C. T. Russell - UCLA, CA

C. T. Russell
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C. T. Russell
Los Angeles
United States

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Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (18)
Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (16)
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (15)
Physics - Space Physics (8)
Quantitative Biology - Populations and Evolution (4)
Computer Science - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (4)
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (3)
Physics - Geophysics (2)
Physics - Plasma Physics (2)
Statistics - Machine Learning (2)
Quantitative Biology - Quantitative Methods (1)
Statistics - Applications (1)
Computer Science - Artificial Intelligence (1)
Physics - Instrumentation and Detectors (1)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (1)
Computer Science - Learning (1)
Computer Science - Computers and Society (1)
Computer Science - Information Retrieval (1)

Publications Authored By C. T. Russell

Deep generative models provide powerful tools for distributions over complicated manifolds, such as those of natural images. But many of these methods, including generative adversarial networks (GANs), can be difficult to train, in part because they are prone to mode collapse, which means that they characterize only a few modes of the true distribution. To address this, we introduce VEEGAN, which features a reconstructor network, reversing the action of the generator by mapping from data to noise. Read More

Pulsar positions can be measured with high precision using both pulsar timing methods and very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI). Pulsar timing positions are referenced to a solar-system ephemeris, whereas VLBI positions are referenced to distant quasars. Here we compare pulsar positions from published VLBI measurements with those obtained from pulsar timing data from the Nanshan and Parkes radio telescopes in order to relate the two reference frames. Read More

Machine learning can impact people with legal or ethical consequences when it is used to automate decisions in areas such as insurance, lending, hiring, and predictive policing. In many of these scenarios, previous decisions have been made that are unfairly biased against certain subpopulations, for example those of a particular race, gender, or sexual orientation. Since this past data may be biased, machine learning predictors must account for this to avoid perpetuating or creating discriminatory practices. Read More

MMS observations recently confirmed that crescent-shaped electron velocity distributions in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field occur in the electron diffusion region near reconnection sites at Earth's magnetopause. In this paper, we re-examine the origin of the crescent-shaped distributions in the light of our new finding that ions and electrons are drifting in opposite directions when displayed in magnetopause boundary-normal coordinates. Therefore, ExB drifts cannot cause the crescent shapes. Read More

During its year-long orbital mission, the Dawn spacecraft has mapped the surface of main-belt asteroid Vesta multiple times at different spatial resolutions and illumination and viewing angles. The onboard Framing Camera has acquired thousands of clear filter and narrow band images, which, with the availability of high-resolution global shape models, allows for a photometric characterization of the surface in unprecedented detail. We analyze clear filter images to retrieve the photometric properties of the regolith. Read More

We present a global spectrophotometric characterization of the Ceres surface using Dawn Framing Camera (FC) images. We identify the photometric model that yields the best results for photometrically correcting images. Corrected FC images acquired on approach to Ceres were assembled into global maps of albedo and color. Read More

Magnetic holes (MHs), with a scale much greater than \r{ho}i (proton gyroradius), have been widely reported in various regions of space plasmas. On the other hand, kinetic-size magnetic holes (KSMHs), previously called small size magnetic holes (SSMHs), with a scale of the order of magnitude of or less than \r{ho}i have only been reported in the Earth's magnetospheric plasma sheet. In this study, we report such KSMHs in the magnetosheath whereby we use measurements from the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, which provides three-dimensional (3D) particle distribution measurements with a resolution much higher than previous missions. Read More

We propose a unified formulation for the problem of 3D human pose estimation from a single raw RGB image that reasons jointly about 2D joint estimation and 3D pose reconstruction to improve both tasks. We take an integrated approach that fuses probabilistic knowledge of 3D human pose with a multi-stage CNN architecture and uses the knowledge of plausible 3D landmark locations to refine the search for better 2D locations. The entire process is trained end-to-end, is extremely efficient and obtains state- of-the-art results on Human3. Read More

We report the observations of an electron vortex magnetic hole corresponding to a new type of coherent structures in the magnetosheath turbulent plasma using the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission data. The magnetic hole is characterized by a magnetic depression, a density peak, a total electron temperature increase (with a parallel temperature decrease but a perpendicular temperature increase), and strong currents carried by the electrons. The current has a dip in the center of the magnetic hole and a peak in the outer region of the magnetic hole. Read More

