# Cedric Lorce - Mainz University, Inst. Kernphys.

## Contact Details

NameCedric Lorce |
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AffiliationMainz University, Inst. Kernphys. |
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CityMainz |
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CountryGermany |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesHigh Energy Physics - Phenomenology (45) Nuclear Theory (26) High Energy Physics - Theory (5) High Energy Physics - Lattice (4) High Energy Physics - Experiment (3) General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (1) Nuclear Experiment (1) |

## Publications Authored By Cedric Lorce

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Ecole polytechnique, CPHT

We derive new covariant expressions for the Dirac bilinears based on a generic representation of the Dirac spinors. These bilinears depend on a direction $n$ in Minkowski space which specifies the form of dynamics. We argue that such a dependence is unavoidable in a relativistic theory with spin, since it originates from Wigner rotation effects. Read More

Recently, Liou, Mueller and Munier have argued that proton-nucleus collisions at the LHC may give access to the full statistics of the event-by-event fluctuations of the gluon density in the proton. Indeed, the number of particles produced in an event in rapidity slices in the fragmentation region of the proton may, under some well-defined assumptions, be directly related to the number of gluons which have a transverse momentum larger than the nuclear saturation scale present in the proton at the time of the interaction with the nucleus. A first calculation of the probability distribution of the number of gluons in a hadron was performed, using the color dipole model. Read More

We discuss in detail the spatial distribution of angular momentum inside the nucleon. We show that the discrepancies between different definitions originate from terms that integrate to zero. Even though these terms can safely be dropped at the integrated level, they have to be taken into account at the density level. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}ETH Zürich,

^{2}Ecole polytechnique, CPHT

We extend the study of quark spin-orbit correlations in the nucleon to the case of transverse polarization. At the leading-twist level, this completes the spin structure of the quark kinetic energy-momentum tensor. In particular, we revisit the transversity decomposition of angular momentum proposed a decade ago by Burkardt and introduce a new transverse correlation, namely between quark transversity and orbital angular momentum. Read More

The measurement of Single Transverse-Spin Asymmetries, $A_N$, for various quarkonium states and Drell-Yan lepton pairs can shed light on the orbital angular momentum of quarks and gluons, a fundamental ingredient of the proton-spin puzzle. The AFTER@LHC proposal combines a unique kinematic coverage and large luminosities thanks to the Large Hadron Collider beams to deliver precise measurements, complementary to the knowledge provided by collider experiments such as at RHIC. In this paper, we report on sensitivity studies for $J/\psi$, $\Upsilon$ and Drell-Yan $A_N$ done using the performance of LHCb-like or ALICE-like detectors, combined with polarised gaseous hydrogen and helium-3 targets. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Ecole polytechnique, CPHT,

^{2}INFN, Pavia & Pavia U.

Relativistic phase space distributions are very interesting objects as they allow one to gather the information extracted from various types of experiments into a single coherent picture. Focusing on the four-dimensional transverse phase space, we identified all the possible angular correlations providing at the same time a clear physical interpretation of all the leading-twist generalized and transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions. We also developed a convenient representation of this four-dimensional space. Read More

Superconformal algebra leads to remarkable connections between the masses of mesons and baryons of the same parity -- supersymmetric relations between the bosonic and fermionic bound states of QCD. Supercharges connect the mesonic eigenstates to their baryonic superpartners, where the mesons have internal angular momentum one unit higher than the baryons. We also predict the existence of tetraquarks which are degenerate in mass with baryons with the same angular momentum. Read More

An effective supersymmetric QCD light-front Hamiltonian for hadrons composed of light quarks, which includes a spin-spin interaction between the hadronic constituents, is constructed by embedding superconformal quantum mechanics into AdS space. A specific breaking of conformal symmetry inside the graded algebra determines a unique effective quark-confining potential for light hadrons, as well as remarkable connections between the meson and baryon spectra. The results are consistent with the empirical features of the light-quark hadron spectra, including a universal mass scale for the slopes of the meson and baryon Regge trajectories and a zero-mass pion in the limit of massless quarks. Read More

We consider one of the most fundamental sets of hadronic matrix elements, namely the generalized transverse momentum distributions (GTMDs), and argue that their existing definitions lack proper evolution properties. By exploiting the similarity of GTMDs with the much better understood transverse momentum distributions, we argue that the existing definitions of GTMDs have to include an additional dependence on soft gluon radiation in order to render them properly defined. With this, we manage to obtain the evolution kernel of all (un)polarized quark and gluon GTMDs, which turns out to be spin independent. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Ecole polytechnique, CPHT,

