# Cheng Chin

## Contact Details

NameCheng Chin |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesPhysics - Other (12) Physics - Statistical Mechanics (6) Physics - Atomic Physics (5) Quantum Physics (3) Physics - Soft Condensed Matter (3) Computer Science - Sound (2) Physics - Superconductivity (2) Statistics - Machine Learning (2) Computer Science - Learning (2) Mathematics - Functional Analysis (2) Mathematics - Analysis of PDEs (1) Physics - Disordered Systems and Neural Networks (1) Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (1) Nuclear Theory (1) Nonlinear Sciences - Pattern Formation and Solitons (1) Computer Science - Computation and Language (1) Physics - Instrumentation and Detectors (1) Mathematics - Classical Analysis and ODEs (1) |

## Publications Authored By Cheng Chin

Building a voice conversion (VC) system from non-parallel speech corpora is challenging but highly valuable in real application scenarios. In most situations, the source and the target speakers do not repeat the same texts or they may even speak different languages. In this case, one possible, although indirect, solution is to build a generative model for speech. Read More

Absorption imaging of ultracold atoms is the foundation for quantitative extraction of information from experiments with ultracold atoms. Due to the limited exposure time available in these systems, the signal-to-noise ratio is largest for high intensity absorption imaging where the intensity of the imaging light is on the order of the saturation intensity. In this case, the absolute value of the intensity of the imaging light enters as an additional parameter making it more sensitive to systematic errors. Read More

Optical control and manipulation of cold atoms has become an important topic in condensed matter. Widely employed are optical lattice shaking experiments which allow the introduction of artificial gauge fields, the design of topological bandstructures, and more general probing of quantum critical phenomena. Here we develop new numerical methods to simulate these periodically driven systems by implementing lattice shaking directly. Read More

Efimov physics is a universal phenomenon arising in quantum three-body systems. For systems with resonant two-body interactions, Efimov predicted an infinite series of three-body bound states with geometric scaling symmetry. These Efimov states were first observed in cold Cs atoms and have since been reported in a variety of atomic systems. Read More

We study the domain walls which form when Bose condensates acquire a double-well dispersion. Experiments have observed such domain walls in condensates driven across a $\mathbb{Z}_2$ symmetry-breaking phase transition in a shaken optical lattice. We derive a generic model to describe the dispersion and to compute the wavefunctions and energies of the domain walls. Read More

In this paper, we propose a dictionary update method for Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) with high dimensional data in a spectral conversion (SC) task. Voice conversion has been widely studied due to its potential applications such as personalized speech synthesis and speech enhancement. Exemplar-based NMF (ENMF) emerges as an effective and probably the simplest choice among all techniques for SC, as long as a source-target parallel speech corpus is given. Read More

We propose a flexible framework for spectral conversion (SC) that facilitates training with unaligned corpora. Many SC frameworks require parallel corpora, phonetic alignments, or explicit frame-wise correspondence for learning conversion functions or for synthesizing a target spectrum with the aid of alignments. However, these requirements gravely limit the scope of practical applications of SC due to scarcity or even unavailability of parallel corpora. Read More

The dynamics of many-body systems spanning condensed matter, cosmology, and beyond is hypothesized to be universal when the systems cross continuous phase transitions. The universal dynamics is expected to satisfy a scaling symmetry of space and time with the crossing rate, inspired by the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. We test this symmetry based on Bose condensates in a shaken optical lattice. Read More

Optical control of atomic interactions in a quantum gas is a long-sought goal of cold atom research. Previous experiments have been hindered by short lifetimes and parasitic deformation of the trap potential. Here, we develop and implement a generic scheme for optical control of Feshbach resonance in quantum gases, which yields long condensate lifetimes sufficient to study equilibrium and non-equilibrium physics with negligible parasitic dipole force. Read More

The low temperature unitary Bose gas is a fundamental paradigm in few-body and many-body physics, attracting wide theoretical and experimental interest. Here we first present a theoretical model that describes the dynamic competition between two-body evaporation and three-body re-combination in a harmonically trapped unitary atomic gas above the condensation temperature. We identify a universal magic trap depth where, within some parameter range, evaporative cooling is balanced by recombination heating and the gas temperature stays constant. Read More

