# Chong Wang - Princeton University

## Contact Details

NameChong Wang |
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AffiliationPrinceton University |
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CityPrinceton |
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CountryUnited States |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## External Links |
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## Pub CategoriesPhysics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (20) Statistics - Machine Learning (13) Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (7) Computer Science - Artificial Intelligence (6) Computer Science - Learning (6) Physics - Optics (5) Physics - Instrumentation and Detectors (4) Physics - Superconductivity (3) Statistics - Computation (3) Quantum Physics (3) Computer Science - Computation and Language (3) High Energy Physics - Theory (3) Computer Science - Distributed; Parallel; and Cluster Computing (2) Computer Science - Information Retrieval (2) Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (2) Computer Science - Neural and Evolutionary Computing (1) Statistics - Methodology (1) Computer Science - Programming Languages (1) Computer Science - Software Engineering (1) Physics - Statistical Mechanics (1) Physics - Physics and Society (1) |

## Publications Authored By Chong Wang

When a fermionic quantum Hall system is projected into the lowest Landau level, there is an exact particle-hole symmetry between filling fractions $\nu$ and $1-\nu$. We investigate whether a similar symmetry can emerge in bosonic quantum Hall states, where it would connect states at filling fractions $\nu$ and $2-\nu$. We begin by showing that the particle-hole conjugate to a composite fermion `Jain state' is another Jain state, obtained by reverse flux attachment. Read More

The deconfined quantum critical point (QCP), separating the N\'eel and valence bond solid phases in a 2D antiferromagnet, was proposed as an example of $2+1$D criticality fundamentally different from standard Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson-Fisher {criticality}. In this work we present multiple equivalent descriptions of deconfined QCPs, and use these to address the possibility of enlarged emergent symmetries in the low energy limit. The easy-plane deconfined QCP, besides its previously discussed self-duality, is dual to $N_f = 2$ fermionic quantum electrodynamics (QED), which has its own self-duality and hence may have an O(4)$\times Z_2^T$ symmetry. Read More

We introduce a new paradigm of learning for reasoning, understanding, and prediction, as well as the scaffolding network to implement this paradigm. The scaffolding network embodies an incremental learning approach that is formulated as a teacher-student network architecture to teach machines how to understand text and do reasoning. The key to our computational scaffolding approach is the interactions between the teacher and the student through sequential questioning. Read More

Segmental structure is a common pattern in many types of sequences such as phrases in human languages. In this paper, we present a probabilistic model for sequences via their segmentations. The probability of a segmented sequence is calculated as the product of the probabilities of all its segments, where each segment is modeled using existing tools such as recurrent neural networks. Read More

It is well known that there is a particle-hole symmetry for spin-polarized electrons with two-body interactions in a partially filled Landau level, which becomes exact in the limit where the cyclotron energy is large compared to the interaction strength, so one can ignore mixing between Landau levels. This symmetry is explicit in the description of a half-filled Landau level recently introduced by D. T. Read More

In this paper, we propose TopicRNN, a recurrent neural network (RNN)-based language model designed to directly capture the global semantic meaning relating words in a document via latent topics. Because of their sequential nature, RNNs are good at capturing the local structure of a word sequence - both semantic and syntactic - but might face difficulty remembering long-range dependencies. Intuitively, these long-range dependencies are of semantic nature. Read More

The anomalous surface states of symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases are usually thought to be only possible in conjunction with the higher dimensional topological bulk. However, it has recently been realized that a class of anomalous SPT surface states can be realized in the same dimension if symmetries are allowed to act in a nonlocal fashion. An example is the particle-hole symmetric half filled Landau level, which effectively realizes the anomalous surface state of a 3D chiral Topological Insulator (class AIII). Read More

We study the interplay of particle-hole symmetry and fermion-vortex duality in multicomponent half-filled Landau levels, such as quantum Hall gallium arsenide bilayers and graphene. For the $\nu{=}1/2{+}1/2$ bilayer, we show that particle-hole-symmetric interlayer Cooper pairing of composite fermions leads to precisely the same phase as the electron exciton condensate realized in experiments. This equivalence is easily understood by applying the recent Dirac fermion formulation of $\nu{=}1/2$ to two components. Read More

For the first time, a direct detection BOTDR is demonstrated for distributed dynamic strain sensing incorporating double-edge technique, time-division multiplexing technique and upconversion technique. The double edges are realized by using the transmission curve and reflection curve of an all-fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI). Benefiting from the low loss of the fiber at, the time-division multiplexing technique is performed to realize the double-edge technique by using only a single-channel FPI and only one piece of a detector. Read More

