Celine Scornavacca

Celine Scornavacca
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Celine Scornavacca

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Pub Categories

Quantitative Biology - Populations and Evolution (11)
Computer Science - Data Structures and Algorithms (8)
Mathematics - Combinatorics (2)
Computer Science - Computational Complexity (2)
Physics - Physics and Society (1)
Quantitative Biology - Quantitative Methods (1)
Computer Science - Discrete Mathematics (1)
Computer Science - Computational Engineering; Finance; and Science (1)
Computer Science - Logic in Computer Science (1)

Publications Authored By Celine Scornavacca

Understanding the evolution of a set of genes or species is a fundamental problem in evolutionary biology. The problem we study here takes as input a set of trees describing {possibly discordant} evolutionary scenarios for a given set of genes or species, and aims at finding a single tree that minimizes the leaf-removal distance to the input trees. This problem is a specific instance of the general consensus/supertree problem, widely used to combine or summarize discordant evolutionary trees. Read More

Orthology and paralogy relations are often inferred by methods based on gene similarity, which usually yield a graph depicting the relationships between gene pairs. Such relation graphs are known to frequently contain errors, as they cannot be explained via a gene tree that both contains the depicted orthologs/paralogs, and that is consistent with a species tree $S$. This idea of detecting errors through inconsistency with a species tree has mostly been studied in the presence of speciation and duplication events only. Read More

In phylogenetics, the consensus problem consists in summarizing a set of phylogenetic trees that all classify the same set of species into a single tree. Several definitions of consensus exist in the literature; in this paper we focus on the Weighted Quartet Consensus problem, a problem with unknown complexity status so far. Here we prove that the Weighted Quartet Consensus problem is NP-hard and we give a 1/2-factor approximation for this problem. Read More

Phylogenetic networks are increasingly used in evolutionary biology to represent the history of species that have undergone reticulate events such as horizontal gene transfer, hybrid speciation and recombination. One of the most fundamental questions that arise in this context is whether the evolution of a gene with one copy in all species can be explained by a given network. In mathematical terms, this is often translated in the following way: is a given phylogenetic tree contained in a given phylogenetic network? Recently this tree containment problem has been widely investigated from a computational perspective, but most studies have only focused on the topology of the phylo- genies, ignoring a piece of information that, in the case of phylogenetic trees, is routinely inferred by evolutionary analyses: branch lengths. Read More

In phylogenetics, a central problem is to infer the evolutionary relationships between a set of species $X$; these relationships are often depicted via a phylogenetic tree -- a tree having its leaves univocally labeled by elements of $X$ and without degree-2 nodes -- called the "species tree". One common approach for reconstructing a species tree consists in first constructing several phylogenetic trees from primary data (e.g. Read More

Within the field of phylogenetics there is growing interest in measures for summarising the dissimilarity, or 'incongruence', of two or more phylogenetic trees. Many of these measures are NP-hard to compute and this has stimulated a considerable volume of research into fixed parameter tractable algorithms. In this article we use Monadic Second Order logic (MSOL) to give alternative, compact proofs of fixed parameter tractability for several well-known incongruency measures. Read More

Binets and trinets are phylogenetic networks with two and three leaves, respectively. Here we consider the problem of deciding if there exists a binary level-1 phylogenetic network displaying a given set $\mathcal{T}$ of binary binets or trinets over a set $X$ of taxa, and constructing such a network whenever it exists. We show that this is NP-hard for trinets but polynomial-time solvable for binets. Read More

Reconciliation methods aim at recovering macro evolutionary events and at localizing them in the species history, by observing discrepancies between gene family trees and species trees. In this article we introduce an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) approach for the NP-hard problem of computing a most parsimonious time-consistent reconciliation of a gene tree with a species tree when dating information on speciations is not available. The ILP formulation, which builds upon the DTL model, returns a most parsimonious reconciliation ranging over all possible datings of the nodes of the species tree. Read More

Given a finite set $X$, a collection $\mathcal{T}$ of rooted phylogenetic trees on $X$ and an integer $k$, the Hybridization Number problem asks if there exists a phylogenetic network on $X$ that displays all trees from $\mathcal{T}$ and has reticulation number at most $k$. We show two kernelization algorithms for Hybridization Number, with kernel sizes $4k(5k)^t$ and $20k^2(\Delta^+-1)$ respectively, with $t$ the number of input trees and $\Delta^+$ their maximum outdegree. Experiments on simulated data demonstrate the practical relevance of these kernelization algorithms. Read More

Phylogenetic networks are used to display the relationship of different species whose evolution is not treelike, which is the case, for instance, in the presence of hybridization events or horizontal gene transfers. Tree inference methods such as Maximum Parsimony need to be modified in order to be applicable to networks. In this paper, we discuss two different definitions of Maximum Parsimony on networks, "hardwired" and "softwired", and examine the complexity of computing them given a network topology and a character. Read More

It has remained an open question for some time whether, given a set of not necessarily binary (i.e. "nonbinary") trees T on a set of taxa X, it is possible to determine in time f(r). Read More

Reticulate events play an important role in determining evolutionary relationships. The problem of computing the minimum number of such events to explain discordance between two phylogenetic trees is a hard computational problem. Even for binary trees, exact solvers struggle to solve instances with reticulation number larger than 40-50. Read More

We show that the problem of computing the hybridization number of two rooted binary phylogenetic trees on the same set of taxa X has a constant factor polynomial-time approximation if and only if the problem of computing a minimum-size feedback vertex set in a directed graph (DFVS) has a constant factor polynomial-time approximation. The latter problem, which asks for a minimum number of vertices to be removed from a directed graph to transform it into a directed acyclic graph, is one of the problems in Karp's seminal 1972 list of 21 NP-complete problems. However, despite considerable attention from the combinatorial optimization community it remains to this day unknown whether a constant factor polynomial-time approximation exists for DFVS. Read More

Recently, considerable effort has been put into developing fast algorithms to reconstruct a rooted phylogenetic network that explains two rooted phylogenetic trees and has a minimum number of hybridization vertices. With the standard approach to tackle this problem being combinatorial, the reconstructed network is rarely unique. From a biological point of view, it is therefore of importance to not only compute one network, but all possible networks. Read More

Here we show that, given a set of clusters C on a set of taxa X, where |X|=n, it is possible to determine in time f(k).poly(n) whether there exists a level-<= k network (i.e. Read More

Rooted phylogenetic networks are often used to represent conflicting phylogenetic signals. Given a set of clusters, a network is said to represent these clusters in the "softwired" sense if, for each cluster in the input set, at least one tree embedded in the network contains that cluster. Motivated by parsimony we might wish to construct such a network using as few reticulations as possible, or minimizing the "level" of the network, i. Read More