We demonstrate levitation and three-dimensionally stable trapping of a wide variety of particles in a vacuum chamber through the use of the thermophoretic force in the presence of a strong temperature gradient. Typical sizes of the trapped particles are between 10 microns and 1 mm at a pressure between 1 and 10 Torr. The trapping stability is provided by the geometry of the temperature field, as well as the transition between the free molecule and hydrodynamic regimes of the thermophoretic force. Read More

We present experimental evidence showing that an interacting Bose condensate in a shaken optical lattice develops a roton-maxon excitation spectrum, a feature normally associated with superfluid helium. The roton-maxon feature originates from the double-well dispersion in the shaken lattice, and can be controlled by both the atomic interaction and the lattice shaking amplitude. We determine the excitation spectrum using Bragg spectroscopy and measure the critical velocity by dragging a weak speckle potential through the condensate - both techniques are based on a digital micromirror device. Read More

In few-body physics, Efimov states are an infinite series of three-body bound states that obey universal discrete scaling symmetry when pairwise interactions are resonantly enhanced. Despite abundant reports of Efimov states in recent cold atom experiments, direct observation of the discrete scaling symmetry remains an elusive goal. Here we report the observation of three consecutive Efimov resonances in a heteronuclear Li-Cs mixture near a broad interspecies Feshbach resonance. Read More

We study the quantum phase transition between a normal Bose superfluid to one that breaks additional Z_2 Ising symmetry. Using the recent shaken optical lattice experiment as an example, we first show that at mean-field level atomic interaction can significantly shift the critical point. Near the critical point, bosons can condense into a momentum state with high or even locally maximum kinetic energies due to interaction effect. Read More

One exciting progress in recent cold atom experiments is the development of high resolution, in situ imaging techniques for atomic quantum gases [1-3]. These new powerful tools provide detailed information on the distribution of atoms in a trap with resolution approaching the level of single atom and even single lattice site, and complement the well developed time-of-flight method that probes the system in momentum space. In a condensed matter analogy, this technique is equivalent to locating electrons of a material in a snap shot. Read More

In this paper we compare Bose transport in normal phase atomic gases with its counterpart in Fermi gases, illustrating the non-universality of two dimensional bosonic transport associated with different dissipation mechanisms. Near the superfluid transition temperature $T_c$, a striking similarity between the fermionic and bosonic transport emerges because super-conducting(fluid) fluctuation transport for Fermi gases is dominated by the bosonic, Cooper pair component. As in fluctuation theory, one finds that the Seebeck coefficient changes sign at $T_c$ and the Lorenz number approaches zero at $T_c$. Read More

We present the design, construction and characterization of Bitter-type electromagnets which can generate high magnetic fields under continuous operation with efficient heat removal for cold atom experiments. The electromagnets are constructed from a stack of alternating layers consisting of copper arcs and insulating polyester spacers. Efficient cooling of the copper is achieved via parallel rectangular water cooling channels between copper layers with low resistance to flow; a high ratio of the water-cooled surface area to the volume of copper ensures a short length scale ~1 mm to extract dissipated heat. Read More

In condensed matter physics, transport measurements are essential not only for the characterization of materials, but also to discern between quantum phases and identify new ones. The extension of these measurements into atomic quantum gases is emerging and will expand the scope of quantum simulation and atomtronics. To push this frontier, we demonstrate an innovative approach to extract transport properties from the time-resolved redistribution of the particles and energy of a trapped atomic gas. Read More

Solid state systems derive their richness from the interplay between interparticle interactions and novel band structures that deviate from those of free particles. Strongly interacting systems, where both of these phenomena are of equal importance, exhibit a variety of theoretically interesting and practically useful phases. Systems of ultracold atoms are rapidly emerging as precise and controllable simulators, and it is precisely in this strongly interacting regime where simulation is the most useful. Read More

