# Clive Emary

## Contact Details

NameClive Emary |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesPhysics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (32) Quantum Physics (32) Physics - Statistical Mechanics (6) Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (1) Physics - Soft Condensed Matter (1) Physics - Biological Physics (1) Physics - Atomic Physics (1) Physics - Optics (1) |

## Publications Authored By Clive Emary

Ambiguous measurements do not reveal complete information about the system under test. Their quantum-mechanical counterparts are semi-weak (or in the limit, weak-) measurements and here we discuss their role in tests of the Leggett-Garg inequalities. We show that, whilst ambiguous measurements allow one to forgo the usual non-invasive measureability assumption, to derive an LGI that may be violated, we are forced to introduce another assumption that equates the invasive influence of ambiguous and unambiguous detectors. Read More

We consider coherent feedback control of quantum transport and focus on the application of simple controllers and the effects of a finite bias voltage. We show that simple single-parameter controllers can give rise to a range of useful effects such as amplification of changes in plant transmission, increased resolution of energy filtration, and the detection of differences between otherwise indistinguishable plants. We explore how these effects are impacted by the phase-averaging effects associated with the application of a finite bias and identify important voltage scales for the maintenance of the functionalities achieved through feedback control. Read More

The Leggett-Garg inequalities hold under the assumptions of macrorealism but can be violated by quantum mechanics. The degree to which quantum systems can violate these inequalities, however, is bounded. In particular, if the measurements on the system are genuinely dichotomic, the bound for these temporal inequalities is the same as Tsirelson bound for the relevant spatial Bell inequality. Read More

Elitzur and Vaidman have proposed a measurement scheme that, based on the quantum superposition principle, allows one to detect the presence of an object --- in a dramatic scenario, a bomb --- without interacting with it. It was pointed out by Ghirardi that this interaction-free measurement scheme can be put in direct relation with falsification tests of the macro-realistic worldview. Here we have implemented the "bomb test" with a single atom trapped in a spin-dependent optical lattice to show explicitly a violation of the Leggett-Garg inequality --- a quantitative criterion fulfilled by macro-realistic physical theories. Read More

Feedback loops are known as a versatile tool for controlling transport in small systems, which usually have large intrinsic fluctuations. Here we investigate the control of a temporal correlation function, the waiting time distribution, under active and passive feedback conditions. We develop a general formalism and then specify to the simple unidirectional transport model, where we compare costs of open loop and feedback control and use methods from optimal control theory to optimize waiting time distributions. Read More

Quantum transport is the study of the motion of electrons through nano-scale structures small enough that quantum effects are important. In this contribution I review recent theoretical proposals to use the techniques of quantum feedback control to manipulate the properties of electron flows and states in quantum-transport devices. Quantum control strategies can be grouped into two broad classes: measurement-based control and coherent control, and both are covered here. Read More

We consider the quantum witness test of macroscopic realism and derive an upper bound for possible violations of this equality due to quantum mechanics. The bound depends only on the number of possible outcomes for the blind measurement at the heart of the witness protocol. Mirroring recent results for the related Leggett-Garg inequality, we show that quantum mechanics can saturate the algebraic bound for large systems. Read More

We define a quantum witness for high-mass matter-wave interferometers that allows us to test fundamental assumptions of macroscopic realism. We propose an experimental realisation using absorptive laser gratings and show that such systems can strongly violate a macrorealistic quantum-witness equality. The measurement of the witness can therefore provide clear evidence of physics beyond macrorealism for macromolecules and nanoparticles. Read More

The waiting time distribution (WTD) is a common tool for analysing discrete stochastic processes in classical and quantum systems. However, there are many physical examples where the dynamics is continuous and only approximately discrete, or where it is favourable to discuss the dynamics on a discretized and a continuous level in parallel. An example is the hindered motion of particles through potential landscapes with barriers. Read More

We discuss control of the quantum-transport properties of a mesoscopic device by connecting it in a coherent feedback loop with a quantum-mechanical controller. We work in a scattering approach and derive results for the combined scattering matrix of the device-controller system and determine the conditions under which the controller can exert ideal control on the output characteristics. As concrete example we consider the use of feedback to optimise the conductance of a chaotic quantum dot and investigate effects of controller dimension and decoherence. Read More

We report on a stringent test of the non-classicality of the motion of a massive quantum particle, which propagates on a discrete lattice. Measuring temporal correlations of the position of single atoms performing a quantum walk, we observe a $6\sigma$ violation of the Leggett-Garg inequality. Our results rigorously excludes (i. Read More

