Craig D. Roberts - Argonne National Laboratory

Craig D. Roberts
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Craig D. Roberts
Argonne National Laboratory
United States

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Nuclear Theory (50)
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (50)
High Energy Physics - Lattice (49)
Nuclear Experiment (45)
High Energy Physics - Experiment (10)

Publications Authored By Craig D. Roberts

We describe a calculation of the spectrum of flavour-SU(3) octet and decuplet baryons, their parity partners, and the radial excitations of these systems, made using a symmetry-preserving treatment of a vector-vector contact interaction as the foundation for the relevant few-body equations. Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking generates nonpointlike diquarks within these baryons and hence, using the contact interaction, flavour-antitriplet scalar, pseudoscalar and vector, and flavour-sextet axial-vector quark-quark correlations can all play an active role. The model yields reasonable masses for all systems studied, and Faddeev amplitudes for ground states and associated parity partners that sketch a realistic picture of their internal structure: ground-state, even parity baryons are constituted, almost exclusively, from like-parity diquark correlations; but orbital angular momentum plays an important role in the rest-frame wave functions of odd-parity baryons, whose Faddeev amplitudes are dominated by odd-parity diquarks. Read More

A continuum approach to the kaon and pion bound-state problems is used to reveal their electromagnetic structure. For both systems, when used with parton distribution amplitudes appropriate to the scale of the experiment, Standard Model hard-scattering formulae are accurate to within 25% at momentum transfers $Q^2 \approx 8\,$GeV$^2$. There are measurable differences between the distribution of strange and normal matter within the kaons, e. Read More

In order for a Sullivan-like process to provide reliable access to a meson target as $t$ becomes spacelike, the pole associated with that meson should remain the dominant feature of the quark-antiquark scattering matrix and the wave function describing the related correlation must evolve slowly and smoothly. Using continuum methods for the strong-interaction bound-state problem, we explore and delineate the circumstances under which these conditions are satisfied: for the pion, this requires $-t \lesssim 0.6\,$GeV$^2$, whereas $-t\lesssim 0. Read More

We unify two widely different approaches to understanding the infrared behaviour of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), one essentially phenomenological, based on data, and the other computational, realised via quantum field equations in the continuum theory. Using the latter, we explain and calculate a process-independent running-coupling for QCD, a new type of effective charge that is an analogue of the Gell-Mann--Low effective coupling in quantum electrodynamics. The result is almost identical to the process-dependent effective charge defined via the Bjorken sum rule, which provides one of the most basic constraints on our knowledge of nucleon spin structure. Read More

Modern facilities are poised to tackle fundamental questions within the Standard Model, aiming to reveal the nature of confinement, its relationship to dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (DCSB) - the origin of visible mass - and the connection between these two, key emergent phenomena. There is strong evidence to suggest that they are intimately connected with the appearance of momentum-dependent masses for gluons and quarks in QCD, which are large in the infrared: $m_g \sim 500\,$MeV and $M_q\sim 350\,$MeV. DCSB, expressed in the dynamical generation of a dressed-quark mass, has an enormous variety of verifiable consequences, including an enigmatic result that the properties of the (almost) massless pion are the cleanest expression of the mechanism which is responsible for almost all the visible mass in the Universe. Read More

We determine the flavour dependence of the renormalisation-group-invariant running interaction through judicious use of both unquenched Dyson-Schwinger equation and lattice results for QCD's gauge-sector two-point functions. An important step is the introduction of a physical scale setting procedure that enables a realistic expression of the effect of different numbers of active quark flavours on the interaction. Using this running interaction in concert with a well constrained class of dressed--gluon-quark vertices, we estimate the critical number of active lighter-quarks above which dynamical chiral symmetry breaking becomes impossible: $n_f^{\rm cr}\approx 9$; and hence in whose neighbourhood QCD is plausibly a conformal theory. Read More

In Poincar\'e-covariant continuum treatments of the three valence-quark bound-state problem, the force behind dynamical chiral symmetry breaking also generates nonpointlike, interacting diquark correlations in the nucleon and its resonances. We detail the impact of these correlations on the nucleon's elastic and nucleon-to-Roper transition electromagnetic form factors, providing flavour-separation versions that can be tested at modern facilities. Read More

