# Chung H. Lee - Jet Propulsion Laboratory

## Contact Details

NameChung H. Lee |
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AffiliationJet Propulsion Laboratory |
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CityPasadena |
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CountryUnited States |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesCosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (19) General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (18) Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (15) Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (9) High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (4) High Energy Physics - Theory (4) Physics - Physics and Society (4) Physics - Data Analysis; Statistics and Probability (3) Computer Science - Information Theory (2) Mathematics - Information Theory (2) Physics - Medical Physics (1) Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (1) High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (1) Physics - Fluid Dynamics (1) |

## Publications Authored By Chung H. Lee

We study the bimetric massive gravity theory. By concentrating on the minimal scenario, we discuss the linear perturbation equations in the synchronous gauge. We find that the effective dark energy equation of state always stays in the phantom phase, and the matter power spectrum is suppressed. Read More

Understanding and modeling the dynamics of pedestrian crowds can help with designing and increasing the safety of civil facilities. A key feature of crowds is its intrinsic stochasticity, appearing even under very diluted conditions, due to the variability in individual behaviours. Individual stochasticity becomes even more important under densely crowded conditions, since it can be nonlinearly magnified and may lead to potentially dangerous collective behaviours. Read More

We investigate the matter density perturbation $\delta_m$ and power spectrum $P(k)$ in the running vacuum model (RVM) with the cosmological constant being a function of the Hubble parameter, given by $\Lambda = \Lambda_0 + 6 \sigma H H_0+ 3\nu H^2$, in which the linear and quadratic terms of $H$ would originate from the QCD vacuum condensation and cosmological renormalization group, respectively. Taking the dark energy perturbation into consideration, we derive the evolution equation for $\delta_m$ and find a specific scale $d_{cr}=2 \pi/k_{cr}$, which divides the evolution of the universe into the sub and super-interaction regimes, corresponding to $k \ll k_{cr}$ and $k \gg k_{cr}$, respectively. For the former, the evolution of $\delta_m$ has the same behavior as that in the $\Lambda$CDM model, while for the latter, the growth of $\delta_m$ is frozen (greatly enhanced) when $\nu + \sigma >(<)0$ due to the couplings between radiation, matter and dark energy. Read More

Employing partially overlapping overhead \kinectTMS sensors and automatic pedestrian tracking algorithms we recorded the crowd traffic in a rectilinear section of the main walkway of Eindhoven train station on a 24/7 basis. Beside giving access to the train platforms (it passes underneath the railways), the walkway plays an important connection role in the city. Several crowding scenarios occur during the day, including high- and low-density dynamics in uni- and bi-directional regimes. Read More

We investigate the running cosmological constant model with dark energy linearly proportional to the Hubble parameter, $\Lambda = \sigma H + \Lambda_0$, in which the $\Lambda$CDM limit is recovered by taking $\sigma=0$. We derive the linear perturbation equations of gravity under the Friedmann-Lema\"itre-Robertson-Walker cosmology, and show the power spectra of the CMB temperature and matter density distribution. By using the Markov chain Monte Carlo method, we fit the model to the current observational data and find that $\sigma H_0/ \Lambda_0 \lesssim 2. Read More

Real-life, out-of-laboratory, measurements of pedestrian movements allow extensive and fully-resolved statistical analyses. However, data acquisition in real-life is subjected to the wide heterogeneity that characterizes crowd flows over time. Disparate flow conditions, such as co-flows and counter-flows at low and at high pedestrian densities, typically follow randomly one another. Read More

In order to solve the fine-tuning problem of the cosmological constant, we propose a simple model with the vacuum energy non-minimally coupled to the inflaton field. In this model, the vacuum energy decays to the inflaton during pre-inflation and inflation eras, so that the cosmological constant effectively deflates from the Planck mass scale to a much smaller one after inflation and plays the role of dark energy in the late-time of the universe. We show that our deflationary scenario is applicable to arbitrary slow-roll inflation models. Read More

