# Chang Liu

## Contact Details

NameChang Liu |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesSolar and Stellar Astrophysics (9) Physics - Materials Science (7) Computer Science - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (5) Quantum Physics (5) Physics - Plasma Physics (4) Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (3) Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (3) Physics - Fluid Dynamics (3) High Energy Physics - Theory (3) Computer Science - Learning (3) Mathematics - Numerical Analysis (2) Computer Science - Data Structures and Algorithms (2) Physics - Superconductivity (2) Computer Science - Cryptography and Security (2) General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (1) Mathematics - Analysis of PDEs (1) Physics - Optics (1) Computer Science - Computers and Society (1) Physics - Computational Physics (1) Computer Science - Multimedia (1) Computer Science - Artificial Intelligence (1) Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (1) Nonlinear Sciences - Pattern Formation and Solitons (1) Computer Science - Computation and Language (1) Nonlinear Sciences - Exactly Solvable and Integrable Systems (1) Statistics - Machine Learning (1) |

## Publications Authored By Chang Liu

In a weighted sequence, for every position of the sequence and every letter of the alphabet a probability of occurrence of this letter at this position is specified. Weighted sequences are commonly used to represent imprecise or uncertain data, for example, in molecular biology where they are known under the name of Position-Weight Matrices. Given a probability threshold $\frac1z$, we say that a string $P$ of length $m$ matches a weighted sequence $X$ at starting position $i$ if the product of probabilities of the letters of $P$ at positions $i,\ldots,i+m-1$ in $X$ is at least $\frac1z$. Read More

One of the challenging issues in additive manufacturing (AM) oriented topology optimization is how to design structures that are self-supportive in a manufacture process without introducing additional supporting materials. In the present contribution, it is intended to resolve this problem under an explicit topology optimization framework where optimal structural topology can be found by optimizing a set of explicit geometry parameters. Two solution approaches established based on the Moving Morphable Components (MMC) and Moving Morphable Voids (MMV) frameworks, respectively, are proposed and some theoretical issues associated with AM oriented topology optimization are also analyzed. Read More

The apparent gas permeability of the porous medium is an important parameter in the prediction of unconventional gas production, which was first investigated systematically by Klinkenberg in 1941 and found to increase with the reciprocal mean gas pressure (or equivalently, the Knudsen number). Although the underlying rarefaction effects are well-known, the reason that the correction factor in Klinkenberg's famous equation decreases when the Knudsen number increases has not been fully understood. Most of the studies idealize the porous medium as a bundle of straight cylindrical tubes, however, according to the gas kinetic theory, this only results in an increase of the correction factor with the Knudsen number, which clearly contradicts Klinkenberg's experimental observations. Read More

Deep learning-based approaches have been widely used for training controllers for autonomous vehicles due to their powerful ability to approximate nonlinear functions or policies. However, the training process usually requires large labeled data sets and takes a lot of time. In this paper, we analyze the influences of features on the performance of controllers trained using the convolutional neural networks (CNNs), which gives a guideline of feature selection to reduce computation cost. Read More

Solar flares are generally believed to be powered by free magnetic energy stored in the corona, but the build up of coronal energy alone may be insufficient for the imminent flare occurrence. The flare onset mechanism is a critical but less understood problem, insights into which could be gained from small-scale energy releases known as precursors, which are observed as small pre-flare brightenings in various wavelengths, and also from certain small-scale magnetic configurations such as the opposite polarity fluxes, where magnetic orientation of small bipoles is opposite to that of the ambient main polarities. However, high-resolution observations of flare precursors together with the associated photospheric magnetic field dynamics are lacking. Read More

**Authors:**Ilya Belopolski, Su-Yang Xu, Nikesh Koirala, Chang Liu, Guang Bian, Vladimir N. Strocov, Guoqing Chang, Madhab Neupane, Nasser Alidoust, Daniel Sanchez, Hao Zheng, Matthew Brahlek, Victor Rogalev, Timur Kim, Nicholas C. Plumb, Chaoyu Chen, François Bertran, Patrick Le Fèvre, Amina Taleb-Ibrahimi, Maria-Carmen Asensio, Ming Shi, Hsin Lin, Moritz Hoesch, Seongshik Oh, M. Zahid Hasan

**Category:**Physics - Materials Science

Engineered lattices in condensed matter physics, such as cold atom optical lattices or photonic crystals, can have fundamentally different properties from naturally-occurring electronic crystals. Here, we report a novel type of artificial quantum matter lattice. Our lattice is a multilayer heterostructure built from alternating thin films of topological and trivial insulators. Read More