The $\gamma \gamma^\ast \to \eta_{c,b}$ transition form factors are computed using a continuum approach to the two valence-body bound-state problem in relativistic quantum field theory, and thereby unified with equivalent calculations of electromagnetic pion elastic and transition form factors. The resulting $\gamma \gamma^\ast \to \eta_c$ form factor, $G_{\eta_c}(Q^2)$, is consistent with available data: significantly, at accessible momentum transfers, $Q^2 G_{\eta_c}(Q^2)$ lies well below its conformal limit. These observations confirm that the leading-twist parton distribution amplitudes (PDAs) of heavy-heavy bound-states are compressed relative to the conformal limit. Read More

In principle, the strong-interaction sector of the Standard Model is characterised by a unique renormalisation-group-invariant (RGI) running interaction and a unique form for the dressed--gluon-quark vertex, $\Gamma_\mu$; but, whilst much has been learnt about the former, the latter is still obscure. In order to improve this situation, we use a RGI running-interaction that reconciles both top-down and bottom-up analyses of the gauge sector in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) to compute dressed-quark gap equation solutions with 1,660,000 distinct Ansaetze for $\Gamma_\mu$. Each one of the solutions is then tested for compatibility with three physical criteria and, remarkably, we find that merely 0. Read More

A symmetry-preserving truncation of the two-body light-quark bound-state problem in relativistic quantum field theory is used to calculate the leading-twist parton distribution amplitudes (PDAs) of scalar systems, both ground-state and radial excitations, and the radial excitations of vector mesons. Owing to the fact that the scale-independent leptonic decay constant of a scalar meson constituted from equal-mass valence-constituents vanishes, it is found that the PDA of a given scalar system possesses one more zero than that of an analogous vector meson. Consequently, whereas the mean light-front relative momentum of the valence-constituents within a vector meson is zero, that within a scalar meson is large, an outcome which hints at a greater role for light-front angular momentum in systems classified as $P$-wave in quantum mechanical models. Read More

In Poincar\'e-covariant continuum treatments of the three valence-quark bound-state problem, the force behind dynamical chiral symmetry breaking also generates nonpointlike, interacting diquark correlations in the nucleon and its resonances. We detail the impact of these correlations on the electromagnetically-induced nucleon-$\Delta$ and nucleon-Roper transitions, providing a flavour-separation of the latter and associated predictions that can be tested at modern facilities. Read More

The energy-momentum tensor in chiral QCD, $T_{\mu\nu}$, exhibits an anomaly, viz. $\Theta_0 :=T_{\mu\mu} \neq 0$. Measured in the proton, this anomaly yields $m_p^2$, where $m_p$ is the proton's mass; but, at the same time, when computed in the pion, the answer is $m_\pi^2=0$. Read More

A class of Polyakov-loop-modified Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) models have been used to support a conjecture that numerical simulations of lattice-regularized quantum chromodynamics (QCD) defined with a chiral chemical potential can provide information about the existence and location of a critical endpoint in the QCD phase diagram drawn in the plane spanned by baryon chemical potential and temperature. That conjecture is challenged by conflicts between the model results and analyses of the same problem using simulations of lattice-regularized QCD (lQCD) and well-constrained Dyson-Schwinger equation (DSE) studies. We find the conflict is resolved in favor of the lQCD and DSE predictions when both a physically-motivated regularization is employed to suppress the contribution of high-momentum quark modes in the definition of the effective potential connected with the PNJL models and the four-fermion coupling in those models does not react strongly to changes in the mean-field that is assumed to mock-up Polyakov loop dynamics. Read More

A symmetry-preserving truncation of the two-body bound-state problem in relativistic quantum field theory is used to compute the leading-twist parton distribution amplitudes (PDAs) for the first radial excitations of the $\pi$- and $K$-mesons. In common with ground states in these channels, the PDAs are found to be dilated with respect to the relevant conformal-limit form and skewed toward the heavier valence-quark in asymmetric systems. In addition, the PDAs of radially-excited pseudoscalar mesons are not positive definite, owing to the fact that dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (DCSB) forces the leptonic decay constant of such states to vanish in the chiral limit. Read More