We apply the time-delayed Pyragas control scheme to the dissipative Dicke model via a modulation of the atom-field-coupling. The feedback creates an infinite sequence of non-equilibrium phases with fixed points and limit cycles in the primary superradiant regime. We analyse this Hopf bifurcation scenario as a function of delay time and feedback strength, and determine analytical conditions for the phase boundaries. Read More

We study the full counting statistics of current of large open systems through the application of random matrix theory to transition-rate matrices. We develop a method for calculating the ensemble-averaged current-cumulant generating functions based on an expansion in terms of the inverse system size. We investigate how different symmetry properties and different counting schemes affect the results. Read More

The mechanism used by migratory birds to orientate themselves using the geomagnetic field is still a mystery in many species. The radical pair mechanism, in which very weak magnetic fields can influence certain types of spin-dependent chemical reactions, leading to biologically observable signals, has recently imposed itself as one of the most promising candidates for certain species. This is thanks both to its extreme sensitivity and its capacity to reproduce results from behavioral studies. Read More

We show that the quantum bound for temporal correlations in a Leggett-Garg test, analogous to the Tsirelson bound for spatial correlations in a Bell test, strongly depends on the number of levels $N$ that can be accessed by the measurement apparatus via projective measurements. We provide exact bounds for small $N$, that exceed the known bound for the Leggett-Garg inequality, and show that in the limit $N\rightarrow \infty$ the Leggett-Garg inequality can be violated up to its algebraic maximum. Read More

We study an atom-cavity system in which the cavity has several degenerate transverse modes. Mode-resolved cavity transmission spectroscopy reveals well-resolved atom-cavity resonances for several cavity modes, a signature of collective strong coupling for the different modes. Furthermore, the experiment shows that the cavity modes are coupled via the atomic ensemble contained in the cavity. Read More

We consider a system consisting of N two-level atoms inside an M-mode degenerate, driven cavity. We discuss the formation of dark states in this system and derive the conditions required for the observation of the dark-state anti-resonance in the cavity emission. Read More

In contrast to the spatial Bell's inequalities, which probe entanglement between spatially-separated systems, the Leggett-Garg inequalities test the correlations of a single system measured at different times. Violation of a genuine Leggett-Garg test implies either the absence of a realistic description of the system or the impossibility of measuring the system without disturbing it. Quantum mechanics violates the inequalities on both accounts and the original motivation for these inequalities was as a test for quantum coherence in macroscopic systems. Read More

We consider a driven single mode Dicke-Hamiltonian coupled to a dissipative zero-temperature bath. We derive the cumulant generating function for emitted photons of this quantum-critical system by using a $P$-representation of the master equation in the thermodynamic limit. This cumulant generating function is shown to consist of two parts: a macroscopic component, which is Poissonian in nature with characteristic rate proportional to the order parameter of the system; and a part describing fluctuations which is non-trivial in form and divergent around the quantum phase transition. Read More

We consider maximal violations of the Leggett-Garg inequality, obtained by maximising over all possible measurement operators, in relation to non-unitary aspects of the system dynamics. We model the action of an environment on a qubit in terms of generic quantum channels and relate the maximal value of the Leggett-Garg correlator to the channel parameters. We focus on unital channels, and hence on decoherence. Read More

We consider an ensemble of three-level particles in lambda-configuration interacting with two bosonic modes. The Hamiltonian has the form of a generalized Dicke-model. We show that in the thermodynamic limit this model supports a superradiant quantum phase transition. Read More

We consider the violation of the Leggett-Garg inequality in electronic Mach-Zehnder inteferometers. This set-up has two distinct advantages over earlier quantum-transport proposals: firstly, the required correlation functions can be obtained without time-resolved measurements. Secondly, the geometry of an interferometer allows one to construct the correlation functions from ideal negative measurements, which addresses the non-invasiveness requirement of the Leggett-Garg inequality. Read More

We investigate the dynamics of a single, overdamped colloidal particle, which is driven by a constant force through a one-dimensional periodic potential. We focus on systems with large barrier heights where the lowest-order cumulants of the density field, that is, average position and the mean-squared displacement, show nontrivial (non-diffusive) short-time behavior characterized by the appearance of plateaus. We demonstrate that this "cage-like" dynamics can be well described by a discretized master equation model involving two states (related to two positions) within each potential valley. Read More

We propose an all-electronic technique to manipulate and control interacting quantum systems by unitary single-jump feedback conditioned on the outcome of a capacitively coupled electrometer and in particular a single-electron transistor. We provide a general scheme to stabilize pure states in the quantum system and employ an effective Hamiltonian method for the quantum master equation to elaborate on the nature of stabilizable states and the conditions under which state purification can be achieved. The state engineering within the quantum feedback scheme is shown to be linked with the solution of an inverse eigenvalue problem. Read More