Limited annotated data is available for the research of estimating facial expression intensities, which makes the training of deep networks for automated expression assessment very challenging. Fortunately, fine-tuning from a data-extensive pre-trained domain such as face verification can alleviate the problem. In this paper, we propose a transferred network that fine-tunes a state-of-the-art face verification network using expression-intensity labeled data with a regression layer. Read More

In this work we formulate the problem of image captioning as a multimodal translation task. Analogous to machine translation, we present a sequence-to-sequence recurrent neural networks (RNN) model for image caption generation. Different from most existing work where the whole image is represented by convolutional neural network (CNN) feature, we propose to represent the input image as a sequence of detected objects which feeds as the source sequence of the RNN model. Read More

In a recent paper by Lasseux, Vald\'{e}s-Parada and Porter (J.~Fluid~Mech. \textbf{805} (2016) 118-146), it is found that the apparent gas permeability of the porous media is a nonlinear function of the Knudsen number. Read More

Exploring two-dimensional (2D) materials with magnetic ordering is a focus of current research. It remains a challenge to achieve tunable magnetism in a material of one-atom-thickness without introducing extrinsic magnetic atoms or defects. Here, based on first-principles calculations, we propose that tunable ferromagnetism can be realized in the recently synthesized holey 2D C$_2$N ($h$2D-C$_2$N) monolayer via purely electron doping that can be readily achieved by gating. Read More

Monochalcogenides of germanium (or tin) are considered as stable isoelectronic and isostructural analogue of black phosphorous. Their two-dimensional (2D) forms have been just predicted to shown strong thickness-dependent physical properties, and even indirect to direct band gap crossover at the monolayer limit. Here, we demonstrate the synthesis of atomically thin GeSe by direct sonication-assisted exfoliation of bulk microcrystalline powders in solvents. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}U of Auckland,

^{2}U of Auckland

Oscillons are spatially stationary, quasi-periodic solutions of nonlinear field theories seen in settings ranging from granular systems, low temperature condensates and early universe cosmology. We describe a new class of oscillon in which the spatial envelope can have "off centre" maxima and pulsate on timescales much longer than the fundamental frequency. These are exact solutions of the 1-D sine-Gordon equation and we demonstrate numerically that similar solutions exist in up to three dimensions for a range of potentials. Read More

**Authors:**Hui Wang, Yu He, Yu-Huai Li, Zu-En Su, Bo Li, He-Liang Huang, Xing Ding, Ming-Cheng Chen, Chang Liu, Jian Qin, Jin-Peng Li, Yu-Ming He, Christian Schneider, Martin Kamp, Cheng-Zhi Peng, Sven Hoefling, Chao-Yang Lu, Jian-Wei Pan

**Category:**Quantum Physics

Boson sampling is considered as a strong candidate to demonstrate the quantum computational supremacy over classical computers. However, previous proof-of-principle experiments suffered from small photon number and low sampling rates owing to the inefficiencies of the single-photon sources and multi-port optical interferometers. Here, we develop two central components for high-performance boson sampling: robust multi-photon interferometers with 0. Read More

This article is a sequel to our earlier work [25]. The main objective of our research is to explore the potential of supervised machine learning in face-induced social computing and cognition, riding on the momentum of much heralded successes of face processing, analysis and recognition on the tasks of biometric-based identification. We present a case study of automated statistical inference on sociopsychological perceptions of female faces controlled for race, attractiveness, age and nationality. Read More

**Authors:**Sheng-Kai Liao, Hai-Lin Yong, Chang Liu, Guo-Liang Shentu, Dong-Dong Li, Jin Lin, Hui Dai, Shuang-Qiang Zhao, Bo Li, Jian-Yu Guan, Wei Chen, Yun-Hong Gong, Yang Li, Ze-Hong Lin, Ge-Sheng Pan, Jason S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, Wen-Zhuo Zhang, Wei-Yue Liu, Juan Yin, Ji-Gang Ren, Xiang-Bin Wang, Qiang Zhang, Cheng-Zhi Peng, Jian-Wei Pan

**Category:**Quantum Physics

Satellite based quantum communication has been proven as a feasible way to achieve global scale quantum communication network. Very recently, a low-Earth-orbit (LEO) satellite has been launched for this purpose. However, with a single satellite, it takes an inefficient 3-day period to provide the worldwide connectivity. Read More

Topological states of matter originate from distinct topological electronic structures of materials. As for strong topological insulators (STIs), the topological surface (interface) is a direct consequence of electronic structure transition between materials categorized to different topological genus. Therefore, it is fundamentally interesting if such topological character can be manipulated. Read More

