# Chao Chang

## Contact Details

NameChao Chang |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesHigh Energy Physics - Phenomenology (46) High Energy Physics - Experiment (13) Nuclear Theory (2) High Energy Physics - Theory (1) High Energy Physics - Lattice (1) Physics - Biological Physics (1) Computer Science - Other (1) |

## Publications Authored By Chao Chang

Membrane fluidity, well-known to be essential for cell functions, is obviously affected by copper. However, the underlying mechanism is still far from being understood, especially on the atomic level. Here, we unexpectedly observed that a decrease in phospholipid (PL) bilayer fluidity caused by Cu2+ was much more significant than those induced by Zn2+ and Ca2+, while a comparable reduction occurred in the last two ions. Read More

Production of the $B_c$ and $B_c^*$ mesons at $Z$-factory (an $e^+e^-$ collider running at energies around $Z$ pole) is calculated up-to the next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD corrections. The results show that the dependence of the total cross sections on the renormalization scale $\mu$ is reduced by the corrections, and the NLO corrections enhance the production cross section by $52\%$($33\%$) when the renormalization scale is taken at $\mu=2m_b$. For experimental observations of the $B_c$ and $B_c^*$ mesons, the differential cross sections for the production are also analyzed up-to the NLO accuracy. Read More

We give a systematical study on the recently reported excited charm and charm-strange mesons with potential $1^-$ spin-parity, including the $D^*_{s1}(2700)^+$, $D^*_{s1}(2860)^+$, $D^*(2600)^0$, $D^*(2650)^0$, $D^*_1(2680)^0$ and $D^*_1(2760)^0$. The main strong decay properties are obtained by the framework of Bethe-Salpeter (BS) methods. Our results reveal that the two $1^-$ charm-strange mesons can be well described by the further $2^3\!S_1$-$1^3\!D_1$ mixing scheme with a mixing angle of $8. Read More

To investigate finite-volume effects on the chiral symmetry restoration and the deconfinement transition and some impacts of possible global topological background for a quantum chromodynamics (QCD) system with $N_f=2$ (two quark flavors), we apply the Polyakov-loop extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model by introducing a chiral chemical potential $\mu_5$ artificially. The final numerical results indicate that the introduced chiral chemical potential does not change the critical exponents but shifts the location of critical end point (CEP) significantly; the ratios for the chiral chemical potentials and temperatures at CEP, $\mu_c/\mu_{5c}$ and $T_c/T_{5c}$, are significantly affected by the system size $R$. The behavior is that $T_c$ increases slowly with $\mu_5$ when $R$ is large and $T_c$ decreases first and then increases with $\mu_5$ when $R$ is small. Read More

Production of the doubly heavy-flavored hadrons ($B_c$ meson, doubly heavy baryons $\Xi_{cc}$, $\Xi_{bc}$, $\Xi_{bb}$, their excited states and antiparticles of them as well) at $e^+e^-$ colliders is investigated under two different approaches: $LO$ (leading order QCD complete calculation) and $LL$ (leading logarithm fragmentation calculation). The results for the production obtained by the approaches $LO$ and $LL$, including the angle distributions of the produced hadrons with unpolarized and polarized incoming beams, the behaviors on the energy fraction of the produced doubly heavy hadron and comparisons between the two approaches' results, are presented in terms of tables and figures. Thus characteristics of the production and uncertainties of the approaches are shown precisely, and it is concluded that only if the colliders run at the eneries around $Z$-pole (which may be called as $Z$-factories) and additionally the luminosity of the colliders is as high as possible then to study the doubly heavy hadrons thoroughly is accessible. Read More

A newly upgraded version of the BCVEGPY, a generator for hadronic production of the meson $B_c$ and its excited states, is available. In comparison with the previous one [C.H. Read More

