Chen Wang - McMaster Centre for Software Certification, McMaster University

Chen Wang
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Chen Wang
McMaster Centre for Software Certification, McMaster University

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Quantum Physics (16)
Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (11)
Mathematics - Statistics (5)
Physics - Optics (5)
Statistics - Theory (5)
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (4)
Physics - Superconductivity (4)
Computer Science - Logic in Computer Science (3)
Computer Science - Software Engineering (3)
Physics - Chemical Physics (2)
Physics - Materials Science (2)
Physics - Biological Physics (2)
Computer Science - Distributed; Parallel; and Cluster Computing (2)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (2)
Computer Science - Mathematical Software (1)
Computer Science - Information Theory (1)
Mathematics - Information Theory (1)
Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (1)
Mathematics - Optimization and Control (1)
Statistics - Methodology (1)
Mathematics - Combinatorics (1)
Physics - Soft Condensed Matter (1)
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (1)
Computer Science - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (1)
Computer Science - Robotics (1)
Computer Science - Networking and Internet Architecture (1)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (1)

Publications Authored By Chen Wang

We determine spectral indices of 228 pulsars by using Parkes pulsar data observed at 1.4 GHz, among which 200 spectra are newly determined. The indices are distributed in the range from -4. Read More

Eliminating duplicate data in primary storage of clouds increases the cost-efficiency of cloud service providers as well as reduces the cost of users for using cloud services. Existing primary deduplication techniques either use inline caching to exploit locality in primary workloads or use post-processing deduplication running in system idle time to avoid the negative impact on I/O performance. However, neither of them works well in the cloud servers running multiple services or applications for the following two reasons: Firstly, the temporal locality of duplicate data writes may not exist in some primary storage workloads thus inline caching often fails to achieve good deduplication ratio. Read More

The goal of this paper is to create a new framework of Visual SLAM that is light enough for Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (MUAV). Feature-based and direct methods are two mainstreams in Visual SLAM. Both methods minimize photometric or reprojection error by iterative solutions, which are always computationally expensive. Read More

To study the full counting statistics of quantum heat transfer in a driven nonequilibrium spin-boson model, we develop a generalized nonequilibrium polaron-transformed Redfield equation with an auxiliary counting field. This enables us to study the impact of qubit-bath coupling ranging from weak to strong regimes. Without external modulations, we observe maximal values of both steady state heat flux and noise power at moderate coupling regimes, below which we find those two transport quantities are enhanced by the finite qubit energy bias. Read More

Johansen's (1988, 1991) likelihood ratio test for cointegration rank of a Gaussian VAR depends only on the squared sample canonical correlations between current changes and past levels of a simple transformation of the data. We study the asymptotic behavior of the empirical distribution of those squared canonical correlations when the number of observations and the dimensionality of the VAR diverge to infinity simultaneously and proportionally. We find that the distribution almost surely weakly converges to the so-called Wachter distribution. Read More

We investigate the ground state behavior of the Dicke-Hubbard model including counter-rotating-terms. By generalizing an extended coherent state approach within mean-field theory, we self-consistently obtain the ground state energy and delocalized order parameter. Localization-delocalization quantum phase transition of photons is clearly observed by breaking the parity symmetry. Read More

Numerous loss mechanisms can limit coherence and scalability of planar and 3D-based circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED) devices, particularly due to their packaging. The low loss and natural isolation of 3D enclosures make them good candidates for coherent scaling. We introduce a coaxial transmission line device architecture with coherence similar to traditional 3D cQED systems. Read More

To improve the temporal and spatial storage efficiency, researchers have intensively studied various techniques, including compression and deduplication. Through our evaluation, we find that methods such as photo tags or local features help to identify the content-based similar- ity between raw images. The images can then be com- pressed more efficiently to get better storage space sav- ings. Read More