An intriguing property of deep neural networks is the existence of adversarial examples, which can transfer among different architectures. These transferable adversarial examples may severely hinder deep neural network-based applications. Previous works mostly study the transferability using small scale datasets. Read More

Automatic translation from natural language descriptions into programs is a longstanding challenging problem. In this work, we consider a simple yet important sub-problem: translation from textual descriptions to If-Then programs. We devise a novel neural network architecture for this task which we train end-to-end. Read More

Sunspots are concentrations of magnetic field visible on the solar surface (photosphere). It was considered implausible that solar flares, as resulted from magnetic reconnection in the tenuous corona, would cause a direct perturbation of the dense photosphere involving bulk motion. Here we report the sudden flare-induced rotation of a sunspot using the unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution of the 1. Read More

A unified gas kinetic scheme (UGKS) for multi-scale and multi-component plasma transport is constructed. The current scheme is a direct modeling method, where the time evolution solutions from the Vlasov-BGK equations of electron and ion and the Maxwell equations are used to construct a scale-dependent plasma simulation model. As a result, with the changing of modeling scales of mesh size and time step and with a variation of Knudsen number and Larmor radius, the discretized governing equations for a wide range of plasma evolution regimes can be obtained. Read More

The effectiveness of supervised learning techniques has made them ubiquitous in research and practice. In high-dimensional settings, supervised learning commonly relies on dimensionality reduction to improve performance and identify the most important factors in predicting outcomes. However, the economic importance of learning has made it a natural target for adversarial manipulation of training data, which we term poisoning attacks. Read More

In the continuum flow regime, the Navier-Stokes equations are usually used for the description of gas dynamics. On the other hand, the Boltzmann equation is applied for the rarefied gas dynamics. Both equations are constructed from modeling flow physics in different scales. Read More

Nano-resonator integrated with two-dimensional materials (e.g. transition metal dichalcogenides) have recently emerged as a promising nano-optoelectronic platform. Read More

Using high-resolution transition region (TR) observations taken by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) mission, Tian et al. (2014b) revealed numerous short-lived subarcsecond bright dots (BDs) above sunspots (mostly located in the penumbrae), which indicate yet unexplained small-scale energy releases. Moreover, whether these subarcsecond TR brightenings have any signature in the lower atmosphere and how they are formed are still not fully resolved. Read More

Internet of Things (IoT) and cloud computing together give us the ability to sense, collect, process, and analyse data so we can use them to better understand behaviours, habits, preferences and life patterns of users and lead them to consume resources more efficiently. In such knowledge discovery activities, privacy becomes a significant challenge due to the extremely personal nature of the knowledge that can be derived from the data and the potential risks involved. Therefore, understanding the privacy expectations and preferences of stakeholders is an important task in the IoT domain. Read More

Worldwide, in 2014, more than 1.9 billion adults, 18 years and older, were overweight. Of these, over 600 million were obese. Read More

Quantum entanglement among multiple spatially separated particles is of fundamental interest, and can serve as central resources for studies in quantum nonlocality, quantum-to-classical transition, quantum error correction, and quantum simulation. The ability of generating an increasing number of entangled particles is an important benchmark for quantum information processing. The largest entangled states were previously created with fourteen trapped ions, eight photons, and five superconducting qubits. Read More

Solar flares signify the sudden release of magnetic energy and are sources of so called space weather. The fine structures (below 500 km) of flares are rarely observed and are accessible to only a few instruments world-wide. Here we present observation of a solar flare using exceptionally high resolution images from the 1. Read More

Discovering Dirac fermions with novel properties has become an important front in condensed matter and materials sciences. Here, we report the observation of unusual Dirac fermion states in a strongly-correlated electron setting, which are uniquely distinct from those of graphene and conventional topological insulators. In strongly-correlated cerium monopnictides, we find two sets of highly anisotropic Dirac fermions that interpenetrate each other with negligible hybridization, and show a peculiar four-fold degeneracy where their Dirac nodes overlap. Read More

**Authors:**He Lu, Zhen Zhang, Luo-Kan Chen, Zheng-Da Li, Chang Liu, Li Li, Nai-Le Liu, Xiongfeng Ma, Yu-Ao Chen, Jian-Wei Pan

**Category:**Quantum Physics

Secret sharing of a quantum state, or quantum secret sharing, in which a dealer wants to share certain amount of quantum information with a few players, has wide applications in quantum information. The critical criterion in a threshold secret sharing scheme is confidentiality, with less than the designated number of players, no information can be recovered. Furthermore, in a quantum scenario, one additional critical criterion exists, the capability of sharing entangled and unknown quantum information. Read More