An all-fiber, micro-pulse and eye-safe high spectral resolution wind lidar (HSRWL) at 1550nm is proposed and demonstrated by using a pair of upconversion single-photon detectors and a fiber Fabry-Perot scanning interferometer (FFP-SI). In order to improve the optical detection efficiency, both the transmission spectrum and the reflection spectrum of the FFP-SI are used for spectral analyses of the aerosol backscatter and the reference laser pulse. The reference signal is tapped from the outgoing laser and served as a zero velocity indicator. Read More

Building on earlier work in the high energy and condensed matter communities, we present a web of dualities in $2+1$ dimensions that generalize the known particle/vortex duality. Some of the dualities relate theories of fermions to theories of bosons. Others relate different theories of fermions. Read More

For the first time, a versatile, eyesafe, compact and direct detection Doppler lidar is developed using upconversion single-photon detection method. An all-fiber and polarization maintaining architecture is realized to guarantee the high optical coupling efficiency and the system stability. Using integrated-optic components, the conservation of etendue of the optical receiver is achieved by manufacturing a fiber-coupled periodically poled Lithium niobate waveguide and an all-fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI). Read More

We study composite fermi liquid (CFL) states in the lowest Landau level (LLL) limit at a generic filling $\nu = \frac{1}{n}$. We begin with the old observation that, in compressible states, the composite fermion in the lowest Landau level should be viewed as a charge-neutral particle carrying vorticity. This leads to the absence of a Chern-Simons term in the effective theory of the CFL. Read More

We present a systematic study of spin and lattice dynamics in the quasi-one-dimensional spiral magnet CuBr$_2$, using Raman scattering in conjunction with infrared and neutron spectroscopy as well as first-principles calculation. A rich set of broad Raman bands are observed as spin correlations develop upon cooling. The band energies approximately correspond to sharp optical phonons seen from our Raman and infrared data, and inelastic neutron scattering further reveals that most, if not all, of them are precisely equal to phonon-dispersion energies at the one-dimensional magnetic wave vector. Read More

Online discussion forums are complex webs of overlapping subcommunities (macrolevel structure, across threads) in which users enact different roles depending on which subcommunity they are participating in within a particular time point (microlevel structure, within threads). This sub-network structure is implicit in massive collections of threads. To uncover this structure, we develop a scalable algorithm based on stochastic variational inference and leverage topic models (LDA) along with mixed membership stochastic block (MMSB) models. Read More

**Authors:**Dario Amodei, Rishita Anubhai, Eric Battenberg, Carl Case, Jared Casper, Bryan Catanzaro, Jingdong Chen, Mike Chrzanowski, Adam Coates, Greg Diamos, Erich Elsen, Jesse Engel, Linxi Fan, Christopher Fougner, Tony Han, Awni Hannun, Billy Jun, Patrick LeGresley, Libby Lin, Sharan Narang, Andrew Ng, Sherjil Ozair, Ryan Prenger, Jonathan Raiman, Sanjeev Satheesh, David Seetapun, Shubho Sengupta, Yi Wang, Zhiqian Wang, Chong Wang, Bo Xiao, Dani Yogatama, Jun Zhan, Zhenyao Zhu

We show that an end-to-end deep learning approach can be used to recognize either English or Mandarin Chinese speech--two vastly different languages. Because it replaces entire pipelines of hand-engineered components with neural networks, end-to-end learning allows us to handle a diverse variety of speech including noisy environments, accents and different languages. Key to our approach is our application of HPC techniques, resulting in a 7x speedup over our previous system. Read More

Robust Bayesian models are appealing alternatives to standard models, providing protection from data that contains outliers or other departures from the model assumptions. Historically, robust models were mostly developed on a case-by-case basis; examples include robust linear regression, robust mixture models, and bursty topic models. In this paper we develop a general approach to robust Bayesian modeling. Read More

We develop a parallel variational inference (VI) procedure for use in data-distributed settings, where each machine only has access to a subset of data and runs VI independently, without communicating with other machines. This type of "embarrassingly parallel" procedure has recently been developed for MCMC inference algorithms; however, in many cases it is not possible to directly extend this procedure to VI methods without requiring certain restrictive exponential family conditions on the form of the model. Furthermore, most existing (nonparallel) VI methods are restricted to use on conditionally conjugate models, which limits their applicability. Read More