The semileptonic decays $B_c^+\rightarrow P(V) +\ell^++\bar{\nu}_\ell$ and the nonleptonic decays $B_c^+\rightarrow P(V)+L$, where $P(V)$ denotes a pseudoscalar (vector) charmonium or ($\bar{b}s$)-meson, and $L$ denotes a light meson, are studied in the framework of improved instantaneous Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation and the Mandelstam formula. The numerical results (width and branching ratio of the decays) are presented in tables, and in order to compare conveniently, those obtained by other approaches are also put in the relevant tables. Based on the fact that the ratio $\frac{\mathcal{BR}(B_c^+\rightarrow\psi(2S)\pi^+)}{\mathcal{BR}(B_c^+\rightarrow J/\psi \pi^+)}=0. Read More

Three new observables for Z-factory to measure the weak dipole moment of $\tau$ lepton ($d_w^\tau$) are proposed. As those observables employed at LEP-I, the new observables depend on the real and imaginary parts of $d_w^\tau$ linearly, thus we calculate the slopes, i.e. Read More

The production of the three normal neutrinos via $e^-e+$ collision at $Z$-boson peak (neutrino production in a Z-factory) is investigated thoroughly. The differences of $\nu_e$-pair production from $\nu_\mu$-pair and $\nu_\tau$-pair production are presented in various aspects. Namely the total cross sections, relevant differential cross sections and the forward-backward asymmetry etc for these neutrinos are presented in terms of figures as well as numerical tables. Read More

We precisely derive the mass squared matrices for charged and neutral (CP-odd and CP-even) Higgs, as well as the mass matrices for neutrino-neutralino and charged lepton-chargino in the minimal R-parity violating supersymmetry with local $U(1)_{B-L}$ symmetry. In the framework the nonzero TeV scale vacuum expectations of right-handed sneutrinos induce the heavy mass of neutral $U(1)_{B-L}$ gauge boson, and result in relatively large mixing between the lightest CP-even Higgs and three generation right-handed sneutrinos when we include the one-loop corrections to the scalar potential. We numerically show that there is parameter space of the considered model to accommodate experimental data on the newly ones of Higgs signal from LHC and experimental observations on the neutrino oscillation simultaneously. Read More

We re-calculate the exclusive semileptonic and nonleptonic decays of $B_c$ meson to a $P$-wave charmonium in terms of the improved Bethe-Salpeter (B-S) approach, which is developed recently. Here the widths for the exclusive semileptonic and nonleptonic decays, the form factors, and the charged lepton spectrums for the semileptonic decays are precisely calculated. To test the concerned approach by comparing with experimental measurements when the experimental data are available, and to have comparisons with the other approaches the results obtained by the approach and those by some approaches else as well as the original B-S approach, which appeared in literature, are comparatively presented and discussed. Read More

Considering the possibility to build an $e^+e^-$ collider at the energies around $Z$-boson resonance with a luminosity so high as ${\cal L} \propto 10^{34}cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ (even higher) and the abilities of a modern synthesis detector, we systematically calculate the exclusive two body processes: $e^+e^-$ annihilates into a heavy quarkonium and a photon (initiate state radiation i.e. ISR is involved), at the energies around the $Z$-boson resonance. Read More

Considering the fact that some excited states of the heavy quarkonia (charmonium and bottomonium) still missing in experimental observations and potential applications of the relevant wave functions of the bound states, we re-analyze the spectrum and the relevant wave functions of the heavy quarkonia within the framework of Bethe-Salpeter (B.S.) equation with a proper QCD-inspired kernel. Read More

The magnetic dipole transitions between the vector mesons $B_c^*$ and their relevant pseudoscalar mesons $B_c$ ($B_c$, $B_c^*$, $B_c(2S)$, $B_c^*(2S)$, $B_c(3S)$ and $B_c^*(3S)$ etc, the binding states of $(c\bar{b})$ system) of the $B_c$ family are interesting. To see the `hyperfine' splitting due to spin-spin interaction is an important topic for understanding the spin-spin interaction and the spectrum of the the $(c\bar{b})$ binding system. The knowledge about the magnetic dipole transitions is also very useful for identifying the vector boson $B_c^*$ mesons experimentally, whose masses are just slightly above the masses of their relevant pseudoscalar mesons $B_c$ accordingly. Read More