The Galactic centre is a hotbed of astrophysical activity, with the injection of wind material from $\sim$30 massive Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars orbiting within 12" of the super-massive black hole (SMBH) playing an important role. Hydrodynamic simulations of such colliding and accreting winds produce a complex density and temperature structure of cold wind material shocking with the ambient medium, creating a large reservoir of hot, X-ray-emitting gas. This work aims to confront the 3Ms of Chandra X-ray Visionary Program (XVP) observations of this diffuse emission by computing the X-ray emission from these hydrodynamic simulations of the colliding WR winds, amid exploring a variety of SMBH feedback mechanisms. Read More

We study the spectrophotometric properties of dwarf planet Ceres in the VIS-IR spectral range by means of hyper-spectral images acquired by the VIR imaging spectrometer on board the NASA Dawn mission. Disk-resolved observations with a phase angle within the $7^{\circ}<\alpha<132^{\circ}$ interval were used to characterize Ceres' phase curve in the 0.465-4. Read More

Gamma Cassiopeiae is an enigmatic Be star with unusually strong hard X-ray emission. The Suzaku observatory detected six rapid X-ray spectral hardening events called "softness dips" in a ~100 ksec duration observation in 2011. All the softness dip events show symmetric softness ratio variations, and some of them have flat bottoms apparently due to saturation. Read More

The Galactic centre is a hotbed of astrophysical activity. Powering these processes is the injection of wind material from ~30 massive Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars orbiting within 12" of the super-massive black hole (SMBH). Hydrodynamic simulations of such colliding and accreting winds produce a complex density and temperature structure of cold wind material shocking with the ambient medium, creating a large reservoir of hot, X-ray-emitting gas. Read More

The magnetospheric cusps are important sites of the coupling of a magnetosphere with the solar wind. The combination of both ground- and space-based observations at Earth have enabled considerable progress to be made in understanding the terrestrial cusp and its role in the coupling of the magnetosphere to the solar wind via the polar magnetosphere. Voyager 2 fully explored Neptune's cusp in 1989 but highly inclined orbits of the Cassini spacecraft at Saturn present the most recent opportunity to repeatedly studying the polar magnetosphere of a rapidly rotating planet. Read More

The X-ray emission of $\eta$ Carinae shows multiple features at various spatial and temporal scales. The central constant emission (CCE) component is centred on the binary and arises from spatial scales much smaller than the bipolar Homunculus nebula, but likely larger than the central wind--wind collision region between the stars as it does not vary over the $\sim$2-3 month X-ray minimum when it can be observed. Using large-scale 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations, we model both the colliding-wind region between the stars, and the region where the secondary wind collides with primary wind ejected from the previous periastron passage. Read More

The evolved, massive highly eccentric binary system, eta Carinae, underwent a periastron passage in the summer of 2014. We obtained two coordinated X-ray observations with XMM-Newton and NuSTAR during the elevated X-ray flux state and just before the X-ray minimum flux state around this passage. These NuSTAR observations clearly detected X-ray emission associated with eta Car extending up to ~50 keV for the first time. Read More

Previous observations suggested that Ceres has active but possibly sporadic water outgassing, and possibly varying spectral characteristics in a time scale of months. We used all available data of Ceres collected in the past three decades from the ground and the Hubble Space Telescope, and the newly acquired images by Dawn Framing Camera to search for spectral and albedo variability on Ceres, in both a global scale and local regions, particularly the bright spots inside Occator crater, over time scales of a few months to decades. Our analysis has placed an upper limit on the possible temporal albedo variation on Ceres. Read More

Affiliations: 1NASA/GSFC, USA, 2Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil, 3SASER team, Australia, 4Départment de Physique, Université de Montréal, Canada, 5Départment de Physique, Université de Montréal, Canada, 6Départment de Physique, Université de Montréal, Canada, 7Ritter Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Toledo, USA, 8NASA/GSFC, USA, 9NASA/GSFC, USA, 10Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, New Zealand, 11Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, USA, 12Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Brazil, 13Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Brazil, 14Facultad de Ciencias Astronoómicas y Geofísicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina, 15Facultad de Ciencias Astronoómicas y Geofísicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina, 16Instituto de Física e Química, Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Brazil, 17Instituto de Física e Química, Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Brazil, 18Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil, 19Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil, 20Divisão de Astrofísica, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Brazil, 21SASER team, Australia, 22SASER team, Australia, 23SASER team, Australia, 24SASER team, Australia, 25Astronomisches Institut, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany, 26USRA, USA, 27CRESST and X-ray Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, USA, 28Geneva Observatory, Switzerland, 29Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, USA, 30Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Germany