We present a transport setup of coupled quantum dots that enables the creation of spatially separated spin-entangled two-electron dark states. We prove the existence of an entangled transport dark state by investigating the system Hamiltonian without coupling to the electronic reservoirs. In the transport regime the entangled dark state which corresponds to a singlet has a strongly enhanced Fano factor compared to the dark state which corresponds to a mixture of the triplet states. Read More

Feedback control in quantum transport has been predicted to give rise to several interesting effects, amongst them quantum state stabilisation and the realisation of a mesoscopic Maxwell's daemon. These results were derived under the assumption that control operations on the system be affected instantaneously after the measurement of electronic jumps through it. In this contribution I describe how to include a delay between detection and control operation in the master equation theory of feedback-controlled quantum transport. Read More

We derive a set of Leggett-Garg inequalities (temporal Bell's inequalities) for the moment generating function of charge transferred through a conductor. Violation of these inequalities demonstrates the absence of a macroscopic-real description of the transport process. We show how these inequalities can be violated by quantum-mechanical systems and consider transport through normal and superconducting single-electron transistors as examples. Read More

In quantum optics the $g^{(2)}$-function is a standard tool to investigate photon emission statistics. We define a $g^{(2)}$-function for electronic transport and use it to investigate the bunching and anti-bunching of electron currents. Importantly, we show that super-Poissonian electron statistics do not necessarily imply electron bunching, and that sub-Poissonian statistics do not imply anti-bunching. Read More

We extend the second-order von Neumann approach within the generalized master equation formalism for quantum electronic transport to include the counting field. The resulting non-Markovian evolution equation for the reduced density matrix of the system resolved with respect to the number of transported charges enables the evaluation of the noise and higher-order cumulants of the full counting statistics. We apply this formalism to an analytically solvable model of a single-level quantum dot coupled to highly biased leads with Lorentzian energy-dependent tunnel coupling and demonstrate that, although reproducing exactly the mean current, the resonant tunneling approximation is not exact for the noise and higher order cumulants. Read More

We theoretically study an extension of the Dicke model, where the single-particle Hamiltonian has three energy levels in Lambda-configuration, i.e. the excited state is coupled to two non-degenerate ground states via two independent quantized light fields. Read More

We discuss the description of full counting statistics in quantum transport with a nonMarkovian master equation. We focus on differences arising from whether charge is considered as a classical or a quantum degree of freedom. These differences manifest themselves in the inhomogeneous term of the master equation which describes initial correlations. Read More

We suggest that a single-electron transistor continuously monitored by a quantum point contact may function as a Maxwell demon when closed-loop feedback operations are applied as time-dependent modifications of the tunneling rates across its junctions. The device may induce a current across the single-electron transistor even when no bias voltage or thermal gradient is applied. For different feedback schemes, we derive effective master equations and compare the induced feedback current and its fluctuations as well as the generated power. Read More

We investigate non-linear magneto-transport through a single level quantum dot coupled to ferromagnetic leads, where the electron spin is coupled to a large, external (pseudo)spin via an anisotropic exchange interaction. We find regimes where the average current through the dot displays self-sustained oscillations that reflect the limit-cycles and chaos and map the dependence of this behaviour on magnetic field strength and the tunnel coupling to the external leads. Read More

We propose a feedback control scheme for generating and stabilizing pure states of transport devices, such as charge qubits, under non-equilibrium conditions. The purification of the device state is conditioned on single electron jumps and leaves a clear signal in the full counting statistics which can be used to optimize control parameters. As an example of our control scheme, we are presenting the stabilization pure transport states in a double quantum dot setup with the inclusion of phonon dephasing. Read More

We develop a self-consistent version of perturbation theory in Liouville space which seeks to combine the advantages of master equation approaches in quantum transport with the nonperturbative features that a self-consistent treatment brings. We describe how counting fields may be included in a self-consistent manner in this formalism such that the full counting statistics can be calculated. NonMarkovian effects are also incorporated. Read More

We consider the question of how to distinguish quantum from classical transport through nanostructures. To address this issue we have derived two inequalities for temporal correlations in nonequilibrium transport in nanostructures weakly coupled to leads. The first inequality concerns local charge measurements and is of general validity; the second concerns the current flow through the device and is relevant for double quantum dots. Read More

We consider theoretically the transport through the double quantum dot structure of the recent experiment of C. Payette {\it et al.} [Phys. Read More

We investigate the ground-state properties of the Anderson single impurity model (finite Coulomb impurity repulsion) with the Coupled Cluster Method. We consider different CCM reference states and approximation schemes and make comparison with exact Green's function results for the non-interacting model and with Brillouin-Wigner perturbation theory for the full interacting model. Our results show that coupled cluster techniques are well suited to quantum impurity problems. Read More