An upgraded (second) version of the package GENXICC ({\bf A Generator for Hadronic Production of the Double Heavy Baryons $\Xi_{cc}$, $\Xi_{bc}$ and $\Xi_{bb}$ by C.H. Chang, J. Read More

We study the hadronic production of $B_s$ and $B_s^*$ mesons within the fixed-flavor-number scheme, in which the dominant gluon-gluon fusion mechanism is dealt with by using the complete $\alpha_s^4$ approach. Main theoretical uncertainties for $B_s$ and $B_s^*$ production at TEVATRON and LHC are presented. It is found that when $m_s$ increases by steps of 0. Read More

We investigate the J/psi polarization in photoproduction at the Hadron Electron Ring Accelerator(HERA) up to the next-to-leading order of QCD. The results show that the transverse momentum p_t and energy fraction z distributions of J/psi production do not agree with the observed ones very well. The theoretical uncertainties for the z distributions of the J/psi polarization parameters with respect to various choices of the renormalization and factorization scales are too large to give an accurate prediction. Read More

Based on a systematic investigation of $J/\psi(\psi^\prime)\to VP$, where $V$ and $P$ stand for light vector and pseudoscalar mesons, we identify the role played by the electromagnetic (EM) transitions and intermediate meson loop transitions, which are essential ingredients for understanding the $J/\psi$ and $\psi^\prime$ couplings to $VP$. We show that on the one hand, the EM transitions have relatively larger interferences in $\psi^\prime\to \rho\pi$ and $K^*\bar{K}+c.c. Read More

A novel fabrication process, which uses wafer transfer and micro-electroplating technique, has been proposed and tested. In this paper, the effects of the diaphragm thickness and stress, the air-gap thickness, and the area ratio of acoustic holes to backplate on the sensitivity of the condenser microphone have been demonstrated since the performance of the microphone depends on these parameters. The microphone diaphragm has been designed with a diameter and thickness of 1. Read More

The production of $(b\bar{c})$-quarkonium ($\bar{B}_c$ meson and its excited states) or $(c\bar{b})$-quarkonium ($B_c$ meson and its excited states) via top quark $t$ or top anti-quark $\bar{t}$ decays, $t\to (b\bar{c})+c+W^+$ or $\bar{t}\to (c\bar{b})+\bar{c}+W^-$, respectively is studied within the framework of NRQCD. In addition to the production of the two color-singlet $S$-wave states $|(b\bar{c})(^1S_0)_{\bf 1}>$ or $|(c\bar{b})(^1S_0)_{\bf 1}>$ and $|(b\bar{c})(^3S_1)_{\bf 1}>$ or $|(c\bar{b})(^3S_1)_{\bf 1}>$, the production of the $P$-wave excited $(b\bar{c})$ or $(c\bar{b})$ states, i.e. Read More

In this work, we evaluate the lifetimes of the doubly charmed baryons $\Xi_{cc}^{+}$, $\Xi_{cc}^{++}$ and $\Omega_{cc}^{+}$. We carefully calculate the non-spectator contributions at the quark level where the Cabibbo-suppressed diagrams are also included. The hadronic matrix elements are evaluated in the simple non-relativistic harmonic oscillator model. Read More

We write down a generator program for the hadronic production of the double-heavy baryons $\Xi_{cc}$, $\Xi_{bc}$ and $\Xi_{bb}$ according to relevant publications. We name it as GENXICC and we test it by comparing its numerical results with those in references. It is written in a PYTHIA-compatible format and it can be easily implemented into PYTHIA. Read More