We synthesize and partly review recent developments relating the physics of the half-filled Landau level in two dimensions to correlated surface states of topological insulators in three dimensions. The latter are in turn related to the physics of certain three dimensional quantum spin liquid states. The resulting insights provide an interesting answer to the old question of how particle-hole symmetry is realized in composite fermion liquids. Read More

We discuss a non-fermi liquid gapless metallic surface state of the topological band insulator. It has an odd number of gapless Dirac fermions coupled to a non-compact U(1) gauge field. This can be viewed as a vortex dual to the conventional Dirac fermion surface state. Read More

We study possible quantum $U(1)$ spin liquids in three dimensions with time-reversal symmetry. We find a total of 7 families of such $U(1)$ spin liquids, distinguished by the properties of their emergent electric/magnetic charges. We show how these spin liquids are related to each other. Read More

A direct-detection Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometry (BOTDR) is proposed and demonstrated by using an up-conversion single-photon detector and a fiber Fabry-Perot scanning interferometer (FFP-SI). Taking advantage of high signal-to-noise ratio of the detector and high spectrum resolution of the FFP-SI, the Brillouin spectrum along a polarization maintaining fiber (PMF) is recorded on a multiscaler with a small data size directly. In contrast with conventional BOTDR adopting coherent detection, photon-counting BOTDR is simpler in structure and easier in data processing. Read More

Time reversal protected three dimensional (3D) topological paramagnets are magnetic analogs of the celebrated 3D topological insulators. Such paramagnets have a bulk gap, no exotic bulk excitations, but non-trivial surface states protected by symmetry. We propose that frustrated spin-1 quantum magnets are a natural setting for realising such states in 3D. Read More

A micro-pulse lidar at eye-safe wavelength is constructed based on an up-conversion single-photon detector. The ultralow noise detector enables using integration technique to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the atmospheric backscattering even at daytime. With the pulse energy of 110uJ, the pulse repetition rate of 15 kHz, the optical antenna diameter of 100 mm and integration time of 5 minutes, a horizontal detection range of 7 km is realized. Read More

We report inelastic light scattering measurements of lattice dynamics related to the incommensurate orbital order in $\mathrm{CaMn_7O_{12}}$. Below the ordering temperature $T_\mathrm{o} \approx 250 \,\mathrm{K}$, we observe extra phonon peaks as a result of Brillouin-zone folding, as well as a soft vibrational mode with a power-law $T$-dependent energy, $\Omega = \Omega_{0}(1 - T/T_{\mathrm{o}})^{1/2}$. This temperature dependence demonstrates the second-order nature of the transition at $T_\mathrm{o}$, and it indicates that the soft mode can be regarded as the amplitude excitation of the composite order parameter. Read More

The standard theoretical approach to gapless spin liquid phases of two-dimensional frustrated quantum antiferromagnets invokes the concept of fermionic slave particles into which the spin fractionalizes. As an alternate we explore new kinds of gapless spin liquid phases in frustrated quantum magnets with XY anisotropy where the vortex of the spin fractionalizes into gapless itinerant fermions. The resulting gapless fractionalized vortex liquid phases are studied within a slave particle framework that is dual to the usual one. Read More

We propose a simple theoretical construction of certain short-range entangled phases of interacting fermions, by putting the bound states of three fermions (which we refer to as clustons) into topological bands. We give examples in two and three dimensions, and show that they are distinct from any free fermion state. We further argue that these states can be viewed as combinations of certain free fermion topological states and bosonic symmetry-protected topological (SPT) states. Read More

With the rapid increasing of software project size and maintenance cost, adherence to coding standards especially by managing identifier naming, is attracting a pressing concern from both computer science educators and software managers. Software developers mainly use identifier names to represent the knowledge recorded in source code. However, the popularity and adoption consistency of identifier naming conventions have not been revealed yet in this field. Read More

Symmetry Protected Topological (SPT) phases are a minimal generalization of the concept of topological insulators to interacting systems. In this paper we describe the classification and properties of such phases for three dimensional(3D) electronic systems with a number of different symmetries. For symmetries representative of all classes in the famous 10-fold way of free fermion topological insulators/superconductors, we determine the stability to interactions. Read More

Studying temporal dynamics of topics in social media is very useful to understand online user behaviors. Most of the existing work on this subject usually monitors the global trends, ignoring variation among communities. Since users from different communities tend to have varying tastes and interests, capturing community-level temporal change can improve the understanding and management of social content. Read More