We compute couplings between the $\rho$-meson and $D$- and $D^\ast$-mesons - $D^{(\ast)}\rho D^{(\ast)}$ - that are relevant to phenomenological meson-exchange models used to analyse nucleon-$D$-meson scattering and explore the possibility of exotic charmed nuclei. Our framework is built from elements constrained by Dyson-Schwinger equation studies in QCD, and therefore expresses a consistent, simultaneous description of light- and heavy-quarks and the states they constitute, We find that all interactions, including the three independent $D^{\ast} \rho \,D^{\ast}$ couplings, differ markedly amongst themselves in strength and also in range, as measured by their evolution with $\rho$-meson virtuality. As a consequence, it appears that no single coupling strength or parametrization can realistically be employed in the study of interactions between $D^{(\ast)}$-mesons and matter. Read More

The kernels in the tangible matter of our everyday experience are composed of light quarks. At least, they are light classically; but they don't remain light. Dynamical effects within the Standard Model of Particle Physics change them in remarkable ways, so that in some configurations they appear nearly massless, but in others possess masses on the scale of light nuclei. Read More

Almost 50 years after the discovery of gluons & quarks, we are only just beginning to understand how QCD builds the basic bricks for nuclei: neutrons, protons, and the pions that bind them. QCD is characterised by two emergent phenomena: confinement & dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (DCSB). They are expressed with great force in the character of the pion. Read More

We describe expressions for pion and kaon dressed-quark distribution functions that incorporate contributions from gluons which bind quarks into these mesons and hence overcome a flaw of the commonly used handbag approximation. The distributions therewith obtained are purely valence in character, ensuring that dressed-quarks carry all a meson's momentum at a characteristic hadronic scale and vanishing as $(1-x)^2$ when Bjorken-$x\to 1$. Comparing such distributions within the pion and kaon, it is apparent that the size of SU(3)-flavour symmetry breaking in meson parton distribution functions is modulated by the flavour dependence of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Read More

Ward-Green-Takahashi (WGT) identities play a crucial role in hadron physics, e.g. imposing stringent relationships between the kernels of the one- and two-body problems, which must be preserved in any veracious treatment of mesons as bound-states. Read More

The leading-twist parton distribution amplitudes (PDAs) of ground-state $^1S_0$ and $^3S_1$ $c\bar c$- and $b\bar b$-quarkonia are calculated using a symmetry-preserving continuum treatment of the meson bound-state problem which unifies the properties of these heavy-quark systems with those of light-quark bound-states, including QCD's Goldstone modes. Analysing the evolution of $^1S_0$ and $^3S_1$ PDAs with current-quark mass, $\hat m_q$, increasing away from the chiral limit, it is found that in all cases there is a value of $\hat m_q$ for which the PDA matches the asymptotic form appropriate to QCD's conformal limit and hence is insensitive to changes in renormalisation scale, $\zeta$. This mass lies just above that associated with the $s$-quark. Read More

An overarching scientific challenge for the coming decade is to discover the meaning of confinement, its relationship to dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (DCSB) - the origin of visible mass - and the connection between them. In progressing toward meeting this challenge, significant progress has been made using continuum methods in QCD. For example, a novel understanding of gluon and quark confinement and its consequences has begun to emerge from quantum field theory; a clear picture is being drawn of how hadron masses emerge dynamically in a universe with light quarks; and ground-state hadron wave functions with a direct connection to QCD are becoming available, which reveal that quark-quark correlations are crucial in hadron structure. Read More

A confining, symmetry-preserving, Dyson-Schwinger equation treatment of a vector-vector contact interaction is used to formulate Faddeev equations for the nucleon and Delta-baryon in which the kernel involves dynamical dressed-quark exchange and whose solutions therefore provide momentum-dependent Faddeev amplitudes. These solutions are compared with those obtained in the static approximation and with a QCD-kindred formulation of the Faddeev kernel. They are also used to compute a range of nucleon properties, amongst them: the proton's sigma-term; the large Bjorken-x values of separate ratios of unpolarised and longitudinally-polarised valence u- and d-quark parton distribution functions; and the proton's tensor charges, which enable one to directly determine the effect of dressed-quark electric dipole moments (EDMs) on neutron and proton EDMs. Read More