We introduce a parametrization scheme for $J/\psi(\psi^\prime)\to VP$ where the effects of SU(3) flavor symmetry breaking and doubly OZI-rule violation (DOZI) can be parametrized by certain parameters with explicit physical interpretations. This scheme can be used to clarify the glueball-$q\bar{q}$ mixing within the pseudoscalar mesons. We also include the contributions from the electromagnetic (EM) decays of $J/\psi$ and $\psi^\prime$ via $J/\psi(\psi^\prime)\to \gamma^*\to VP$. Read More

The electromagnetic decay contributions to $J/\psi(\psi^\prime)\to VP$, where $V$ and $P$ stand for vector and pseudoscalar meson, respectively, are investigated in a vector meson dominance (VMD) model. We show that $J/\psi (\psi^\prime)\to \gamma^*\to VP$ can be constrained well with the available experimental information. We find that this process has significant contributions in $\psi^\prime\to VP$ and may play a key role in understanding the deviations from the so-called "12% rule" for the branching ratio fractions between $\psi^\prime\to VP$ and $J/\psi\to VP$. Read More

The effects of the intrinsic charm on the hadronic production of $\Xi_{cc}$ are studied. By taking reasonable intrinsic charm component into account, the change of the theoretical prediction on the production of $\Xi_{cc}$ for LHC and Tevatron is small, but in contrast it may enhance significantly for SELEX. The reason is that the collision energy at LHC and Tevatron is so large that the gluon-gluon fusion sub-process, which is irrelevant to intrinsic charm, becomes dominant. Read More

This paper has been withdrawn by the author, due some mistakes in this paper. Read More

An upgraded version of the package [BCVEGPY2.0: Chao-Hsi Chang, Jian-Xiong Wang and Xing-Gang Wu, Comput. Phys. Read More

The light top-squark $\sto$ may be the lightest squark and its lifetime may be `long enough' in a kind of SUSY models which have not been ruled out yet experimentally, so colorless `supersymmetric hadrons (superhadrons)' $(\sto \bar{q})$ ($q$ is a quark except $t$-quark) may be formed as long as the light top-squark $\sto$ can be produced. Fragmentation function of $\sto$ to heavy `supersymmetric hadrons (superhadrons)' $(\sto \bar{Q})$ ($\bar{Q}=\bar{c}$ or $\bar{b}$) and the hadronic production of the superhadrons are investigated quantitatively. The fragmentation function is calculated precisely. Read More

Hadronic production of the doubly charmed baryon $\Xi_{cc}$ ($\Xi^{++}_{cc}$ and $\Xi^{+}_{cc}$) is investigated under the general-mass variable-flavor-number (GM-VFN) scheme. The gluon-gluon fusion mechanism and the intrinsic charm mechanisms, i.e. Read More

Studies on the decay and production of $B_c (B^*_c)$ meson are briefly reviewed. Considering RUN-II of Tevatron and the schedule of LHC, the theoretical studies of $B_c$ meson will jump to a new stage not only for itself but also to implement the studies of the heavy quarkonia etc. Read More

In general-mass variable-flavor-number (GM-VFN) scheme, the `heavy quark mechanisms' of $B_c(B_c^*)$ meson hadroproduction via the sub-processes $g+c\to B_c(B_c^*)+... Read More

We present a quantitative analysis of the $D^{+}_{sJ}(2632)$ observed by SELEX mainly focusing on the assumption that $D^{+}_{sJ}(2632)$ is the first radial excitation of the $1^{-}$ ground state $D^{*}_{s}(2112)$. By solving the instantaneous Bethe-Salpeter equation, we obtain the mass $2658\pm 15$ MeV for the first excited state, which is about 26 MeV heavier than the experimental value $2632\pm 1.7$ MeV. Read More

The generator BCVEGPY is upgraded by adding the hadroproduction of the $P$-wave excited $B_c$ states (denoted by $B_{cJ,L=1}^*$ or by $h_{B_c}$ and $\chi_{B_c}$) and by improving some features of the original one as well. We denote it as BCVEGPY2.0. Read More