It has been found that photospheric magnetic fields can change in accordance with the three-dimensional magnetic field restructuring following solar eruptions. Previous studies mainly use vector magnetic field data taken for events near the disk center. In this paper, we analyze the magnetic field evolution associated with the 2012 October 23 X1. Read More

**Authors:**Yan Xu, Wenda Cao, Mingde Ding, Lucia Kleint, Jiangtao Su, Chang Liu, Haisheng Ji, Jongchul Chae, Ju Jing, Kyuhyoun Cho, Kyungsuk Cho, Dale Gary, Haimin Wang

**Category:**Solar and Stellar Astrophysics

Solar flares are sudden flashes of brightness on the Sun and are often associated with coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particles which have adverse effects in the near Earth environment. By definition, flares are usually referred to bright features resulting from excess emission. Using the newly commissioned 1. Read More

The development and application of the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method have attracted great attention in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) com- munity in the past decades. The underlying reason for such an intensive investigation is due to favorable properties of the DG method, such as higher order, compactness, and easy parallelization. However, for the compressible flow simulations, the DG method is also associated with unfavorable prop- erties, such as the frequent instabilities in non-smooth regions. Read More

We investigate the evolution of NOAA Active Region 11817 during 2013 August 10--12, when it developed a complex field configuration and produced four confined, followed by two eruptive, flares. These C-and-above flares are all associated with a magnetic flux rope (MFR) located along the major polarity inversion line, where shearing and converging photospheric flows are present. Aided by the nonlinear force-free field modeling, we identify the MFR through mapping magnetic connectivities and computing the twist number $\mathcal{T}_w$ for each individual field line. Read More

A weighted string over an alphabet of size $\sigma$ is a string in which a set of letters may occur at each position with respective occurrence probabilities. Weighted strings, also known as position weight matrices or uncertain sequences, naturally arise in many contexts. In this article, we study the problem of weighted string matching with a special focus on average-case analysis. Read More

We suggest a quantum black hole model that is based on an analogue to hydrogen atoms. A self-regular Schwarzschild-AdS black hole is investigated, where the mass density of the extreme black hole is given by the probability density of the ground state of hydrogen atoms and the mass densities of non-extreme black holes are given by the probability densities of excited states with no angular momenta. Such an analogue is inclined to adopt quantization of black hole horizons. Read More

**Authors:**Guang Bian, Ting-Fung Chung, Chang Liu, Chaoyu Chen, Tay-Rong Chang, Tailung Wu, Ilya Belopolski, Hao Zheng, Su-Yang Xu, Daniel S. Sanchez, Nasser Alidoust, Jonathan Pierce, Bryson Quilliams, Philip P. Barletta, Stephane Lorcy, Jose Avila, Guoqing Chang, Hsin Lin, Horng-Tay Jeng, Maria-Carmen Asensio, Yong P. Chen, M. Zahid Hasan

Graphene and topological insulators (TI) possess two-dimensional Dirac fermions with distinct physical properties. Integrating these two Dirac materials in a single device creates interesting opportunities for exploring new physics of interacting massless Dirac fermions. Here we report on a practical route to experimental fabrication of graphene-Sb2Te3 heterostructure. Read More

We consider the 1D nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation (NLS) with focusing point nonlinearity, $$ (\delta\text{NLS}) \qquad i\partial_t\psi + \partial_x^2\psi + \delta|\psi|^{p-1}\psi = 0, $$ where $\delta=\delta(x)$ is the delta function supported at the origin. We show that $\delta$NLS shares many properties in common with those previously established for the focusing autonomous translationally-invariant NLS $$ (\text{NLS}) \qquad i\partial_t \psi + \Delta \psi + |\psi|^{p-1}\psi=0 \,. $$ The critical Sobolev space $\dot H^{\sigma_c}$ for $\delta$NLS is $\sigma_c=\frac12-\frac{1}{p-1}$, whereas for NLS it is $\sigma_c=\frac{d}{2}-\frac{2}{p-1}$. Read More

A new two-dimensional material, the C$_2$N holey 2D (C$_2$N-$h$2D) crystal, has recently been synthesized. Here we investigate the strain effects on the properties of this new material by first-principles calculations. We show that the material is quite soft with a small stiffness constant and can sustain large strains $\geq 12\%$. Read More

The dynamic properties of flare ribbons and the often associated filament eruptions can provide crucial information on the flaring coronal magnetic field. This Letter analyzes the GOES-class X1.0 flare on 2014 March 29 (SOL2014-03-29T17:48), in which we found an asymmetric eruption of a sigmoidal filament and an ensuing circular flare ribbon. Read More