In this paper we study the transient dynamics of a Bose superfluid subsequent to an interaction quench. Essential for equilibration is a source of dissipation which we include following the approach of Caldeira and Leggett. Here we solve the equations of motion exactly by integrating out an environmental bath. Read More

In this paper, we prove a $Tb$ theorem on product spaces $\Bbb R^n\times \Bbb R^m$, where $b(x_1,x_2)=b_1(x_1)b_2(x_2)$, $b_1$ and $b_2$ are para-accretive functions on $\Bbb R^n$ and $\Bbb R^m$, respectively. Read More

We prepare and study strongly interacting two-dimensional Bose gases in the superfluid, the classical Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition, and the vacuum-to-superfluid quantum critical regimes. A wide range of the two-body interaction strength 0.05 < g < 3 is covered by tuning the scattering length and by loading the sample into an optical lattice. Read More

We report the experimental and theoretical study of two-body interactions in a $^{6}$Li-$^{133}$Cs Fermi- Bose mixture. Using a translatable dipole trap setup, we have successfully trapped the two species in the same trap with temperatures of a few microkelvins. By monitoring atom number loss and inter-species thermalization, we identify five s-wave interspecies Feshbach resonances in the lowest two scattering channels. Read More

Nagel and Stein established $L^p$-boundedness for a class of singular integrals of NIS type, that is, non-isotropic smoothing operators of order 0, on spaces $\widetilde{M}=M_1\times... Read More

Sakharov oscillations, conventionally discussed in the context of early universe evolution and the anisotropy of cosmic microwave background radiation, is the manifestation of interfering acoustic waves synchronously generated in an ideal fluid. Here we report the laboratory demonstration of Sakharov oscillations in a quenched atomic superfluid. We quench the sample by Feshbach tuning and monitor the subsequent density fluctuations at different time and length scales by in situ imaging. Read More

In this paper, weighted norm inequalities with $A_p$ weights are established for the multilinear singular integral operators whose kernels satisfy $L^{r'}$-H\"ormander regularity condition. As applications, we recover a weighted estimate for the multilinear Fourier multiplier obtained by Fujita and Tomita, and obtain several new weighted estimates for the multilinear Fourier multiplier as well. Read More

Recent cold atom experiments report a surprising universal scaling of the first Efimov resonance position a_{-}^1 by the two-body van der Waals length r_{vdW}. The ratio C=-a_{-}^1/r_{vdW}=8.5~9. Read More

As the temperature of a many-body system approaches absolute zero, thermal fluctuations of observables cease and quantum fluctuations dominate. Competition between different energies, such as kinetic energy, interactions or thermodynamic potentials, can induce a quantum phase transition between distinct ground states. Near a continuous quantum phase transition, the many-body system is quantum critical, exhibiting scale invariant and universal collective behavior \cite{Coleman05Nat, Sachdev99QPT}. Read More

Let $L= -\Delta_{\mathbb{H}^n}+V$ be a Schr\"odinger operator on the Heisenberg group $\mathbb{H}^n$, where $\Delta_{\mathbb{H}^n}$ is the sub-Laplacian and the nonnegative potential $V$ belongs to the reverse H\"older class $B_{\frac{Q}{2}}$ and $Q$ is the homogeneous dimension of $\mathbb{H}^n$. The Riesz transforms associated with the Schr\"odinger operator $L$ are bounded from $L^1(\mathbb{H}^n)$ to $L^{1,\infty}(\mathbb{H}^n)$. The $L^1$ integrability of the Riesz transforms associated with $L$ characterizes a certain Hardy type space denoted by $H^1_L(\mathbb{H}^n)$ which is larger than the usual Hardy space $H^1(\mathbb{H}^n)$. Read More

We present a complete recipe to extract the density-density correlations and the static structure factor of a two-dimensional (2D) atomic quantum gas from in situ imaging. Using images of non-interacting thermal gases, we characterize and remove the systematic contributions of imaging aberrations to the measured density-density correlations of atomic samples. We determine the static structure factor and report results on weakly interacting 2D Bose gases, as well as strongly interacting gases in a 2D optical lattice. Read More