We present a theory of a single-electron transistor exchange-coupled to a localized spin. We show how to gain detailed quantitative knowledge about the attached spin such as spin size, exchange coupling strength, Land\'e g-factor, and spin decay time $T_1$ by utilizing a robust blockade phenomenon of DC magnetotransport with accompanying noise enhancement. Our studies are of particular relevance to spin-resolved scanning single-electron transistor microscopy, electronic transport through nanomagnets, and the effect of hyperfine interaction on transport electrons by surrounding nuclear spins. Read More

We present a scheme for creating and measuring entanglement between two double quantum dot charge qubits in a transport set-up in which voltage pulses can modify system parameters. Detection of entanglement is performed via the construction of a Bell inequality with current correlation measurements. An essential feature is the use of the internal dynamics of the qubits as the constituent electrons tunnel into the leads to give the single-particle rotations necessary for the Bell measurement. Read More

We study transport through a triple quantum dot in a triangular geometry with applied bias such that both singly- and doubly- charged states participate. We describe the formation of electronic dark states -- coherent superpositions that block current flow -- in the system, and focus on the formation of a two-electron dark state. We discuss the conditions under which such a state forms and describe the signatures that it leaves in transport properties such as the differential conductance and shotnoise. Read More

We describe a method for calculating the counting statistics of electronic transport through nanoscale devices with both sequential and cotunneling contributions. The method is based upon a perturbative expansion of the von Neumann equation in Liouvillian space, with current cumulants calculated from the resulting nonMarkovian master equation without further approximation. As application, we consider transport through a single quantum dot and discuss the effects of cotunneling on noise and skewness, as well as the properties of various approximation schemes. Read More

We study the transport properties of the Fano-Anderson model with a Lorentzian-shaped density of states in one of the electronic reservoirs. We explicitly show that the energy dependence of the density of states can cause non-Markovian effects and that the non-Markovian master equation may fail if these effects are strong. We evaluate the stationary current, the zero frequency current noise and the occupation dynamics of the resonant level by means of a quantum master equation approach within different approximation schemes and compare the results to the exact solution obtained by scattering theory and Green's functions. Read More

We present a formalism for studying the behaviour of quantum systems coupled to nonequilibrium environments exhibiting nonGaussian fluctuations. We discuss the role of a qubit as a detector of the statistics of environmental fluctuations, as well as nonMarkovian effects in both weak and strong coupling limits. We also discuss the differences between the influences of classical and quantum environments. Read More

We consider the transport through a system of three coupled quantum dots in a perpendicular magnetic field. At zero field, destructive interference can trap an electron in a dark state -- a coherent superposition of dot states that completely blocks current flow. The magnetic field can disrupt this interference giving rise to oscillations in the current and its higher-order statistics as the field is increased. Read More

We classify entanglement singularities for various two-mode bosonic systems in terms of catastrophe theory. Employing an abstract phase-space representation, we obtain exact results in limiting cases for the entropy in cusp, butterfly, and two-dimensional catastrophes. We furthermore use numerical results to extract the scaling of the entropy with the non-linearity parameter, and discuss the role of mixing entropies in more complex systems. Read More

We propose an experiment to observe coherent oscillations in a single quantum dot with the oscillations driven by spin-orbit interaction. This is achieved without spin-polarised leads, and relies on changing the strength of the spin-orbit coupling via an applied gate pulse. We derive an effective model of this system which is formally equivalent to the Jaynes-Cummings model of quantum optics. Read More

We construct a class of algebraic invariants for N-qubit pure states based on bipartite decompositions of the system. We show that they are entanglement monotones, and that they differ from the well know linear entropies of the sub-systems. They therefore capture new information on the non-local properties of multipartite systems. Read More

We consider a class of generalised single mode Dicke Hamiltonians with arbitrary boson coupling in the pseudo-spin $x$-$z$ plane. We find exact solutions in the thermodynamic, large-spin limit as a function of the coupling angle, which allows us to continuously move between the simple dephasing and the original Dicke Hamiltonians. Only in the latter case (orthogonal static and fluctuating couplings), does the parity-symmetry induced quantum phase transition occur. Read More

We consider the entanglement properties of the quantum phase transition in the single-mode superradiance model, involving the interaction of a boson mode and an ensemble of atoms. For infinite system size, the atom-field entanglement of formation diverges logarithmically with the correlation length exponent. Using a continuous variable representation, we compare this to the divergence of the entropy in conformal field theories, and derive an exact expression for the scaled concurrence and the cusp-like non-analyticity of the momentum squeezing. Read More