These lectures explain that comparisons between experiment and theory can expose the impact of running couplings and masses on hadron observables and thereby aid materially in charting the momentum dependence of the interaction that underlies strong-interaction dynamics. The series begins with a primer on continuum QCD, which introduces some of the basic ideas necessary in order to understand the use of Schwinger functions as a nonperturbative tool in hadron physics. It continues with a discussion of confinement and dynamical symmetry breaking (DCSB) in the Standard Model, and the impact of these phenomena on our understanding of condensates, the parton structure of hadrons, and the pion electromagnetic form factor. Read More

We introduce a novel procedure for computing the (mu,T)-dependent pressure in continuum QCD; and therefrom obtain a complex phase diagram and predictions for thermal properties of the system, providing the in-medium behaviour of the trace anomaly, speed of sound, latent heat and heat capacity. Read More

Analyses of the three valence-quark bound-state problem in relativistic quantum field theory predict that the nucleon may be understood primarily as a Borromean bound-state, in which binding arises mainly from two separate effects. One originates in non-Abelian facets of QCD that are expressed in the strong running coupling and generate confined but strongly-correlated colour-antitriplet diquark clusters in both the scalar-isoscalar and pseudovector-isotriplet channels. That attraction is magnified by quark exchange associated with diquark breakup and reformation. Read More

We employ a continuum approach to the three valence-quark bound-state problem in relativistic quantum field theory to predict a range of properties of the proton's radial excitation and thereby unify them with those of numerous other hadrons. Our analysis indicates that the nucleon's first radial excitation is the Roper resonance. It consists of a core of three dressed-quarks, which expresses its valence-quark content and whose charge radius is 80% larger than the proton analogue. Read More

We compute all kaon and pion parton distribution amplitudes (PDAs) to twist-three and find that only the pseudotensor PDA can reasonably be approximated by its conformal limit expression. At terrestrially accessible energy scales, the twist-two and pseudoscalar twist-three PDAs differ significantly from those functions commonly associated with their forms in QCD's conformal limit. In all amplitudes studied, SU(3) flavour-symmetry breaking is typically a 13% effect. Read More

This document presents the recommendations and scientific conclusions from the Town Meeting on QCD and Hadronic Physics that took place in the period 13-15 September 2014 at Temple University as part of the NSAC 2014 Long Range Planning process. It highlights progress in hadron physics in the seven years since the 2007 Long Range Plan (LRP07), and presents a vision for the future by identifying key questions and plausible paths to solutions which should define our next decade. In defining the priority of outstanding physics opportunities for the future, both prospects for the short (roughly 5 years) and longer term (beyond 10 years) are identified together with the facilities, personnel and other resources needed to maximize the discovery potential in hadronic physics worldwide. Read More

With discovery of the Higgs boson, the Standard Model of Particle Physics became complete. Its formulation is a remarkable story; and the process of verification is continuing, with the most important chapter being the least well understood. Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is that part of the Standard Model which is supposed to describe all of nuclear physics and yet, almost fifty years after the discovery of quarks, we are only just beginning to understand how QCD moulds the basic bricks for nuclei: pious, neutrons, protons. Read More

Within contemporary hadron physics there are two common methods for determining the momentum-dependence of the interaction between quarks: the top-down approach, which works toward an ab initio computation of the interaction via direct analysis of the gauge-sector gap equations; and the bottom-up scheme, which aims to infer the interaction by fitting data within a well-defined truncation of those equations in the matter sector that are relevant to bound-state properties. We unite these two approaches by demonstrating that the renormalisation-group-invariant running-interaction predicted by contemporary analyses of QCD's gauge sector coincides with that required in order to describe ground-state hadron observables using a nonperturbative truncation of QCD's Dyson-Schwinger equations in the matter sector. This bridges a gap that had lain between nonperturbative continuum-QCD and the ab initio prediction of bound-state properties. Read More

A symmetry-preserving Dyson-Schwinger equation treatment of a vector-vector contact interaction is used to compute dressed-quark-core contributions to the nucleon $\sigma$-term and tensor charges. The latter enable one to directly determine the effect of dressed-quark electric dipole moments (EDMs) on neutron and proton EDMs. The presence of strong scalar and axial-vector diquark correlations within ground-state baryons is a prediction of this approach. Read More