Critical behavior developed near a quantum phase transition, interesting in its own right, offers exciting opportunities to explore the universality of strongly-correlated systems near the ground state. Cold atoms in optical lattices, in particular, represent a paradigmatic system, for which the quantum phase transition between the superfluid and Mott insulator states can be externally induced by tuning the microscopic parameters. In this paper, we describe our approach to study quantum criticality of cesium atoms in a two-dimensional lattice based on in situ density measurements. Read More

The collective behavior of a many-body system near a continuous phase transition is insensitive to the details of its microscopic physics[1]. Characteristic features near the phase transition are that the thermodynamic observables follow generalized scaling laws[1]. The Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) phase transition[2,3] in two-dimensional (2D) Bose gases presents a particularly interesting case because the marginal dimensionality and intrinsic scaling symmetry[4] result in a broad fluctuation regime which manifests itself in an extended range of universal scaling behavior. Read More

We study transport dynamics of ultracold cesium atoms in a two-dimensional optical lattice across the superfluid-Mott insulator transition based on in situ imaging. Inducing the phase transition with a lattice ramping routine expected to be locally adiabatic, we observe a global mass redistribution which requires a very long time to equilibrate, more than 100 times longer than the microscopic time scales for on-site interaction and tunneling. When the sample enters the Mott insulator regime, mass transport significantly slows down. Read More

We study near-equilibrium thermodynamics of bosonic atoms in a two-dimensional optical lattice by ramping up the lattice depth to convert a superfluid into an inhomogeneous mixture of superfluid and Mott insulator. Detailed study of in situ density profiles shows that, first, locally adiabatic ramps do not guarantee global thermal equilibrium. Indeed, full thermalization for typical parameters only occurs for experiment times which exceed one second. Read More

We describe new techniques in the construction of optical lattices to realize a coherent atom-based microscope, comprised of two atomic species used as target and probe atoms, each in an independently controlled optical lattice. Precise and dynamic translation of the lattices allows atoms to be brought into spatial overlap to induce atomic interactions. For this purpose, we have fabricated two highly stable, hexagonal optical lattices, with widely separted wavelengths but identical lattice constants using diffractive optics. Read More

We present a direct measurement of the density profile of a two-dimensional Mott Insulator formed by ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. High resolution absorption imaging is used to probe the "wedding-cake" structure of a trapped gas as it crosses the boundary from a unit-filled Mott insulating phase to the superfluid phase at finite temperature. Detailed analysis of images yields measurements of temperature and local compressibility; for the latter we observe a strong suppression deep in the Mott-insulating phase, which is recovered for the superfluid and normal phases. Read More

Ultracold molecules offer brand new opportunities to probe the variation of fundamental constants with unprecedented sensitivity. This paper summarizes theoretical background and current constraints on the variation of fine structure constant and electron-to-proton mass ratio, as well as proposals and experimental efforts to measure the variations based on ultracold molecules. In particular, we describe two novel spectroscopic schemes on ultracold molecules which have greatly enhanced sensitivity to fundamental constants: resonant scattering near Feshbach resonances and spectroscopy on close-lying energy levels of ultracold molecules. Read More

We describe a novel scheme to implement scalable quantum information processing using Li-Cs molecular state to entangle $^{6}$Li and $^{133}$Cs ultracold atoms held in independent optical lattices. The $^{6}$Li atoms will act as quantum bits to store information, and $^{133}$Cs atoms will serve as messenger bits that aid in quantum gate operations and mediate entanglement between distant qubit atoms. Each atomic species is held in a separate optical lattice and the atoms can be overlapped by translating the lattices with respect to each other. Read More

Feshbach resonances are the essential tool to control the interaction between atoms in ultracold quantum gases. They have found numerous experimental applications, opening up the way to important breakthroughs. This Review broadly covers the phenomenon of Feshbach resonances in ultracold gases and their main applications. Read More

A universal characterization of interactions in few- and many-body quantum systems is often possible without detailed description of the interaction potential, and has become a defacto assumption for cold atom research. Universality in this context is defined as the validity to fully characterize the system in terms of two-body scattering length. We discuss universality in the following three contexts: closed-channel dominated Feshbach resonance, Efimov physics near Feshbach resonances, and corrections to the mean field energy of Bose-Einstein condensates with large scattering lengths. Read More