^{2}U. Kentucky, Lexington

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

The orbital angular momentum of quarks and gluons contributes significantly to the proton spin budget and attracted a lot of attention in the recent years, both theoretically and experimentally. We summarize the various definitions of parton orbital angular momentum together with their relations with parton distributions functions. In particular, we highlight current theoretical puzzles and give some prospects. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Ecole polytechnique, CPHT

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

The canonical energy-momentum tensor is often considered as a purely academic object because of its gauge dependence. However, it has recently been realized that canonical quantities can in fact be defined in a gauge-invariant way provided that strict locality is abandoned, the non-local aspect being dictacted in high-energy physics by the factorization theorems. Using the general techniques for the parametrization of non-local parton correlators, we provide for the first time a complete parametrization of the energy-momentum tensor (generalizing the purely local parametrizations of Ji and Bakker-Leader-Trueman used for the kinetic energy-momentum tensor) and identify explicitly the parts accessible from measurable two-parton distribution functions (TMDs and GPDs). Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}CPHT, Ecole Polytechnique

We present the first complete parametrization for the matrix elements of the generic light-front gauge-invariant energy-momentum tensor, derive the expressions giving separately the spin and orbital angular momentum of quarks and gluons as probed in high-energy scattering experiments, and discuss the relations with two-parton generalized and transverse-momentum dependent distributions. As a by-product, we recovered the Burkardt sum rule, clarified its physical meaning and obtained similar new sum rules for higher-twist distributions. Read More

Theoretical progress on the formulation and classification of the quark and gluon orbital angular momenta (OAM) is reviewed. Their relation to parton distributions and open questions and puzzles are discussed. We give a status report on the lattice calculation of the parton kinetic and canonical OAM and point out several strategies to calculate the quark and gluon canonical OAM on the lattice. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}SLAC and Liège U.

Understanding the spin structure of the proton is one of the main challenges in hadronic physics. While the concepts of spin and orbital angular momentum are pretty clear in the context of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, the generalization of these concepts to quantum field theory encounters serious difficulties. It is however possible to define meaningful decompositions of the proton spin that are (in principle) measurable. Read More

This is a review of what is currently known about the gluon Sivers distribution and of what are the opportunities to learn more about it. Because single transverse spin asymmetries in $p^\uparrow \, p \to \pi \, X$ provide only indirect information about the gluon Sivers function through the relation with the quark-gluon and tri-gluon Qiu-Sterman functions, current data from hadronic collisions at RHIC have not yet been translated into a solid constraint on the gluon Sivers function. SIDIS data, including the COMPASS deuteron data, allow for a gluon Sivers contribution that is of the natural size expected from large $N_c$ arguments, which is ${\cal O}(1/N_c)$ times the nonsinglet quark Sivers contribution. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}SLAC and Liège U.

We provide for the first time a complete parametrization for the matrix elements of the generic asymmetric, non-local and gauge-invariant canonical energy-momentum tensor, generalizing therefore former works on the symmetric, local and gauge-invariant kinetic energy-momentum tensor also known as the Belinfante-Rosenfeld energy-momentum tensor. We discuss in detail the various constraints imposed by non-locality, linear and angular momentum conservation. We also derive the relations with two-parton generalized and transverse-momentum dependent distributions, clarifying what can be learned from the latter. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Liège U.

We briefly review the spin structure of the nucleon and show that it is best thought in the light-front formulation. We discuss in particular the longitudinal and transverse spin sum rules, the proper definition of canonical orbital angular momentum and the spin-orbit correlation. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Liège U.

The proton spin puzzle issue focused the attention on the parton spin and orbital angular momentum contributions to the proton spin. However, a complete characterization of the proton spin structure requires also the knowledge of the parton spin-orbit correlation. We showed that this quantity can be expressed in terms of moments of measurable parton distributions. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Liège U., IFPA

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

In the last decade, it has been realized that the orbital angular momentum of partons inside the nucleon plays a major role. It contributes significantly to nucleon properties and is at the origin of many asymmetries observed in spin physics. It is therefore of paramount importance to determine this quantity if we want to understand the nucleon internal structure and experimental observables. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Orsay, IPN and Liège, IFPA

We investigate the correlations between the quark spin and orbital angular momentum inside the nucleon. Similarly to the Ji relation, we show that these correlations can be expressed in terms of specific moments of measurable parton distributions. This provides a whole new piece of information about the partonic structure of the nucleon. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Orsay, IPN and Liège, IFPA

Recently, many nucleon spin decompositions have been proposed in the literature, creating a lot of confusion. This revived in particular old controversies regarding the measurability of theoretically defined quantities. We propose a brief overview of the different decompositions, discuss the sufficient requirements for measurability and stress the experimental implications. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Orsay, IPN and Orsay, LPT