The contributions from the color-octet components $|(c\bar b)_{\bf 8}(^{1}S_{0}) g>$ and $|(c\bar b)_{\bf 8}(^{3}S_{1}) g>$ to the $h_{B_c}$ or $\chi_{B_c}^J$ (the $P$-wave $B_c$ meson) hadroproduction are estimated in terms of the complete ${\cal O}(\alpha_s^4)$ calculation. As necessary inputs in the estimate, we take the values of the octet matrix elements according to the NRQCD scaling rules, and as a result, we have found that the contributions to the $P$-wave production may be the same in order of magnitude as those from the color-singlet ones, $|(c\bar b)_{\bf 1}(^{1}P_{1})>$ and $|(c\bar b)_{\bf 1}(^{3}P_{J})>$ ($J=1,2,3$). Especially, our result indicates that the observation of the color-octet contributions to the $P$-wave production in the low transverse momentum region is not very far from the present experimental capability at Tevatron and LHC. Read More

We take ($\mu^\pm e^\mp$) systems and consider the states with quantum number $J^P=0^-$ as examples, to explore the different contents of the instantaneous Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation and its analog, Breit equation, by solving them exactly. The results show that the two equations are not equivalent, although they are analogous. Furthermore, we point out that the Breit equation contains extra un-physical solutions, so it should be abandoned if one wishes to have an accurate description of the bound states for the instantaneous interacting binding systems. Read More

Adopting the complete $\alpha_s^4$ approach of the perturbative QCD (pQCD) and updated parton distribution functions, we have estimated the hadronic production of $P$-wave excited $B_c$-states ($B_{cJ,L=1}^*$). In the estimate, special care on the relation of the production amplitude to the derivative of wave function at origin of the potential model is payed. For experimental references, main uncertainties are discussed, and the total cross sections and the distributions of the production with reasonable cuts at the energies of Tevatron and LHC are computed and presented. Read More

We try to apply a constituent quark model (a variety chiral constituent quark model) and the resonating group approach for the multi-quark problems to compute the effective potential between the $N\bar{N}$ in $S$-wave (the quarks in the nucleons $N$ and $\bar{N}$, and the two nucleons relatively as well, are in $S$ wave) so as to see the possibility if there may be a tight bound state of six quarks as indicated by a strong enhancement at threshold of $p\bar{p}$ in $J/\psi$ and B decays. The effective potential which we obtain in terms of the model and approach shows if the experimental enhancement is really caused by a tight $S$-wave bound state of six quarks, then the quantum number of the bound state is very likely to be $I=1, J^{PC}=0^{-+}$. Read More

We present an approach to solve a Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation exactly without any approximation if the kernel of the BS equation exactly is instantaneous, and take positronium as an example to illustrate the general features of the solutions. As a middle stage, a set of coupled and self-consistent integration equations for a few scalar functions can be equivalently derived from the BS equation always, which are solvable accurately. For positronium, precise corrections to those of the Schr\"odinger equation in order $v$ (relative velocity) in eigenfunctions, in order $v^2$ in eigenvalues, and the possible mixing, such as that between $S$ ($P$) and $D$ ($F$) components in $J^{PC}=1^{--}$ ($J^{PC}=2^{++}$) states as well, are determined quantitatively. Read More

The instantaneous formulations for the relativistic Bethe-Salpeter (BS) and the radiative transitions between the bound-states are achieved if the BS kernel is instantaneous. It is shown that the original Salpeter instantaneous equation set up on the BS equation with an instantaneous kernel should be extended to involve the `small (negative energy) component' of the BS wave functions. As a precise example of the extension for the bound states with one kind of quantum number, the way to reduce the novel extended instantaneous equation is presented. Read More

We have written a Fortran programme BCVEGPY, which is an event generator for the hadronic production of the $B_c$ meson through the dominant hard subprocess $gg\to B_c(B_c^*) +b+\bar{c}$. To achieve a compact programme, we have written the amplitude of the subprocess with the particle helicity technique and made it as symmetric as possible, by decomposing the gluon self couplings and then applying the symmetries. To check the programme, various cross sections of the subprocess have been computed numerically and compared with those in the literature. Read More