We compute nucleon and Delta elastic and transition form factors, and compare predictions made using a framework built upon a Faddeev equation kernel and interaction vertices that possess QCD-like momentum dependence with results obtained using a vector-vector contact-interaction. The comparison emphasises that experiment is sensitive to the momentum dependence of the running couplings and masses in the strong interaction sector of the Standard Model and highlights that the key to describing hadron properties is a veracious expression of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in the bound-state problem. Amongst the results we describe, the following are of particular interest: $G_E^p(Q^2)/G_M^p(Q^2)$ possesses a zero at $Q^2=9. Read More

The impulse-approximation expression used hitherto to define the pion's valence-quark distribution function is flawed because it omits contributions from the gluons which bind quarks into the pion. A corrected leading-order expression produces the model-independent result that quarks dressed via the rainbow-ladder truncation, or any practical analogue, carry all the pion's light-front momentum at a characteristic hadronic scale. Corrections to the leading contribution may be divided into two classes, responsible for shifting dressed-quark momentum into glue and sea-quarks. Read More

We compute the kaon's valence-quark (twist-two parton) distribution amplitude (PDA) by projecting its Poincare'-covariant Bethe-Salpeter wave-function onto the light-front. At a scale \zeta=2GeV, the PDA is a broad, concave and asymmetric function, whose peak is shifted 12-16% away from its position in QCD's conformal limit. These features are a clear expression of SU(3)-flavour-symmetry breaking. Read More

A rainbow-ladder truncation of QCD's Dyson-Schwinger equations is used to calculate rho- and phi-meson valence-quark (twist-two parton) distribution amplitudes (PDAs) via a light-front projection of their Bethe-Salpeter wave functions, which possess S- and D-wave components of comparable size in the meson rest frame. All computed PDAs are broad concave functions, whose dilation with respect to the asymptotic distribution is an expression of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. The PDAs can be used to define an ordering of valence-quark light-front spatial-extent within mesons: this size is smallest within the pion and increases through the perp-polarisation to the parallel-polarisation of the vector mesons; effects associated with the breaking of SU(3)-flavour symmetry are significantly smaller than those associated with altering the polarisation of vector mesons. Read More

The colour-singlet axial-vector vertex plays a pivotal role in understanding dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and numerous hadronic weak interactions, yet scant model-independent information is available. We therefore use longitudinal and transverse Ward-Green-Takahashi (WGT) identities, together with kinematic constraints, in order to ameliorate this situation and expose novel features of the axial vertex: amongst them, Ward-like identities for elements in the transverse piece of the vertex, which complement and shed new light on identities determined previously for components in its longitudinal part. Such algebraic results are verified via solutions of the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the axial vertex obtained using two materially different kernels for the relevant Dyson-Schwinger equations. Read More

Recent years have brought considerable progress with studies of the bound-state problem in continuum QCD. A small part of that made with Dyson Schwinger equations is highlighted herein. Topics covered include: opportunities provided by precision experimental studies of the (far) valence region; and capitalising upon new data on hadron elastic and transition form factors. Read More

In connection with massless two-flavour QCD, we analyse the chiral symmetry restoring phase transition using three distinct gluon-quark vertices and two different assumptions about the long-range part of the quark-quark interaction. In each case, we solve the gap equation, locate the transition temperature T_c, and use the maximum entropy method to extract the dressed-quark spectral function at T>T_c. Our best estimate for the chiral transition temperature is T_c=(147 +/- 8)MeV; and the deconfinement transition is coincident. Read More

We exploit a method introduced recently to determine parton distribution amplitudes (PDAs) from minimal information in order to obtain light-quark pseudoscalar and vector meson PDAs from the limited number of moments produced by numerical simulations of lattice-regularised QCD. Within errors, the PDAs of pseudoscalar and vector mesons constituted from the same valence quarks are identical; they are concave functions, whose dilation expresses the strength of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking; and SU(3)-flavour symmetry is broken nonperturbatively at the level of 10%. Notably, the appearance of precision in the lattice moments is misleading. Read More

The last five years have brought considerable progress in the study of the bound-state problem in continuum quantum field theory. We highlight a subset of that progress; viz., that made within the context of Dyson Schwinger equation analyses of cold, sparse hadrons. Read More