Oscillating Algol-type eclipsing binaries (oEA) are very interesting objects that have three observational features of eclipse, pulsation, and mass transfer. Direct measurement of their masses and radii from the double-lined radial velocity data and photometric light curves would be the most essential for understanding their evolutionary process and for performing the asteroseismological study. We present the physical properties of the oEA star XX Cep from high-resolution time-series spectroscopic data. Read More

We investigate observational constraints on a specific one-parameter extension to the minimal quintessence model, where the quintessence field acquires a quadratic coupling to the scalar curvature through a coupling constant $\xi$. The value of $\xi$ is highly suppressed in typical tracker models if the late-time cosmic acceleration is driven at some field values near the Planck scale. We test $\xi$ in a second class of models in which the field value today becomes a free model parameter. Read More

We investigate via extensive experimental data the dynamics of pedestrians walking in a corridor-shaped landing in a building at Eindhoven University of Technology. With year-long automatic measurements employing a Microsoft KinectTM 3D-range sensor and ad hoc tracking techniques, we acquired few hundreds of thousands pedestrian trajectories in real-life conditions. Here we discuss the asymmetric features of the dynamics in the two walking directions with respect to the flights of stairs (i. Read More

The {\it Kepler} light curve of KIC 4739791 exhibits partial eclipses, inverse O'Connell effect, and multiperiodic pulsations. Including a starspot on either of the binary components, the light-curve synthesis indicates that KIC 4739791 is in detached or semi-detached configurations with both a short orbital period and a low mass ratio. Multiple frequency analyses were performed in the light residuals after subtracting the binarity effects from the original {\it Kepler} data. Read More

**Authors:**Henric S. Krawczynski

^{1}, Daniel Stern

^{2}, Fiona A. Harrison

^{3}, Fabian F. Kislat

^{4}, Anna Zajczyk

^{5}, Matthias Beilicke

^{6}, Janie Hoormann

^{7}, Qingzhen Guo

^{8}, Ryan Endsley

^{9}, Adam R. Ingram

^{10}, Hiromasa Miyasaka

^{11}, Kristin K. Madsen

^{12}, Kim M. Aaron

^{13}, Rashied Aminia

^{14}, Matthew G. Baring

^{15}, Banafsheh Beheshtipour

^{16}, Arash Bodaghee

^{17}, Jeffrey Booth

^{18}, Chester Borden

^{19}, Markus Boettcher

^{20}, Finn E. Christensen

^{21}, Paolo S. Coppi

^{22}, Ramanath Cowsik

^{23}, Shane Davis

^{24}, Jason Dexter

^{25}, Chris Done

^{26}, Luis A. Dominguez

^{27}, Don Ellison

^{28}, Robin J. English

^{29}, Andrew C. Fabian

^{30}, Abe Falcone

^{31}, Jeffrey A. Favretto

^{32}, Rodrigo Fernandez

^{33}, Paolo Giommi

^{34}, Brian W. Grefenstette

^{35}, Erin Kara

^{36}, Chung H. Lee

^{37}, Maxim Lyutikov

^{38}, Thomas Maccarone

^{39}, Hironori Matsumoto

^{40}, Jonathan McKinney

^{41}, Tatehiro Mihara

^{42}, Jon M. Miller

^{43}, Ramesh Narayan

^{44}, Lorenzo Natalucci

^{45}, Feryal Oezel

^{46}, Michael J. Pivovaroff

^{47}, Steven Pravdo

^{48}, Dimitrios Psaltis

^{49}, Takashi Okajima

^{50}, Kenji Toma

^{51}, William W. Zhang

^{52}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Washington University in Saint Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences,

^{2}Jet Propulsion Laboratory,

^{3}California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics,

^{4}Washington University in Saint Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences,

^{5}Washington University in Saint Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences,

^{6}Washington University in Saint Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences,

^{7}Washington University in Saint Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences,

^{8}Washington University in Saint Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences,

^{9}Washington University in Saint Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences,

^{10}Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy,

^{11}California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics,

^{12}California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics,

^{13}Jet Propulsion Laboratory,

^{14}Jet Propulsion Laboratory,

^{15}Rice University, Department of Physics and Astronomy,

^{16}Washington University in Saint Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences,