The uncertainties in estimating the hadronic production of the $B_c$ meson are studied under the framework of the complete $\alpha_s^4$ approach of the perturbative QCD and the gluon-gluon fusion mechanism. Quantitative comparisons on the production at TEVATRON and LHC are made. Considering the detectors at TEVATRON and LHC, we have also estimated the production with proper kinematic cuts. Read More

In this work, we evaluate the contributions of non-spectator effects to the lifetimes of $\Lambda_b$ and B-mesons. Based on the well-established models and within a reasonable range of the concerned parameters, the contributions can reduce the lifetime of $\Lambda_b$ by $7 \sim 8%$ compared to that of B-mesons which are not significantly affected. This might partly explain the measured ratio $\tau(\Lambda_{b})/\tau(B^{0})=0. Read More

The quark recombination mechanism is proposed to explain the asymmetry between production rates of $D^+$ and of $D^-$ in their inclusive productions, and also asymmetries for other charmed hadrons. These asymmetries are observed in experiment and are called as leading particle effects. In this work we give a general analysis for contributions of quark recombination to these asymmetries. Read More

Since long-lived light bottom squark (sbottom) and its anti-particle with a mass close to the bottom quark have not been excluded by experiments so far, we consider such a sbottom to combine with its anti-particle to form a color singlet meson-like bound state or to combine with a common anti-quark to form a fermion-like one, or accordingly their anti-particles to form an anti-particle bound system. Namely we calculate the low-lying spectrum of the systems based on QCD inspired potential model. To be as relativistic as possible, we start with the framework of Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation even for non-relativistic binding systems. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Zhao-Xi Zhang,

^{2}Zhao-Xi Zhang

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

The annihilation of the $B_c$ meson to leptons and inclusive light hadrons is analyzed in the framework of nonrelativistic QCD (NRQCD) factorization. We find that the decay mode, which escapes from the helicity suppression, contributes a sizable fraction width. According to the analysis, the branching ratio due to the contribution from the color-singlet component of the meson $B_c$ can be of order (10^{-2}). Read More

A method for obtaining the low chemical potential dependence of the dressed quark propagator from an effective quark-quark interaction model is developed. From this the chemical potential dependence of the chiral quark condensate and bag constant are evaluated. It is found that the chiral order parameter decreases with the increasing chemical potential $\mu$, which is qualitatively different from the results given by some authors in the literature. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Zhao-Xi Chang

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

Theoretical computations on the decays of $B_c$ meson to $P$-wave charmonium $\chi_c$ or $h_c$ with some particle(s) else and on the decays of $B_c$ meson to leptons with gluon bremsstrahlung, and the results as well are outlined. Read More

The possible transverse polarization of the $\tau$-lepton, which is $T$-odd and can be used to measure CP-violation, is estimated precisely in the radiative decay mode $B_c \to \tau \bar \nu_\tau \gamma$ with possible parameters for the multi Higgs doublet model and the R-parity violating supersymmetric model. We find that the up-bound of the transverse polarization with possible parameters in the models is at very different levels i.e. Read More

It is shown how the axial vector current of current quarks is related to that of constituent quarks within the framework of the global color symmetry model. Gluon dressing of the axial vector vertex and the quark self-energy functions is described by the inhomogeneous Bethe-Salpeter equation in the ladder approximation and the Schwinger-Dyson equation in the rainbow approximation, respectively. Read More

We in terms of optical theorem estimate the lifetime of $B_c-$meson with the parameters which are deturmined by fitting the data for the lifetimes and inclusive semilepton-decays of various $B$ and $D$ mesons. In the estimate, we find that the bound-state effects are important, and take them into account carefully in the framework which attributes the effects to the effective masses of the decay heavy quarks in the inclusive processes. We also find that to $B_c$ lifetime the penguin contribution is enhanced due to possible interference between the penguin and the `tree part' $c_1O_1+c_2O_2$. Read More