a type of metamaterial inclusion, are presented in this article. Fitting the resonator with an interdigital capacitor (IDC) helps to increase the total capacitance of the structure. In effect, its resonance frequency is shifted downwards. Read More

We use the formalism of Clifford Geometric Algebra (GA) to develop an analysis of quantum versions of three-player non-cooperative games. The quantum games we explore are played in an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) type setting. In this setting, the players' strategy sets remain identical to the ones in the mixed-strategy version of the classical game that is obtained as a proper subset of the corresponding quantum game. Read More

The framework for playing quantum games in an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) type setting is investigated using the mathematical formalism of Clifford geometric algebra (GA). In this setting, the players' strategy sets remain identical to the ones in the classical mixed-strategy version of the game, which is then obtained as proper subset of the corresponding quantum game. As examples, using GA we analyze the games of Prisoners' Dilemma and Stag Hunt when played in the EPR type setting. Read More

We construct quantum games from a table of non-factorizable joint probabilities, coupled with a symmetry constraint, requiring symmetrical payoffs between the players. We give the general result for a Nash equilibrium and payoff relations for a game based on non-factorizable joint probabilities, which embeds the classical game. We study a quantum version of Prisoners' Dilemma, Stag Hunt, and the Chicken game constructed from a given table of non-factorizable joint probabilities to find new outcomes in these games. Read More

Large-capacity Content Addressable Memory (CAM) is a key element in a wide variety of applications. The inevitable complexities of scaling MOS transistors introduce a major challenge in the realization of such systems. Convergence of disparate technologies, which are compatible with CMOS processing, may allow extension of Moore's Law for a few more years. Read More

In 2008, researchers at HP Labs published a paper in {\it Nature} reporting the realisation of a new basic circuit element that completes the missing link between charge and flux-linkage, which was postulated by Leon Chua in 1971. The HP memristor is based on a nanometer scale TiO$_2$ thin-film, containing a doped region and an undoped region. Further to proposed applications of memristors in artificial biological systems and nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM), they also enable reconfigurable nanoelectronics. Read More