^{17}Georgia College, Department of Chemistry, Physics, and Astronomy,

^{18}Jet Propulsion Laboratory,

^{19}Jet Propulsion Laboratory,

^{20}North-West University, Centre for Space Research,

^{21}Technical University of Denmark, DTU Space, National Space Institute,

^{22}Yale University, Department of Astronomy,

^{23}Washington University in Saint Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences,

^{24}University of Virginia, Department of Astronomy,

^{25}MPI for Extraterrestrial Physics Garching,

^{26}Durham University, Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics,

^{27}Jet Propulsion Laboratory,

^{28}North Carolina State University, Department of Physics,

^{29}Jet Propulsion Laboratory,

^{30}Cambridge, Institute of Astronomy, UK,

^{31}Penn State University, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics,

^{32}Jet Propulsion Laboratory,

^{33}University of California, Berkeley, Department of Physics,

^{34}ASI Science Data Center, Italy,

^{35}California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics,

^{36}Cambridge, Institute of Astronomy, UK,

^{37}Jet Propulsion Laboratory,

^{38}Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy,

^{39}Texas Tech University, Physics Department,

^{40}Nagoya University, Center for Experimental Studies, Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe,

^{41}University of Maryland, Physics Department,

^{42}RIKEN,

^{43}Univ. of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Astronomy Dept,

^{44}Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics,

^{45}Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, INAF,

^{46}Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory,

^{47}Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,

^{48}Jet Propulsion Laboratory,

^{49}Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory,

^{50}NASA Goddard Space Flight Center,

^{51}Tohoku University, Astronomical Institute,

^{52}NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

This paper describes the Polarization Spectroscopic Telescope Array (PolSTAR), a mission proposed to NASA's 2014 Small Explorer (SMEX) announcement of opportunity. PolSTAR measures the linear polarization of 3-50 keV (requirement; goal: 2.5-70 keV) X-rays probing the behavior of matter, radiation and the very fabric of spacetime under the extreme conditions close to the event horizons of black holes, as well as in and around magnetars and neutron stars. Read More

We investigate the observational constraints on the modified gravity, which combines the $R^{2-q}$ inflation with the power-law (exponential) type of the viable $f(R)$ dark energy models. We discuss the difference between the combined model and $R^{2-q}$ gravity in the inflationary epoch and obtain the constraints on the deviation power $q$ as well as the parameters in $f(R)$ by using the CosmoMC package. The allowed ranges of the spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio from the Planck data are highly restricted, resulting in $q < 2. Read More

We consider generic models of quintessence and we investigate the influence of massive neutrino matter with field-dependent masses on the matter power spectrum. In case of minimally coupled neutrino matter, we examine the effect in tracker models with inverse power-law and double exponential potentials. We present detailed investigations for the scaling field with a steep exponential potential, non-minimally coupled to massive neutrino matter, and we derive constraints on field-dependent neutrino masses from the observational data. Read More

The dynamics of inertial particles in turbulence is modelled and investigated by means of direct numerical simulation of an axisymmetrically expanding homogeneous turbulent strained flow. This flow can mimic the dynamics of particles close to stagnation points. The influence of mean straining flow is explored by varying the dimensionless strain rate parameter $Sk_0/\epsilon_0$ from 0. Read More

We have carried out photometric follow-up observations of bright transiting extrasolar planets using the CbNUOJ 0.6m telescope. We have tested the possibility of obtaining high photometric precision by applying the telescope defocus technique allowing the use of several hundred seconds in exposure time for a single measurement. Read More

We investigate the matter power spectra in the power law and exponential types of viable $f(R)$ theories along with massive neutrinos. The enhancement of the matter power spectrum is found to be a generic feature in these models. In particular, we show that in the former type, such as the Starobinsky model, the spectrum is magnified much larger than the latter one, such as the exponential model. Read More

We investigate the viable exponential $f(R)$ gravity in the metric formalism with $f(R)=-\beta R_s (1-e^{-R/R_s})$. The latest sample of the Hubble parameter measurements with 23 data points is used to place bounds on this $f(R)$ model. A joint analysis is also performed with the luminosity distances of Type Ia supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations in the clustering of galaxies, and the shift parameters from the cosmic microwave background measurements, which leads to $0. Read More