Predictions obtained with a confining, symmetry-preserving treatment of a vector-vector contact interaction at leading-order in a widely used truncation of QCD's Dyson-Schwinger equations are presented for \Delta and \Omega baryon elastic form factors and the \gamma N -> \Delta transition form factors. This simple framework produces results that are practically indistinguishable from the best otherwise available, an outcome which highlights that the key to describing many features of baryons and unifying them with the properties of mesons is a veracious expression of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in the hadron bound-state problem. The following specific results are of particular interest. Read More

The pseudoscalar projection of the pion's Poincare'-covariant Bethe-Salpeter amplitude onto the light-front may be understood to provide the probability distribution of the chiral condensate within the pion. Unlike the parton distribution amplitudes usually considered and as befitting a collective effect, this condensate distribution receives contributions from all Fock space components of the pion's light-front wave-function. We compute this condensate distribution using the Dyson-Schwinger equation (DSE) framework and show the result to be a model-independent feature of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Read More

Dyson-Schwinger equation treatments of the strong interaction show that the presence and importance of nonpointlike diquark correlations within the nucleon are a natural consequence of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Using this foundation, we deduce a collection of simple formulae, expressed in terms of diquark appearance and mixing probabilities, from which one may compute ratios of longitudinal-spin-dependent u- and d-quark parton distribution functions on the domain x =1. A comparison with predictions from other approaches plus a consideration of extant and planned experiments shows that the measurement of nucleon longitudinal spin asymmetries on x =1 can add considerably to our capacity for discriminating between contemporary pictures of nucleon structure. Read More

The \gamma* N -> \Delta(1232) transition is a window on hadron shape deformation, the applicability of perturbative QCD at moderate momentum transfers, and the influence of nonperturbative phenomena on hadronic observables. We explain that the Ash-convention magnetic transition form factor must fall faster than the neutron's magnetic form factor and nonzero values for the associated quadrupole ratios reveal the impact of quark orbital angular momentum within the nucleon and \Delta(1232); and show that these quadrupole ratios do approach their predicted asymptotic limits, albeit slowly. Read More

The proton is arguably the most fundamental of Nature's readily detectable building blocks. It is at the heart of every nucleus and has never been observed to decay. It is nevertheless a composite object, defined by its valence-quark content: u+u+d -- i. Read More

The gauge principle is fundamental in formulating the Standard Model. Fermion--gauge-boson couplings are the inescapable consequence and the primary determining factor for observable phenomena. Vertices describing such couplings are simple in perturbation theory and yet the existence of strong-interaction bound-states guarantees that many phenomena within the Model are nonperturbative. Read More

In a strongly-coupled quark-gluon plasma, collective excitations of gluons and quarks should dominate over the excitation of individual quasi-free gluon and quark modes. To explore this possibility, we computed screening masses for ground-state light-quark mesons and baryons at leading-order in a symmetry-preserving truncation scheme for the Dyson-Schwinger equations using a confining formulation of a contact-interaction at nonzero temperature. Meson screening masses are obtained from Bethe-Salpeter equations; and baryon analogues from a novel construction of the Faddeev equation, which employs an improved quark-exchange approximation in the kernel. Read More

Elastic and semileptonic transition form factors for the kaon and pion are calculated using the leading-order in a global-symmetry-preserving truncation of the Dyson-Schwinger equations and a momentum-independent form for the associated kernels in the gap and Bethe-Salpeter equations. The computed form factors are compared both with those obtained using the same truncation but an interaction that preserves the one-loop renormalisation-group behaviour of QCD and with data. The comparisons show that: in connection with observables revealed by probes with |Q^2|<~ M^2, where M~0. Read More

At an hadronic scale the effect of CP-violating interactions that typically appear in extensions of the Standard Model may be described by an effective Lagrangian, in which the operators are expressed in terms of lepton and partonic gluon and quark fields, and ordered by their mass dimension, k .geq. 4. Read More

We argue by way of examples that, as a nonlinear integral equation, the gap equation can and does possess many physically distinct solutions for the dressed-quark propagator. The examples are drawn from a class that is successful in describing a broad range of hadron physics observables. We apply the homotopy continuation method to each of our four exemplars and thereby find all solutions that exist within the interesting domains of light current-quark masses and interaction strengths; and simultaneously provide an explanation of the nature and number of the solutions, many of which may be associated with dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Read More