Quantum superpositions of distinct coherent states in a single-mode harmonic oscillator, known as "cat states", have been an elegant demonstration of Schrodinger's famous cat paradox. Here, we realize a two-mode cat state of electromagnetic fields in two microwave cavities bridged by a superconducting artificial atom, which can also be viewed as an entangled pair of single-cavity cat states. We present full quantum state tomography of this complex cat state over a Hilbert space exceeding 100 dimensions via quantum non-demolition measurements of the joint photon number parity. Read More

PSR B0919+06 generally radiates radio pulses in a normal phase range. It has been known for its occasional perplexing abnormal emission events wherein individual pulses come to an earlier phase range for a few tens of periods and then returns to its usual phase. Heretofore, only a few such events have been available for study. Read More

Currently, there are 24 black hole (BH) X-ray binary systems that have been dynamically confirmed in the Galaxy. Most of them are low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) comprised of a stellar-mass BH and a low-mass donor star. Although the formation of these systems has been extensively investigated, some crucial issues remain unresolved. Read More

Oscillations between photons and axion-like particles (ALP) travelling in intergalactic magnetic fields have been invoked to explain a number of astrophysical phenomena, or used to constrain ALP properties using observations. One example is the anomalous transparency of the universe to TeV gamma-rays. The intergalactic magnetic field is usually modeled as patches of coherent domains, each with a uniform magnetic field, but the field orientation changes randomly from one domain to the next ("discrete-$\varphi$ model"). Read More

Consider the following dynamic factor model: $\mathbf{R}_t=\sum_{i=0}^q \mathbf{\Lambda}_i \mathbf{f}_{t-i}+\mathbf{e}_t,t=1,... Read More

We report the discovery of a ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX; CXO J133815.6+043255) in NGC 5252. This ULX is an off-nuclear point-source, which is 22$^{\prime\prime}$ away from the center of NGC 5252, and has an X-ray luminosity of 1. Read More

We study the energy relaxation times ($T_1$) of superconducting transmon qubits in 3D cavities as a function of dielectric participation ratios of material surfaces. This surface participation ratio, representing the fraction of electric field energy stored in a dissipative surface layer, is computed by a two-step finite-element simulation and experimentally varied by qubit geometry. With a clean electromagnetic environment and suppressed non-equilibrium quasiparticle density, we find an approximately proportional relation between the transmon relaxation rates and surface participation ratios. Read More

Optical control over elementary molecular vibration establishes fundamental capabilities for exploiting the broad range of optical linear and nonlinear phenomena. However, experimental demonstration of the coherently driven molecular vibration remains a challenge task due to the weak optical force imposed on natural materials. Here we report the design of "meta-atom" that exhibits giant artificial optical nonlinearity. Read More

Significant advances in coherence have made superconducting quantum circuits a viable platform for fault-tolerant quantum computing. To further extend capabilities, highly coherent quantum systems could act as quantum memories for these circuits. A useful quantum memory must be rapidly addressable by qubits, while maintaining superior coherence. Read More

We explore energy transfer in a generic three-level system, which is coupled to three non-equilibrium baths. Built on the concept of quantum heat engine, our three-level model describes non-equilibrium quantum processes including light-harvesting energy transfer, nano-scale heat transfer, photo-induced isomerization, and photovoltaics in double quantum-dots. In the context of light-harvesting, the excitation energy is first pumped up by sunlight, then is transferred via two excited states which are coupled to a phonon bath, and finally decays to the ground state. Read More

We investigate the steady state photon transport in a nonequilibrium collective-qubit model. By adopting the noninteracting blip approximation, which is applicable in the strong photon-qubit coupling regime, we describe the essential contribution of indirect qubit-qubit interaction to the population distribution, mediated by the photonic baths. The linear relations of both the optimal flux and noise power with the qubits system size are obtained. Read More

Colloidal spheres synthesized from polymer gels swell by absorbing molecules from solution. The resulting change in size can be monitored with nanometer precision using holographic video microscopy. When the absorbate is chemically similar to the polymer matrix, swelling is driven primarily by the entropy of mixing, and is limited by the surface tension of the swelling sphere and by the elastic energy of the polymer matrix. Read More