We demonstrate a simple scheme to achieve fast, runaway evaporative cooling of optically trapped atoms by tilting the optical potential with a magnetic field gradient. Runaway evaporation is possible in this trap geometry due to the weak dependence of vibration frequencies on trap depth, which preserves atomic density during the evaporation process. Using this scheme, we show that Bose-Einstein condensation with ~10^5 cesium atoms can be realized in 2~4 s of forced evaporation. Read More

Scattering length, which can be measured in Bose-Einstein condensate and Feshbach molecule experiments, is extremely sensitive to the variation of fundamental constants, in particular, the electron-to-proton mass ratio (m_e/m_p or m_e/Lambda_{QCD}, where Lambda_{QCD} is the QCD scale). Based on single- and two-channel scattering model, we show how the variation of the mass ratio propagates to the scattering length. Our results suggest that variation of m_e/m_p on the level of 10^{-11}~10^{-14} can be detected near a narrow magnetic or an optical Feshbach resonance by monitoring the scattering length on the 1% level. Read More

We present a two-channel model to describe the quantum state of two atoms with finite-range interaction near a Feshbach resonance. This model provides a simple picture to analytically derive the wave function and the binding energy of the molecular bound state. The results agree excellently with the measurements and multichannel calculations. Read More

We present a mean field approach based on pairs of fermionic atoms to describe condensates in the BEC-BCS crossover regime. By introducing an effective potential, the mean field equation allows us to calculate the chemical potential, the equation of states and the atomic correlation function. The results agree surprisingly well with recent quantum Monte Carlo calculations. Read More

We report on the optimized production of a Bose-Einstein condensate of cesium atoms using an optical trapping approach. Based on an improved trap loading and evaporation scheme we obtain more than $10^5$ atoms in the condensed phase. To test the tunability of the interaction in the condensate we study the expansion of the condensate as a function of scattering length. Read More

We show that radio-frequency spectroscopy on weakly-bound molecules is a powerful and sensitive tool to probe molecular energy structure as well as atomic scattering properties. An analytic expression of the rf excitation lineshape is derived, which in general contains a bound-free component and a bound-bound component. In particular, we show that the bound-free process strongly depends on the sign of the scattering length in the outgoing channel and acquires a Fano-type profile near a Feshbach resonance. Read More

We have observed and located more than 60 magnetic field-induced Feshbach resonances in ultracold collisions of ground-state $^{133}$Cs atoms. These resonances are associated with molecular states with up to four units of rotational angular momentum, and are detected through variations in the elastic, inelastic, and radiative collision cross sections. These observations allow us to greatly improve upon the interaction potentials between two cesium atoms and to reproduce the positions of most resonances to accuracies better than 0. Read More

We derive the equilibrium conditions for a thermal atom-molecule mixture near a Feshbach resonance. Under the assumption of low collisional loss, thermodynamical properties are calculated and compared to the measurements of a recent experiment on fermionic lithium experiment. We discuss and evaluate possible collision mechanisms which can lead to atom-molecule conversion. Read More

We investigate the stability of magnetically trapped atomic Bose-Einstein condensates and thermal clouds near the transition temperature at small distances 0.5 microns < d < 10 microns from a microfabricated silicon chip. For a 2 microns thick copper film the trap lifetime is limited by Johnson-noise induced currents and falls below 1 s at a distance of 4 microns. Read More

We observe the dynamic formation of $Cs_2$ molecules near Feshbach resonances in a cold sample of atomic cesium using an external probe beam. This method is 300 times more sensitive than previous atomic collision rate methods, and allows us to detect more than 20 weakly-coupled molecular states, with collisional formation cross sections as small as $\sigma =3\times 10^{-16}$cm$^2$. We propose a model to describe the atom-molecule coupling, and estimate that more than $2 \times 10^5$ $Cs_2$ molecules coexist in dynamical equilibrium with $10^8$ $Cs$ atoms in our trap for several seconds. Read More