We present the physical properties of V404 Lyr exhibiting eclipse timing variations and multiperiodic pulsations from all historical data including the Kepler observations. Detailed analyses of 2,922 minimum epochs showed that the orbital period has varied through a combination with an upward-opening parabola and two sinusoidal variations, with periods of $P_3$=649 d and $P_4$=2,154 d and semi-amplitudes of $K_3$=193 s and $K_4$=49 s, respectively. The secular period increase could be interpreted as a combination of the secondary to primary mass transfer and angular momentum loss. Read More

In this work we revisit the proposed multi-circumbinary system RZ Dra. We find the proposed system to be highly unstable. We attempt to find a best-fit light-travel time model rendering the orbits to follow stable orbits. Read More

Even though the recently discovered high-magnification event MOA-2010-BLG-311 had complete coverage over the peak, confident planet detection did not happen due to extremely weak central perturbations (fractional deviations of $\lesssim 2\%$). For confident detection of planets in extremely weak central perturbation (EWCP) events, it is necessary to have both high cadence monitoring and high photometric accuracy better than those of current follow-up observation systems.The next-generation ground-based observation project, KMTNet (Korea Microlensing Telescope Network), satisfies the conditions. Read More

We present the observational results of this kind of rare object 1SWASP J093010.78+533859.5, for which the doubly eclips- ing feature had been detected previously from the SuperWASP photometric archive. Read More

New multiband CCD photometry is presented for V407 Peg; the $R_{\rm C}$ light curves are the first ever compiled. Our light curves, displaying a flat bottom at secondary minimum and an O'Connell effect, were simultaneously analyzed with the radial-velocity (RV) curves given by Rucinski et al. (2008). Read More

**Authors:**Chung Il Lee, Jae Won Shin, Sei-Chul Yoon, Tae Suk Suh, Seung-Woo Hong, Kyung Joo Min, Sang Deok Lee, Su Mi Chung, Jae-Yong Jung

**Category:**Physics - Medical Physics

The percentage depth dose distributions in inhomogeneous phantoms with lung and bone equivalent media are studied. For lung equivalent media a Balsa wood is used, and for a soft bone equivalent media a compound material with epoxy resin, hardener and calcium carbonate is used. Polystyrene slabs put together with these materials are used as an inhomogeneous phantom. Read More

We study future singularity in teleparallel dark energy models, particularly its behavior and its (non)occurrence in the observationally viable models. For the models with a general self-potential of the scalar field, we point out that both at early times and in the future near the singularity the behavior of dark energy can be described by the analytic solutions of the scalar field we obtained for the model with no self-potential. As to the (non)occurrence in the viable models, we consider a natural binding-type self-potential, the quadratic potential, when fitting observational data, and illustrate the constraining region up to the $3\sigma$ confidence level as well as the region where a singularity will occur. Read More

We analyze the stability of the Einstein static closed and open universe in two types of exponential $f(T)$ gravity theories. We show that the stable solutions exist in these two models. In particular, we find that large regions of parameter space in equation of state $w=p/\rho$ for the stable universe are allowed in the $f(T)$ theories. Read More

This paper considers the multi-antenna multiple access relay channel (MARC), in which multiple users transmit messages to a common destination with the assistance of a relay. In a variety of MARC settings, the dynamic decode and forward (DDF) protocol is very useful due to its outstanding rate performance. However, the lack of good structured codebooks so far hinders practical applications of DDF for MARC. Read More

We study the cosmological effect of the simple scalar-torsion ($0^+$) mode in Poincar\'{e} gauge theory of gravity. We find that for the non-constant (affine) curvature case, the early evolution of the torsion density $\rho_T$ has a radiation-like asymptotic behavior of $a^{-4}$ with $a$ representing the scale factor, along with the stable point of the torsion pressure ($P_T$) and density ratio $P_T/\rho_T\rightarrow 1/3$ in the high redshift regime $(z \gg 0)$, which is different from the previous result in the literature. We use the Laurent expansion to resolve the solution. Read More