Affiliations: 1McMaster University, 2McMaster University, 3McMaster University, 4McMaster University, 5Systemware Innovation Corporation, 6Systemware Innovation Corporation, 7Systemware Innovation Corporation

A critical step towards certifying safety-critical systems is to check their conformance to hard real-time requirements. A promising way to achieve this is by building the systems from pre-verified components and verifying their correctness in a compositional manner. We previously reported a formal approach to verifying function blocks (FBs) using tabular expressions and the PVS proof assistant. Read More

Timed Transition Models (TTMs) are event-based descriptions for modelling, specifying, and verifying discrete real-time systems. An event can be spontaneous, fair, or timed with specified bounds. TTMs have a textual syntax, an operational semantics, and an automated tool supporting linear-time temporal logic. Read More

The layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted considerable interest due to their unique electronic and optical properties. Here we report electric field induced strong electroluminescence in multi-layer MoS2 and WSe2. We show that GaN-Al2O3-MoS2 and GaN-Al2O3-MoS2-Al2O3-graphene vertical heterojunctions can be created with excellent rectification behaviour. Read More

We investigate the microscopic mechanism of quantum energy transfer in the nonequilibrium spin-boson model. By developing a nonequilibrium polaron-transformed Redfield equation based on fluctuation decoupling, we dissect the energy transfer into multi-boson associated processes with even or odd parity. Based on this, we analytically evaluate the energy flux, which smoothly bridges the transfer dynamics from the weak spin-boson coupling regime to the strong-coupling one. Read More

Excitation of a model photosynthetic molecular aggregate by incoherent sunlight is systematically examined. For a closed system, the excited state coherence induced by the sunlight oscillates with an average amplitude that is inversely proportional to the excitonic gap, and reaches a stationary amplitude that depends on the temperature and coherence time of the radiation field. For an open system, the light-induced dynamical coherence relaxes to a static coherence determined by the non-canonical thermal distribution resulting from the entanglement with the phonon bath. Read More

Superconducting circuits have attracted growing interest in recent years as a promising candidate for fault-tolerant quantum information processing. Extensive efforts have always been taken to completely shield these circuits from external magnetic field to protect the integrity of superconductivity. Surprisingly, here we show vortices can improve the performance of superconducting qubits by reducing the lifetimes of detrimental single-electron-like excitations known as quasiparticles. Read More

In this article, we focus on the problem of testing the equality of several high dimensional mean vectors with unequal covariance matrices. This is one of the most important problem in multivariate statistical analysis and there have been various tests proposed in the literature. Motivated by \citet{BaiS96E} and \cite{ChenQ10T}, a test statistic is introduced and the asymptomatic distributions under the null hypothesis as well as the alternative hypothesis are given. Read More

As the energy relaxation time of superconducting qubits steadily improves, non-equilibrium quasiparticle excitations above the superconducting gap emerge as an increasingly relevant limit for qubit coherence. We measure fluctuations in the number of quasiparticle excitations by continuously monitoring the spontaneous quantum jumps between the states of a fluxonium qubit, in conditions where relaxation is dominated by quasiparticle loss. Resolution on the scale of a single quasiparticle is obtained by performing quantum non-demolition projective measurements within a time interval much shorter than $T_1$, using a quantum limited amplifier (Josephson Parametric Converter). Read More

The p-n diodes represent the most fundamental device building block for diverse optoelectronic functions, but are difficult to achieve in atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) due to the inability to selectively dope them into p- or n-type semiconductors. Here we report the first demonstration of an atomically thin and atomically sharp heterojunction p-n diode by vertically stacking p-type monolayer tungsten diselenide (WSe2) and n-type few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2). Electrical measurement demonstrates excellent diode characteristics with well-defined current rectification behaviour and an ideality factor of 1. Read More