{\eta} Carinae is an extremely massive binary system in which rapid spectrum variations occur near periastron. Most notably, near periastron the He II $\lambda 4686$ line increases rapidly in strength, drops to a minimum value, then increases briefly before fading away. To understand this behavior, we conducted an intense spectroscopic monitoring of the He II $\lambda 4686$ emission line across the 2014. Read More

We propose a novel Linear Program (LP) based formula- tion for solving jigsaw puzzles. We formulate jigsaw solving as a set of successive global convex relaxations of the stan- dard NP-hard formulation, that can describe both jigsaws with pieces of unknown position and puzzles of unknown po- sition and orientation. The main contribution and strength of our approach comes from the LP assembly strategy. Read More

Colliding Wolf-Rayet (WR) winds produce thermal X-ray emission widely observed by X-ray telescopes. In wide WR+O binaries, such as WR 140, the X-ray flux is tied to the orbital phase, and is a direct probe of the winds' properties. In the Galactic center, $\sim$30 WRs orbit the super massive black hole (SMBH) within $\sim$10", leading to a smorgasbord of wind-wind collisions. Read More

Human seasonal influenza viruses evolve rapidly, enabling the virus population to evade immunity and re-infect previously infected individuals. Antigenic properties are largely determined by the surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) and amino acid substitutions at exposed epitope sites in HA mediate loss of recognition by antibodies. Here, we show that antigenic differences measured through serological assay data are well described by a sum of antigenic changes along the path connecting viruses in a phylogenetic tree. Read More

Eta Carinae is the nearest example of a supermassive, superluminous, unstable star. Mass loss from the system is critical in shaping its circumstellar medium and in determining its ultimate fate. Eta Car currently loses mass via a dense, slow stellar wind and possesses one of the largest mass loss rates known. Read More

We present time-resolved and phase-resolved variability studies of an extensive X-ray high-resolution spectral dataset of the $\delta$ Orionis Aa binary system. The four observations, obtained with Chandra ACIS HETGS, have a total exposure time of ~479 ks and provide nearly complete binary phase coverage. Variability of the total X-ray flux in the range 5-25 $\AA$ is confirmed, with maximum amplitude of about +/-15% within a single ~125 ks observation. Read More

We present an overview of four phase-constrained Chandra HETGS X-ray observations of Delta Ori A. Delta Ori A is actually a triple system which includes the nearest massive eclipsing spectroscopic binary, Delta Ori Aa, the only such object which can be observed with little phase-smearing with the Chandra gratings. Since the fainter star, Delta Ori Aa2, has a much lower X-ray luminosity than the brighter primary, Delta Ori A provides a unique system with which to test the spatial distribution of the X-ray emitting gas around Delta Ori Aa1 via occultation by the photosphere of and wind cavity around the X-ray dark secondary. Read More

A hot flow anomaly (HFA) like event was observed by the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) in the night side magnetosheath in the far tail in February-March 2007. The magnetic signature of the tangential discontinuity was visible, but the resolution of the plasma ion data is not sufficient for our analysis, so a method is given to identify HFAs without solar wind velocity measurements. The event observed in the night side magnetosheath in the far tail might be the remnant of an HFA event, a not-so-active current sheet. Read More

We present results from a study of the eclipsing, colliding-wind binary V444 Cyg that uses a combination of X-ray and optical spectropolarimetric methods to describe the 3-D nature of the shock and wind structure within the system. We have created the most complete X-ray light curve of V444 Cyg to date using 40 ksec of new data from Swift, and 200 ksec of new and archived XMM-Newton observations. In addition, we have characterized the intrinsic, polarimetric phase-dependent behavior of the strongest optical emission lines using data obtained with the University of Wisconsin's Half-Wave Spectropolarimeter. Read More

The Suzaku X-ray observatory monitored the supermassive binary system Eta Carinae 10 times during the whole 5.5 year orbital cycle between 2005-2011. This series of observations presents the first long-term monitoring of this enigmatic system in the extremely hard X-ray band between 15-40 keV. Read More