In a recent study, Armstrong et al. presented an eclipsing binary star of about 6.2 h period with transit-like tertiary signals occurring every 204. Read More

NSVS 02502726 has been known as a double-lined, detached eclipsing binary that consists of two low-mass stars. We obtained $BVRI$ photometric follow-up observations in 2009 and 2011 to measure improved physical properties of the binary star. Each set of light curves, including the 2008 data given by \cCakirli et al. Read More

New CCD photometric observations of BX Dra were obtained for 26 nights from 2009 April to 2010 June. The long-term photometric behaviors of the system are presented from detailed studies of the period and light variations, based on the historical data and our new observations. All available light curves display total eclipses at secondary minima and inverse O'Connell effects with Max I fainter than Max II, which are satisfactorily modeled by adding the slightly time-varying hot spot on the primary star. Read More

We investigate the equation of state (EoS) of the scalar-torsion mode in Poincar\'{e} gauge theory of gravity. We concentrate on two cases with the constant curvature solution and positive kinetic energy, respectively. In the former, we find that the torsion EoS has different values in the various stages of the universe. Read More

We propose the simplest model of teleparallel dark energy with purely a non-minimal coupling to gravity but no self-potential, a single model possessing various interesting features: simplicity, self-potential-free, the guaranteed late-time cosmic acceleration driven by the non-minimal coupling to gravity, tracker behavior of the dark energy equation of state at earlier times, a crossing of the phantom divide at a late time, and the existence of a finite-time future singularity. We find the analytic solutions of the dark-energy scalar field respectively in the radiation, matter, and dark energy dominated eras, thereby revealing the above features. We further illustrate possible cosmic evolution patterns and present the observational constraint of this model obtained by numerical analysis and data fitting. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute,

^{2}Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute,

^{3}Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute,

^{4}Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

**Category:**Earth and Planetary Astrophysics

Current microlensing follow-up observations focus on high-magnification events because of the high efficiency of planet detection. However, central perturbations of high-magnification events caused by a planet can also be produced by a very close or a very wide binary companion, and the two kinds of central perturbations are not generally distinguished without time consuming detailed modeling (a planet-binary degeneracy). Hence, it is important to resolve the planet-binary degeneracy that occurs in high-magnification events. Read More

We present new photometric data of the transiting planet HAT-P-12b observed in 2011. Our three transit curves are modelled using the JKTEBOP code and adopting the quadratic limb-darkening law. Including our measurements, 18 transit times spanning about 4. Read More

The curvature singularity in viable f(R) gravity models is examined when the background density is dense. This singularity could be eliminated by adding the $R^{2}$ term in the Lagrangian. Some of cosmological consequences, in particular the source for the scalar mode of gravitational waves, are discussed. Read More

In this work we propose a new orbital architecture for the two proposed circumbinary planets around the polar eclipsing binary HU Aquarii. We base the new two-planet, light-travel time model on the result of a Monte Carlo simulation driving a least-squares Levenberg-Marquardt minimisation algorithm on the observed eclipse egress times. Our best-fitting model with $\chi_{r}^2=1. Read More

Multiband CCD photometric observations of SZ Her were obtained between 2008 February and May. The light curve was completely covered and indicated a significant temperature difference between both components. The light-curve synthesis presented in this paper indicates that the eclipsing binary is a classical Algol-type system with parameters of $q$=0. Read More

We use data from Type Ia Supernovae (SNIa), Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO), and Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations to constrain the recently proposed teleparallel dark energy scenario based on the teleparallel equivalent of General Relativity, in which one adds a canonical scalar field, allowing also for a nonminimal coupling with gravity. Using the power-law, the exponential and the inverse hyperbolic cosine potential ansatzes, we show that the scenario is compatible with observations. In particular, the data favor a nonminimal coupling, and although the scalar field is canonical the model can describe both the quintessence and phantom regimes. Read More

Using the "teleparallel" equivalent of General Relativity as the gravitational sector, which is based on torsion instead of curvature, we add a canonical scalar field, allowing for a nonminimal coupling with gravity. Although the minimal case is completely equivalent to standard quintessence, the nonminimal scenario has a richer structure, exhibiting quintessence-like or phantom-like behavior, or experiencing the phantom-divide crossing. The richer structure is manifested in the absence of a conformal transformation to an equivalent minimally-coupled model. Read More