In Jin et al. (2014), the limiting spectral distribution (LSD) of a symmetrized auto-cross covariance matrix is derived using matrix manipulation, with finite $(2+\delta)$-th moment assumption. Here we give an alternative method using a result in Bai and Silverstein (2010), in which a weaker condition of finite 2nd moment is assumed. Read More

As the popularity of electric vehicles increases, the demand for more power can increase more rapidly than our ability to install additional generating capacity. In the long term we expect that the supply and demand will become balanced. However, in the interim the rate at which electric vehicles can be deployed will depend on our ability to charge these vehicles without inconveniencing their owners. Read More

The auto-cross covariance matrix is defined as \[\mathbf{M}_n=\frac{1} {2T}\sum_{j=1}^T\bigl(\mathbf{e}_j\mathbf{e}_{j+\tau}^*+\mathbf{e}_{j+ \tau}\mathbf{e}_j^*\bigr),\] where $\mathbf{e}_j$'s are $n$-dimensional vectors of independent standard complex components with a common mean 0, variance $\sigma^2$, and uniformly bounded $2+\eta$th moments and $\tau$ is the lag. Jin et al. [Ann. Read More

We investigate quantum photovoltaic effect in double quantum dots by applying nonequilibrium quantum master equation. The drastic suppression of the photovoltaic current is observed near the open circuit voltage, which leads to the large filling factor. We find that there always exists an optimal inter-dot tunneling that significantly enhances the photovoltaic current. Read More

Recent ultrafast optical experiments show that excitons in large biological light-harvesting complexes are coupled to molecular vibration modes. These high-frequency vibrations will not only affect the optical response, but also drive the exciton transport. Here, using a model dimer system, the frequency of the underdamped vibration is shown to have a strong effect on the exciton dynamics such that quantum coherent oscillations in the system can be present even in the case of strong noise. Read More

The existence of Large sets of Kirkman Triple Systems (LKTS) is an old problem in combinatorics. Known results are very limited, and a lot of them are based on the works of Denniston \cite{MR0349416, MR0369086, MR535159, MR539718}. The only known recursive constructions are an tripling construction by Denniston \cite{MR535159}and a product construction by Lei \cite{MR1931492}, both constructs an LKTS($uv$) on the basis of an LKTS($v$). Read More

A daunting challenge faced by modern biological sciences is finding an efficient and computationally feasible approach to deal with the curse of high dimensionality. The problem becomes even more severe when the research focus is on interactions. To improve the performance, we propose a low-rank interaction model, where the interaction effects are modeled using a low-rank matrix. Read More

The counter rotating-wave term (CRT) effects from the system-bath coherence on the dynamics of quantum correlation of two qubits in two independent baths and a common bath are systematically investigated. The hierarchy approach is extended to solve the relevant spin boson models with the Lorentzian spectrum, the exact dynamics for the quantum entanglement and quantum discord (QD) are evaluated, and the comparisons with previous ones under the rotating-wave approximation are performed. For the two independent baths, beyond the weak system-bath coupling, the CRT essentially changes the evolution of both entanglement and QD. Read More

Affiliations: 1McMaster Centre for Software Certification, McMaster University, 2Department of Computer Science, University of Oxford

Model-driven engineering is the automatic production of software artefacts from abstract models of structure and functionality. By targeting a specific class of system, it is possible to automate aspects of the development process, using model transformations and code generators that encode domain knowledge and implementation strategies. Using this approach, questions of correctness for a complex, software system may be answered through analysis of abstract models of lower complexity, under the assumption that the transformations and generators employed are themselves correct. Read More

All-optical integrated circuits for computing and information processing have been pursued for decades as a potential strategy to overcome the speed limitations intrinsic to electronics. However feasible on-chip integrated logic units and devices still have been limited by its size, quality, scalability, and reliability. Here we demonstrate all-passive on-chip optical AND and NAND logic gates made from a directional emitting cavity connecting two ultrasmall photonic crystal heterojunction diodes. Read More