Detection of groups of interacting people is a very interesting and useful task in many modern technologies, with application fields spanning from video-surveillance to social robotics. In this paper we first furnish a rigorous definition of group considering the background of the social sciences: this allows us to specify many kinds of group, so far neglected in the Computer Vision literature. On top of this taxonomy, we present a detailed state of the art on the group detection algorithms. Read More

Common difficulties like the cold-start problem and a lack of sufficient information about users due to their limited interactions have been major challenges for most recommender systems (RS). To overcome these challenges and many similar ones that result in low accuracy (precision and recall) recommendations, we propose a novel system that extracts semantically-related search keywords based on the aggregate behavioral data of many users. These semantically-related search keywords can be used to substantially increase the amount of knowledge about a specific user's interests based upon even a few searches and thus improve the accuracy of the RS. Read More

We present an analysis of the olivine-rich exposures at Bellicia and Arruntia craters using Dawn Framing Camera (FC) color data. Our results confirm the existence of olivine-rich materials at these localities as described by Ammannito et al. (2013a) using Visual Infrared Spectrometer (VIR) data. Read More

Vesta has a complex cratering history, with ancient terrains as well as recent large impacts that have led to regional resurfacing. Crater counts can help constrain the relative ages of different units on Vesta's surface, but converting those crater counts to absolute ages requires a chronology function. We present a cratering chronology based on the best current models for the dynamical evolution of asteroid belt, and calibrate it to Vesta using the record of large craters on its surface. Read More

Given a sample of genome sequences from an asexual population, can one predict its evolutionary future? Here we demonstrate that the branching patterns of reconstructed genealogical trees contains information about the relative fitness of the sampled sequences and that this information can be used to predict successful strains. Our approach is based on the assumption that evolution proceeds by accumulation of small effect mutations, does not require species specific input and can be applied to any asexual population under persistent selection pressure. We demonstrate its performance using historical data on seasonal influenza A/H3N2 virus. Read More

Colliding wind binaries (CWBs) are unique laboratories for X-ray astrophysics. The massive stars in these systems possess powerful stellar winds with speeds up to $\sim$3000 km s$^{-1}$, and their collision leads to hot plasma (up to $\sim10^8$K) that emit thermal X-rays (up to $\sim$10 keV). Many X-ray telescopes have observed CWBs, including Suzaku, and our work aims to model these X-ray observations. Read More

Cyg X-3 is a high mass X-ray binary consisting of a Wolf-Rayet star and a compact object in a very short orbital period of 4.8h. The only confirmed microquasar with high energy gamma-ray emission, Cyg X-3 provides a unique opportunity to study the relationship between the accretion power and the power in high energy emission. Read More

The Dawn spacecraft observed the presence of dark material, which in turn proved to be associated with OH and H-rich material, on the surface of Vesta. The source of this dark material has been identified with the low albedo asteroids, but it is still a matter of debate whether the delivery of the dark material is associated with a few large impact events, to micrometeorites or to the continuous, secular flux of impactors on Vesta. The continuous flux scenario predicts that a significant fraction of the exogenous material accreted by Vesta should be due to non-dark impactors likely analogous to ordinary chondrites, which instead represent only a minor contaminant in the HED meteorites. Read More

X-ray emission from the supermassive binary system Eta Carinae declines sharply around periastron. This X-ray minimum has two distinct phases - the lowest flux phase in the first ~3 weeks and a brighter phase thereafter. In 2009, the Chandra X-ray Observatory monitored the first phase five times and found the lowest observed flux at ~1. Read More

Recent work suggests that the mass-loss rate of the primary star (Eta A) in the massive colliding wind binary Eta Carinae dropped by a factor of 2-3 between 1999 and 2010. We present results from large- (r=1545au) and small- (r=155au) domain, 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations of Eta Car's colliding winds for 3 Eta A mass-loss rates (2.4, 4. Read More

Dawn spacecraft orbited Vesta for more than one year and collected a huge volume of multispectral, high-resolution data in the visible wavelengths with the Framing Camera. We present a detailed disk-integrated and disk-resolved photometric analysis using the Framing Camera images with the Minnaert model and the Hapke model, and report our results about the global photometric properties of Vesta. The photometric properties of Vesta show weak or no dependence on wavelengths, except for the albedo. Read More