The adjoint Fokker-Planck equation method is applied to study the runaway probability function and the expected slowing-down time for highly relativistic runaway electrons, including the loss of energy due to synchrotron radiation. In direct correspondence to Monte Carlo simulation methods, the runaway probability function has a smooth transition across the runaway separatrix, which can be attributed to effect of the pitch angle scattering term in the kinetic equation. However, for the same numerical accuracy, the adjoint method is more efficient than the Monte Carlo method. Read More

In this paper, we present observations and analysis of an interesting sigmoid formation, eruption and the associated flare that occurred on 2014 April 18 using multi-wavelength data sets. We discuss the possible role of the sigmoid eruption in triggering the flare, which consists of two different set of ribbons: parallel ribbons as well as a large-scale quasi-circular ribbon. Several observational evidence and nonlinear force-free field extrapolation results show the existence of a large-scale fan-spine type magnetic configuration with a sigmoid lying under a section of the fan dome. Read More

The interaction between light and novel two-dimensional electronic states holds promise to realize new fundamental physics and optical devices. Here, we use pump-probe photoemission spectroscopy to study the optically-excited Dirac surface states in the bulk-insulating topological insulator Bi2Te2Se, and reveal optical properties that are in sharp contrast to those of bulk-metallic topological insulators. We observe a gigantic optical life-time exceeding 4 micro-sec for the surface states in Bi2Te2Se, whereas the life-time in most topological insulators such as Bi2Se3 has been limited to a few picoseconds. Read More

**Authors:**Zuocheng Zhang, Yihua Wang, Qi Song, Chang Liu, Rui Peng, K. A. Moler, Donglai Feng, Yayu Wang

We report the Meissner effect studies on an FeSe thin film grown on Nb doped SrTiO3 substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. Two-coil mutual inductance measurement clearly demonstrates the onset of diamagnetic screening at 65 K, which is consistent with the gap opening temperature determined by previous angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy results. The applied magnetic field causes a broadening of the superconducting transition near the onset temperature, which is the typical behavior for quasi-two-dimensional superconductors. Read More

In this paper, we investigate the 1/4 BPS Wilson-'t Hooft loops in $\mathcal{N}$=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. We use the bulk D3-brane solutions with both electric and magnetic charges on its world-volume to describe some of 1/4 BPS Wilson-'t Hooft loops. The D3-brane supersymmetric solutions are derived form requiring $\kappa$-symmetry. Read More

We report a study of the Ca$_{0.73}$La$_{0.27}$FeAs$_2$ single crystals. Read More

Quantum simulation is of great importance in quantum information science. Here, we report an experimental quantum channel simulator imbued with an algorithm for imitating the behavior of a general class of quantum systems. The reported quantum channel simulator consists of four single-qubit gates and one controlled-NOT gate. Read More

The nonlinear frequency shift is derived in a transparent asymptotic form for intense Langmuir waves in general collisionless plasma. The formula describes both fluid and kinetic effects simultaneously. The fluid nonlinearity is expressed, for the first time, through the plasma dielectric function, and the kinetic nonlinearity accounts for both smooth distributions and trapped-particle beams. Read More

**Authors:**Guang Bian, Tay-Rong Chang, Raman Sankar, Su-Yang Xu, Hao Zheng, Titus Neupert, Ching-Kai Chiu, Shin-Ming Huang, Guoqing Chang, Ilya Belopolski, Daniel S. Sanchez, Madhab Neupane, Nasser Alidoust, Chang Liu, BaoKai Wang, Chi-Cheng Lee, Horng-Tay Jeng, Arun Bansil, Fangcheng Chou, Hsin Lin, M. Zahid Hasan

We report the identification of a Topological Nodal-Line Semimetal state in PbTaSe2. Read More

**Authors:**Baojun Zhu, Yutong Li, Dawei Yuan, Yanfei Li, Fang Li, Guoqian Liao, Jiarui Zhao, Jiayong Zhong, Feibiao Xue, Huigang Wei, Kai Zhang, Bo Han, Xiaoxing Pei, Chang Liu, Zhe Zhang, Weimin Wang, Jianqiang Zhu, Gang Zhao, Jie Zhang

**Category:**Physics - Plasma Physics

A new simple mechanism due to cold electron flow to produce strong magnetic field is proposed. A 600-T strong magnetic field is generated in the free space at the laser intensity of 5.7x10^15 Wcm^-2. Read More