Exploring the similarities between the Chen \emph{et al.} approach, where physical and gauge degrees of freedom of the gauge potential are explicitly separated, and the background field method, we provide an alternative point of view to the proton spin decomposition issue. We show in particular that the gauge symmetry can be realized in two different ways, and discuss the relations between the concepts of path dependence, Stueckelberg dependence and background dependence. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Orsay, IPN and Orsay, LPT

We revisit the gauge-covariant canonical formalism by separating explicitly physical and gauge degrees of freedom. We show in particular that the gauge-invariant linear and angular momentum operators proposed by Chen et al. can consistently be derived from the standard procedure based on the Noether's theorem. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}IPNO and LPT, Orsay

We propose a short summary of the present situation concerning the proton spin decomposition. We briefly discuss some of the main controversies about the issues of gauge invariance, uniqueness and measurability. As a conclusion, we argue that part of the controversies is actually undecidable. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}IPNO and LPT, Orsay,

^{2}Pavia U. and INFN, Pavia

The quark orbital angular momentum (OAM) has been recognized as an important piece of the proton spin puzzle. A lot of effort has been invested in trying to extract it quantitatively from the generalized parton distributions (GPDs) and the transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions (TMDs), which are accessed in high-energy processes and provide three-dimensional pictures of the nucleon. Recently, we have shown that it is more natural to access the quark OAM from the phase-space or Wigner distributions. Read More

We show that the recent claim that the expression 1/2 \int x dx [ H_q (x,0,0) + E_q(x,0,0)], involving the generalized parton distributions H and E, measures the transverse angular momentum of quarks in a transversely polarized nucleon, is incorrect. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}IPNO and LPT, Orsay

We present an explicit realization of the Chen et al. approach to the proton spin decomposition in terms of Wilson lines, generalizing the light-front gauge-invariant extensions discussed recently by Hatta. Particular attention is drawn to the residual gauge freedom by further separating the pure-gauge term into contour and residual terms. Read More

We update the study of the production of direct J/Psi in association with a Z boson at the Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) in alpha_s by evaluating both the yield differential in P_T and the J/Psi polarisation in the QCD-based Colour-Singlet Model (CSM). Contrary to an earlier claim, QCD corrections at small and mid P_T are small if one assumes that the factorisation and the renormalisation scales are commensurate with the Z boson mass. As it can be anticipated, the t-channel gluon-exchange (t-CGE) topologies start to be dominant only for P_T > mZ/2. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Orsay, IPN and Orsay, LPT,

^{2}Pavia U. and INFN, Pavia

We discuss the quark phase-space or Wigner distributions of the nucleon which combine in a single picture all the information contained in the generalized parton distributions and the transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions. In particular, we present results for the distribution of unpolarized quarks in a longitudinally polarized nucleon obtained in a light-front constituent quark model. We show how the quark orbital angular momentum can be extracted from the Wigner distributions and compare it with alternative definitions. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Orsay, IPN and Orsay, LPT,

^{2}Pavia U. and INFN, Pavia

We discuss the Wigner functions of the nucleon which provide multi-dimensional images of the quark distributions in phase space. They combine in a single picture all the information contained in the generalized parton distributions (GPDs) and the transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions (TMDs). In particular, we present results for the distribution of unpolarized quarks in a longitudinally polarized nucleon obtained in a light-cone constituent quark model. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Orsay IPN & Orsay LPT

We discuss in detail and from the geometrical point of view the issues of gauge invariance and Lorentz covariance raised by the approach proposed recently by Chen et al. to the proton spin decomposition. We show that the gauge invariance of this approach follows from a mechanism similar to the one used in the famous Stueckelberg trick. Read More

We study the Wigner functions of the nucleon which provide multidimensional images of the quark distributions in phase space and combine in a single picture all the information contained in the generalized parton distributions (GPDs) and the transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions (TMDs). In particular, we present results for the distribution of unpolarized quarks in a longitudinally polarized nucleon obtained in a light-cone constituent quark model. Treating the Wigner distribution as it was a classical distribution, we obtain the quark orbital angular momentum and compare it with alternative definitions given in terms of the GPDs and the TMDs. Read More

Transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions (TMDs) are studied in the framework of quark models. Results for the six T-even TMDs are obtained from the overlap of three-quark light-cone wave functions, using both the chiral quark-soliton model and a light-cone constituent quark model. Furthermore, quark model relations among TMDs are reviewed and their physical origin is discussed in terms of rotational-symmetry properties of the nucleon state in its rest frame. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys.,