NASA's Dawn mission observed a great variety of colored terrains on asteroid (4) Vesta during its survey with the Framing Camera (FC). Here we present a detailed study of the orange material on Vesta, which was first observed in color ratio images obtained by the FC and presents a red spectral slope. The orange material deposits can be classified into three types, a) diffuse ejecta deposited by recent medium-size impact craters (such as Oppia), b) lobate patches with well-defined edges, and c) ejecta rays from fresh-looking impact craters. Read More

Observations of asteroid 4 Vesta by NASA's Dawn spacecraft are interesting because its surface has the largest range of albedo, color and composition of any other asteroid visited by spacecraft to date. These hemispherical and rotational variations in surface brightness and composition have been attributed to impact processes since Vesta's formation. Prior to Dawn's arrival at Vesta, its surface properties were the focus of intense telescopic investigations for nearly a hundred years. Read More

Affiliations: 11-2, 2NLSI-SwRI, Boulder, CO, 3PSI, Tucson, AZ, 4LPI, Houston, TX, 5DLR, Berlin, Germany, 6INAF, Rome, Italy, 7NLSI-LPI, Houston, TX, 8ASU, Tempe, AZ, 9JPL, Pasadena, CA, 10UCLA, CA

The NASA Dawn mission has extensively examined the surface of asteroid Vesta, the second most massive body in the main belt. The high quality of the gathered data provides us with an unique opportunity to determine the surface and internal properties of one of the most important and intriguing main belt asteroids (MBAs). In this paper, we focus on the size frequency distributions (SFDs) of sub-kilometer impact craters observed at high spatial resolution on several selected young terrains on Vesta. Read More

The surface composition of Vesta, the most massive intact basaltic object in the asteroid belt, is interesting because it provides us with an insight into magmatic differentiation of planetesimals that eventually coalesced to form the terrestrial planets. The distribution of lithologic and compositional units on the surface of Vesta provides important constraints on its petrologic evolution, impact history and its relationship with Vestoids and howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) meteorites. Using color parameters (band tilt and band curvature) originally developed for analyzing lunar data, we have identified and mapped HED terrains on Vesta in Dawn Framing Camera (FC) color data. Read More

Influenza viruses undergo continual antigenic evolution allowing mutant viruses to evade host immunity acquired to previous virus strains. Antigenic phenotype is often assessed through pairwise measurement of cross-reactivity between influenza strains using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. Here, we extend previous approaches to antigenic cartography, and simultaneously characterize antigenic and genetic evolution by modeling the diffusion of antigenic phenotype over a shared virus phylogeny. Read More

Global mobility flow data are at the heart of spatial epidemiological models used to predict infectious disease behavior but this wealth of data on human mobility has been largely neglected by reconstructions of pathogen evolutionary dynamics using viral genetic data. Although stochastic models of viral evolution may potentially be informed by such data, a major challenge lies in deciding which mobility processes are critical and to what extent they contribute to shaping contemporaneous distributions of pathogen diversity. Here, we develop a framework to integrate predictors of viral diffusion with phylogeographic inference and estimate human influenza H3N2 migration history while simultaneously testing and quantifying the factors that underly it. Read More

NASA's Dawn spacecraft observations of asteroid (4) Vesta reveal a surface with the highest albedo and color variation of any asteroid we have observed so far. Terrains rich in low albedo dark material (DM) have been identified using Dawn Framing Camera (FC) 0.75 {\mu}m filter images in several geologic settings: associated with impact craters (in the ejecta blanket material and/or on the crater walls and rims); as flow-like deposits or rays commonly associated with topographic highs; and as dark spots (likely secondary impacts) nearby impact craters. Read More

Markov Networks are widely used through out computer vision and machine learning. An important subclass are the Associative Markov Networks which are used in a wide variety of applications. For these networks a good approximate minimum cost solution can be found efficiently using graph cut based move making algorithms such as alpha-expansion. Read More

We present a three-dimensional (3-D) dynamical model for the broad [Fe III] emission observed in Eta Carinae using the Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS). This model is based on full 3-D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of Eta Car's binary colliding winds. Radiative transfer codes are used to generate synthetic spectro-images of [Fe III] emission line structures at various observed orbital phases and STIS slit position angles (PAs). Read More