We review the equation of state for dark energy in modified gravity theories. In particular, we summarize the generic feature of the phantom divide crossing in the past and future in viable $f(R)$ gravity models. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}KASI,

^{2}KASI

**Category:**Earth and Planetary Astrophysics

We investigate high-magnification events caused by wide binary stellar and planetary systems under the moderately strong finite-source effect where the diameter of the source star is comparable with the caustics induced by a binary companion and a planet. From this investigation, we find that a characteristic feature in the central perturbations induced by the binary systems commonly appears in a constant range where the size of the caustic induced by the binary companion is between 1.5 and 1. Read More

We study gravitational waves in viable $f(R)$ theories under a non-zero background curvature. In general, an $f(R)$ theory contains an extra scalar degree of freedom corresponding to a massive scalar mode of gravitational wave. For viable $f(R)$ models, since there always exits a de-Sitter point where the background curvature in vacuum is non-zero, the mass squared of the scalar mode of gravitational wave is about the de-Sitter point curvature $R_{d}\sim10^{-66}eV^{2}$. Read More

We present new multiband CCD photometry for WZ Cyg made on 22 nights in two observing seasons of 2007 and 2008. Our light-curve synthesis indicates that the system is in poor thermal contact with a fill-out factor of 4.8% and a temperature difference of 1447 K. Read More

The Dynamic Decode-and-Forward (DDF) protocol and the Hybrid DDF and Amplified-and-Forward (HDAF) protocol for the multiple-access relay channel (MARC) with quasi static fading are evaluated using the Zheng-Tse diversity-multiplexing tradeoff (DMT). We assume that there are two users, one half-duplex relay, and a common destination, each equipped with single antenna. For the Rayleigh fading, the DDF protocol is well known and has been analyzed in terms of the DMT with infinite block length. Read More

We present four new transits of the planetary system TrES-3 observed between 2009 May and 2010 June. Among these, the third transit by itself indicates possible evidence for brightness disturbance, which might be the result of the planet blocking a cool starspot on the stellar surface. A total of 109 transit times, including our measurements, were used to determine the improved ephemeris with a transit epoch of 2454185. Read More

We present new multiband CCD photometry for AA UMa made on 8 nights between January and March 2009; the $R$ light curves are the first ever compiled. Historical light curves, as well as ours, display partial eclipses and inverse O'Connell effects with Max I fainter than Max II. Among possible spot models, a cool spot on either of the component stars and its variability with time permit good light-curve representations for the system. Read More

We study the cosmological evolutions of the equation of state for dark energy $w_{\mathrm{DE}}$ in the exponential and logarithmic as well as their combination $f(T)$ theories. We show that the crossing of the phantom divide line of $w_{\mathrm{DE}} = -1$ can be realized in the combined $f(T)$ theory even though it cannot be in the exponential or logarithmic $f(T)$ theory. In particular, the crossing is from $w_{\mathrm{DE}} > -1$ to $w_{\mathrm{DE}} < -1$, in the opposite manner from $f(R)$ gravity models. Read More

We study the observational constraints on the exponential gravity model of f(R)=-beta*Rs(1-e^(-R/Rs)). We use the latest observational data including Supernova Cosmology Project (SCP) Union2 compilation, Two-Degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS), Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS DR7) and Seven-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP7) in our analysis. From these observations, we obtain a lower bound on the model parameter beta at 1. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}KASI,

^{2}KASI

**Category:**Earth and Planetary Astrophysics

Just two of 10 extrasolar planets found by microlensing have been detected by the planetary caustic despite the higher probability of planet detection relative to the central caustic which has been responsible for four extrasolar planet detections. This is because the perturbations induced by the planetary caustic are unpredictable, thus making it difficult to carry out strategic observations. However, if future high-cadence monitoring surveys are conducted, the majority of planetary caustic events including the events by free-floating planets and wide-separation planets would be detected. Read More