^{2}Pavia U. & INFN, Pavia

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

Transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions (TMDs) are studied in the framework of quark models. In particular, quark model relations among TMDs are reviewed and their physical origin is discussed in terms of rotational-symmetry properties of the nucleon state in its rest frame. Read More

We study the Wigner functions of the nucleon which provide multidimensional images of the quark distributions in phase space. These functions can be obtained through a Fourier transform in the transverse space of the generalized transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions. They depend on both the transverse position and the three-momentum of the quark relative to the nucleon, and therefore combine in a single picture all the information contained in the generalized parton distributions and the transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions. Read More

We present a systematic study of generalized transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions (GTMDs). By taking specific limits or projections, these GTMDs yield various transverse-momentum dependent and generalized parton distributions, thus providing a unified framework to simultaneously model different observables. We present such simultaneous modeling by considering a light-cone wave function overlap representation of the GTMDs. Read More

We discuss the recent interpretation of quark-distribution functions in the plane transverse to the light-cone direction. Such a mapping is model independent and allows one to build up multidimensional pictures of the hadron and to develop a semi-classical interpretation of the quark dynamics. We comment briefly the results obtained from the form factors of the nucleon. Read More

We present an extensive study of the static properties of light exotic and non-exotic baryons, based on the formulation of chiral quark-soliton model in terms of light-cone wave functions. We discuss in particular vector, axial and tensor charges as well as an estimation of the electromagnetic moments for the baryon octet, decuplet and hypothetical antidecuplet. Contributions from Fock components up to the seven-quark sector are considered and appear to be sizeable, reflecting the importance of the pion cloud. Read More

We discuss the general formalism for the calculation in light-cone quark models of the fully unintegrated, off-diagonal quark-quark correlator of the nucleon. The corresponding distributions in impact parameter space are the Wigner or phase-space distributions. The results obtained in two different light-cone quark models in the case of unpolarized quarks in an unpolarized proton are very similar and present a non-trivial shape which can be understood as due to the orbital motion of the quarks. Read More

In a set of two papers, we propose to study an old-standing problem, namely the electromagnetic interaction for particles of arbitrary spin. Based on the assumption that light-cone helicity at tree level and $Q^2=0$ should be conserved non-trivially by the electromagnetic interaction, we are able to derive \emph{all} the natural electromagnetic moments for a pointlike particle of \emph{any} spin. In this first paper, we propose a transparent decomposition of the electromagnetic current in terms of covariant vertex functions. Read More

In a set of two papers, we propose to study an old-standing problem, namely the electromagnetic interaction for particles of arbitrary spin. Based on the assumption that light-cone helicity at tree level and $Q^2=0$ should be conserved non-trivially by the electromagnetic interaction, we are able to derive \emph{all} the natural electromagnetic moments for a pointlike particle of \emph{any} spin. In this second paper, we give explicit expressions for the light-cone helicity amplitudes in terms of covariant vertex functions, leading to the natural electromagnetic moments at $Q^2=0$. Read More

We extend the formalism relating electromagnetic form factors to transverse quark charge densities in the light-front frame to the case of a spin-3/2 baryon and calculate these transverse densities for the $\Delta(1232)$ isobar using lattice QCD. The transverse charge densities for a transversely polarized spin-3/2 particle are characterized by monopole, dipole, quadrupole, and octupole patterns representing the structure beyond that of a pure point-like spin-3/2 particle. We present lattice QCD results for the $\Delta$-isobar electromagnetic form factors for pion masses down to approximatively 350 MeV for three cases: quenched QCD, two-degenerate flavors of dynamical Wilson quarks, and three flavors of quarks using a mixed action that combines domain wall valence quarks and dynamical staggered sea quarks. Read More

We have used the Chiral-Quark Soliton Model formulated in the Infinite Momentum Frame to investigate the octet, decuplet and antidecuplet tensor charges up to the 5Q level. Using flavor SU(3) symmetry we have obtained for the proton $\delta u=1.172$ and $\delta d=-0. Read More

We have used the light-cone formulation of Chiral-Quark Soliton Model to investigate the vector and axial content of octet, decuplet and the hypothetical antidecuplet in the flavor SU(3) symmetry limit. We have extended previous works by computing the 7Q contribution to vector and axial charges for the octet and antidecuplet but stayed at the 5Q sector for the decuplet where the full computation needs much more time. As expected the 7Q component has a weaker impact on the quantities but still changes them by a few percent. Read More

Recently, Diakonov and Petrov have suggested a formalism in the Relativistic Mean Field Approximation allowing one to derive the 3-, 5-, 7-,... Read More