Craig E. Deforest

Craig E. Deforest
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Craig E. Deforest

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Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (8)
Astrophysics (2)
Physics - Space Physics (1)

Publications Authored By Craig E. Deforest

We examine the long-term time evolution (1965-2015) of the relationships between solar wind proton temperature (Tp) and speed (Vp) and between the proton density (np) and speed using OMNI solar wind observations taken near Earth. We find a long-term decrease in the proton temperature-speed (Tp-Vp) slope that lasted from 1972 to 2010, but has been trending upward since 2010. Since the solar wind proton density-speed (np-Vp) relationship is not linear like the Tp-Vp relationship, we perform power law fits for np-Vp. Read More

Chromospheric rapid blueshifted excursions (RBEs) are suggested to be the disk counterparts of type II spicules at the limb and believed to contribute to the coronal heating process. Previous identification of RBEs was mainly based on feature detection using Dopplergrams. In this paper, we study RBEs on 2011 October 21 in a very quiet region at the disk center, which were observed with the high-cadence imaging spectroscopy of the Ca II 8542 A line from the Interferometric Bidimensional Spectrometer (IBIS). Read More

We explore the nature of the small-scale solar dynamo by tracking magnetic features. We investigate two previously-explored categories of the small-scale solar dynamo: shallow and deep. Recent modeling work on the shallow dynamo has produced a number of scenarios for how a strong network concentration can influence the formation and polarity of nearby small-scale magnetic features. Read More

The removal of magnetic flux from the quiet-sun photosphere is important for maintaining the statistical steady-state of the magnetic field there, for determining the magnetic flux budget of the Sun, and for estimating the rate of energy injected into the upper solar atmosphere. Magnetic feature death is a measurable proxy for the removal of detectable flux. We used the SWAMIS feature tracking code to understand how nearly 20000 detected magnetic features die in an hour-long sequence of Hinode/SOT/NFI magnetograms of a region of quiet Sun. Read More

Plasma flows within prominences/filaments have been observed for many years and hold valuable clues concerning the mass and energy balance within these structures. Previous observations of these flows primarily come from H-alpha and cool EUV lines (e.g. Read More

Affiliations: 1Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 2Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab, 3Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab, 4Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 5Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, 6NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, 7NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, 8Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 9NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, 10Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 11P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 12University of Central Lancashire, 13Southwest Research Institute, 14Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab, 15Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory

The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) has provided Fe XII 193A images of the upper transition region moss at an unprecedented spatial (~0.3-0.4 arcsec) and temporal (5. Read More

Heliospheric imagers offer the promise of remote sensing of large-scale structures present in the solar wind. The STEREO/HI-2 imagers, in particular, offer high resolution, very low noise observations of the inner heliosphere but have not yet been exploited to their full potential. This is in part because the signal of interest, Thomson scattered sunlight from free electrons, is ~1000 times fainter than the background visual field in the images, making background subtraction challenging. Read More

Magnetic null points can be located numerically in a potential field extrapolation or their average density can be estimated from the Fourier spectrum of a magnetogram. We use both methods to compute the null point density from a quiet Sun magnetogram made with Hinode's NFI and from magnetograms from SOHO's MDI in both its high-resolution and low-resolution modes. All estimates of the super-chromospheric column density (z>1. Read More

Stereoscopic spectral imaging is an observing technique that affords rapid acquisition of limited spectral information over an entire image plane simultaneously. Light from a telescope is dispersed into multiple spectral orders, which are imaged separately, and two or more of the dispersed images are combined using an analogy between the (x,y,\lambda) spectral data space and conventional (x,y,z) three-space. Because no photons are deliberately destroyed during image acquisition, the technique is much more photon-efficient in some observing regimes than existing techniques such as scanned-filtergraph or scanned-slit spectral imaging. Read More

We have developed a new, quasi-Lagrangian approach for numerical modeling of magnetohydrodynamics in low to moderate $\beta$ plasmas such as the solar corona. We introduce the concept of a ``fluxon'', a discretized field line. Fluxon models represent the magnetic field as a skeleton of such discrete field lines, and interpolate field values from the geometry of the skeleton where needed, reversing the usual direction of the field line transform. Read More