Communication costs, resulting from synchronization requirements during learning, can greatly slow down many parallel machine learning algorithms. In this paper, we present a parallel Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm in which subsets of data are processed independently, with very little communication. First, we arbitrarily partition data onto multiple machines. Read More

We report on a spin-polarized inelastic neutron scattering study of spin waves in the antiferromagnetically ordered state of BaFe2As2. Three distinct excitation components are identified, with spins fluctuating along the c-axis, perpendicular to the ordering direction in the ab-plane, and parallel to the ordering direction. While the first two "transverse" components can be described by a linear spin-wave theory with magnetic anisotropy and inter-layer coupling, the third "longitudinal" component is generically incompatible with the local moment picture. Read More

It is well known that the 3D electronic topological insulator (TI) with charge-conservation and time-reversal symmetry cannot have a trivial insulating surface that preserves symmetry. It is often implicitly assumed that if the TI surface preserves both symmetries then it must be gapless. Here we show that it is possible for the TI surface to be both gapped and symmetry-preserving, at the expense of having surface-topological order. Read More

A fundamental open problem in condensed matter physics is how the dichotomy between conventional and topological band insulators is modified in the presence of strong electron interactions. We show that there are 6 new electronic topological insulators that have no non-interacting counterpart. Combined with the previously known band-insulators, these produce a total of 8 topologically distinct phases. Read More

We study several aspects of the realization of global symmetries in highly entangled phases of quantum matter. Examples include gapped topological ordered phases, gapless quantum spin liquids and non-fermi liquid phases. An insightful window into such phases is provided by recent developments in the theory of short ranged entangled Symmetry Protected Topological (SPT) phases . Read More

We develop a nested hierarchical Dirichlet process (nHDP) for hierarchical topic modeling. The nHDP is a generalization of the nested Chinese restaurant process (nCRP) that allows each word to follow its own path to a topic node according to a document-specific distribution on a shared tree. This alleviates the rigid, single-path formulation of the nCRP, allowing a document to more easily express thematic borrowings as a random effect. Read More

We develop a nested hierarchical Dirichlet process (nHDP) for hierarchical topic modeling. The nHDP is a generalization of the nested Chinese restaurant process (nCRP) that allows each word to follow its own path to a topic node according to a document-specific distribution on a shared tree. This alleviates the rigid, single-path formulation of the nCRP, allowing a document to more easily express thematic borrowings as a random effect. Read More

Mean-field variational methods are widely used for approximate posterior inference in many probabilistic models. In a typical application, mean-field methods approximately compute the posterior with a coordinate-ascent optimization algorithm. When the model is conditionally conjugate, the coordinate updates are easily derived and in closed form. Read More

We develop stochastic variational inference, a scalable algorithm for approximating posterior distributions. We develop this technique for a large class of probabilistic models and we demonstrate it with two probabilistic topic models, latent Dirichlet allocation and the hierarchical Dirichlet process topic model. Using stochastic variational inference, we analyze several large collections of documents: 300K articles from Nature, 1. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Google,

^{2}Princeton University,

^{3}Google,

^{4}Google

Retrieval tasks typically require a ranking of items given a query. Collaborative filtering tasks, on the other hand, learn to model user's preferences over items. In this paper we study the joint problem of recommending items to a user with respect to a given query, which is a surprisingly common task. Read More

In this paper, we develop the continuous time dynamic topic model (cDTM). The cDTM is a dynamic topic model that uses Brownian motion to model the latent topics through a sequential collection of documents, where a "topic" is a pattern of word use that we expect to evolve over the course of the collection. We derive an efficient variational approximate inference algorithm that takes advantage of the sparsity of observations in text, a property that lets us easily handle many time points. Read More

The hierarchical Dirichlet process (HDP) has become an important Bayesian nonparametric model for grouped data, such as document collections. The HDP is used to construct a flexible mixed-membership model where the number of components is determined by the data. As for most Bayesian nonparametric models, exact posterior inference is intractable---practitioners use Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) or variational inference. Read More

We present the discrete infinite logistic normal distribution (DILN), a Bayesian nonparametric prior for mixed membership models. DILN is a generalization of the hierarchical Dirichlet process (HDP) that models correlation structure between the weights of the atoms at the group level. We derive a representation of DILN as a normalized collection of gamma-distributed random variables, and study its statistical properties. Read More

Ant colony optimization (ACO) has been applied to the field of combinatorial optimization widely. But the study of convergence theory of ACO is rare under general condition. In this paper, the authors try to find the evidence to prove that entropy is related to the convergence of ACO, especially to the estimation of the minimum iteration number of convergence. Read More