The quantum Rabi model can be solved exactly by the Bargmann transformation from real coordinate to complex variable recently [Phys. Rev. Lett. Read More

On-chip optical isolators play a key role in optical communications and computing based on silicon integrated photonic structures. Recently there have raised great attentions and hot controversies upon isolation of light via linear and passive photonic structures. Here we analyze the optical isolation properties of a silicon photonic crystal slab heterojunction diode by comparing the forward transmissivity and round-trip reflectivity of in-plane infrared light across the structure. Read More

We demonstrate a simple network-analyzer technique to make quantitative measurements of the bias dependence of spin torque in a magnetic tunnel junction. We apply a microwave current to exert an oscillating spin torque near the ferromagnetic resonance frequency of the tunnel junction's free layer. This produces an oscillating resistance that, together with an applied direct current, generates a microwave signal that we measure with the network analyzer. Read More

A pure spin current generated within a nonlocal spin valve can exert a spin transfer torque on a nanomagnet. This nonlocal torque enables new design schemes for magnetic memory devices that do not require the application of large voltages across tunnel barriers that can suffer electrical breakdown. Here we report a quantitative measurement of this nonlocal spin torque using spin-torque-driven ferromagnetic resonance. Read More

The dynamics of the quantum discord for two identical qubits in both two independent single-mode cavities and a common single-mode cavity are discussed. For the initial Bell state with correlated spins, while the entanglement sudden death can occur, the quantum discord vanishes only at discrete moments in the independent cavities and never vanishes in the common cavity. Interestingly, quantum discord and entanglement show opposite behaviors in the common cavity, unlike in the independent cavities. Read More

Quantum and classical pairwise correlations in two typical collective spin systems (i.e., the Dicke model and the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model) are discussed. Read More

Node localization plays an important role in many practical applications of wireless underground sensor networks (WUSNs), such as finding the locations of earthquake epicenters, underground explosions, and microseismic events in mines. It is more difficult to obtain the time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) measurements in WUSNs than in terrestrial wireless sensor networks because of the unfavorable channel characteristics in the underground environment. The robust Chinese remainder theorem (RCRT) has been shown to be an effective tool for solving the phase ambiguity problem and frequency estimation problem in wireless sensor networks. Read More

We report on infrared (IR) nanoscopy of 2D plasmon excitations of Dirac fermions in graphene. This is achieved by confining mid-IR radiation at the apex of a nanoscale tip: an approach yielding two orders of magnitude increase in the value of in-plane component of incident wavevector q compared to free space propagation. At these high wavevectors, the Dirac plasmon is found to dramatically enhance the near-field interaction with mid-IR surface phonons of SiO2 substrate. Read More

Optical isolation is a long pursued object with fundamental difficulty in integrated photonics. As a step towards this goal, we demonstrate the design, fabrication, and characterization of on-chip wavelength-scale optical diodes that are made from the heterojunction between two different silicon two-dimensional square-lattice photonic crystal slabs with directional bandgap mismatch and different mode transitions. The measured transmission spectra show considerable unidirectional transmission behavior, in good agreement with numerical simulations. Read More

In this paper, we investigate the problem of scheduling parallel Kalman filters for multiple processes, where each process is observed by a Kalman filter and at each time step only one Kalman filter could obtain observation due to practical constraints. To solve the problem, two novel notions, permissible consecutive observation loss (PCOL) and least consecutive observation (LCO), are introduced as criteria to describe feasible observation sequences for a process ensuring desired estimation qualities. Then two methods, namely, threshold method and periodic method, are proposed to calculate PCOL and LCO for each process. Read More

Within the framework of nonequilibrium Green's functions, we investigate the thermoelectric transport in a single molecular junction with electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions. By transforming into a displaced phonon basis, we are able to deal with these interactions non-perturbatively. Then, by invoking the weak tunneling limit, we are able to calculate the thermoelectricity. Read More