C. Smith - Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge

C. Smith
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C. Smith
Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge
United Kingdom

Pubs By Year

Pub Categories

Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (16)
Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (10)
Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (6)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (6)
Quantum Physics (4)
Physics - Statistical Mechanics (4)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (3)
Nuclear Experiment (2)
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (2)
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (2)
Physics - Materials Science (2)
Quantitative Biology - Genomics (1)
High Energy Physics - Experiment (1)
Mathematics - Rings and Algebras (1)
Physics - Space Physics (1)
Physics - Fluid Dynamics (1)
Physics - Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics (1)
Quantitative Biology - Populations and Evolution (1)
Mathematics - Representation Theory (1)
Mathematics - Functional Analysis (1)
Mathematics - Metric Geometry (1)
Computer Science - Robotics (1)
Computer Science - Learning (1)
Physics - Optics (1)
High Energy Physics - Theory (1)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (1)

Publications Authored By C. Smith

In this work, we analyze the excitonic gap generation in the strong-coupling regime of thin films of three-dimensional time-reversal-invariant topological insulators. We start by writing down the effective gauge theory in 2+1-dimensions from the projection of the 3+1-dimensional quantum electrodynamics. Within this method, we obtain a short-range interaction, which has the form of a Thirring-like term, and a long-range one. Read More

Euler's inequality is a well known inequality relating the inradius and circumradius of a triangle. In Euclidean geometry, this inequality takes the form $R \geq 2r$ where $R$ is the circumradius and $r$ is the inradius. In spherical geometry, the inequality takes the form $\tan(R) \geq 2\tan(r)$ as proved in \cite{MPV}; similary, we have $\tanh(R) \geq 2\tanh(r)$ for hyperbolic triangles (see \cite{SV} for proof). Read More

We present highlights from a large set of simulations of a hot Jupiter atmosphere, nominally based on HD 209458b, aimed at exploring both the evolution of the deep atmosphere, and the acceleration of the zonal flow or jet. We find the occurrence of a super-rotating equatorial jet is robust to changes in various parameters, and over long timescales, even in the absence of strong inner or bottom boundary drag. This jet is diminished in one simulation only, where we strongly force the deep atmosphere equator-to-pole temperature gradient over long timescales. Read More

Periodically driven systems play a prominent role in optical lattices. In these ultracold atomic systems, driving is used to create a variety of interesting behaviours, of which an important example is provided by topological states of matter. Such Floquet topological phases have a richer classification that their equilibrium counterparts. Read More

We study electron transport in nanostructures patterned in bilayer graphene patches grown epitaxially on SiC as a function of doping, magnetic field, and temperature. Away from charge neutrality transport is only weakly modulated by changes in carrier concentration induced by a local side-gate. At low n-type doping close to charge neutrality, electron transport resembles that in exfoliated graphene nanoribbons and is well described by tunnelling of single electrons through a network of Coulomb-blockaded islands. Read More

Classically, Tannaka-Krein duality allows us to reconstruct a (co)algebra from its category of representation. In this paper we present an approach that allows us to generalise this theory to the setting of Banach spaces. This leads to several interesting applications in the directions of analytic quantum groups, bounded cohomology and galois cohomology. Read More

In this work we propose an approach to learn a robust policy for solving the pivoting task. Recently, several model-free continuous control algorithms were shown to learn successful policies without prior knowledge of the dynamics of the task. However, obtaining successful policies required thousands to millions of training episodes, limiting the applicability of these approaches to real hardware. Read More

This short piece celebrates Haldane's seminal J. Phys. C 14, 2585 (1981) paper laying the foundations of the modern theory of Luttinger liquids in one-dimensional systems. Read More

We use Pseudo Quantum Electrodynamics to study massive (2+1)D Dirac systems interacting electromagnetically via a U(1) gauge field in (3+1)D. It was recently found in Ref. [1], that an interaction-induced Quantum Hall Effect (QHE) and Quantum Valley Hall Effect (QVHE) occur in these systems, when considering a two-component fermion representation. Read More


We present a multi-band photometric catalog of $\approx$ 1.7 million cluster members for a field of view of $\approx$ 2x2 degree across $\omega$ Cen. Photometry is based on images collected with the Dark Energy Camera on the 4m Blanco telescope and the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. Read More

An interaction-driven nonzero quantum Hall conductivity is shown to occur in time-reversal symmetric massive Dirac materials, in the absence of any external agent. The effect is produced through the dynamical breakdown of time-reversal symmetry, which is generated by quantum fluctuations, when the full dynamical electromagnetic interaction among the electrons is taken into account. The manifestation of this emergent parity anomaly should be observed in materials such as silicene, stanene, germanene and transition metal dichalcogenides, at low enough temperatures. Read More

One of the challenging goals in the studies of many-body physics with ultracold atoms is the creation of a topological $p_{x} + ip_{y}$ superfluid for identical fermions in two dimensions (2D). The expectations of reaching the critical temperature $T_c$ through p-wave Feshbach resonance in spin-polarized fermionic gases have soon faded away because on approaching the resonance, the system becomes unstable due to inelastic-collision processes. Here, we consider an alternative scenario in which a single-component degenerate gas of fermions in 2D is paired via phonon-mediated interactions provided by a 3D BEC background. Read More

The experimental efforts to detect the redshifted 21 cm signal from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) are limited predominantly by the chromatic instrumental systematic effect. The delay spectrum methodology for 21 cm power spectrum measurements brought new attention to the critical impact of an antenna's chromaticity on the viability of making this measurement. This methodology established a straightforward relationship between time-domain response of an instrument and the power spectrum modes accessible to a 21 cm EoR experiment. Read More

The quark and lepton mass patterns upset their naive unification. In this paper, a new approach to solve this problem is proposed. Model-independently, we find that a successful unification can be achieved. Read More

Geometry, whether on the atomic or nanoscale, is a key factor for the electronic band structure of materials. Some specific geometries give rise to novel and potentially useful electronic bands. For example, a honeycomb lattice leads to Dirac-type bands where the charge carriers behave as massless particles. Read More

Understanding if and how mutants reach fixation in populations is an important question in evolutionary biology. We study the impact of population growth has on the success of mutants. To systematically understand the effects of growth we decouple competition from reproduction; competition follows a birth--death process and is governed by an evolutionary game, while growth is determined by an externally controlled branching rate. Read More

It has been shown recently that local four-fermion interactions on the edges of two-dimensional time-reversal-invariant topological insulators give rise to a new non-Fermi-liquid phase, called helical Luttinger liquid (HLL). In this work, we provide a first-principle derivation of this non-Fermi-liquid phase based on the gauge-theory approach. Firstly, we derive a gauge theory for the edge states by simply assuming that the interactions between the Dirac fermions at the edge are mediated by a quantum dynamical electromagnetic field. Read More

Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamonds are interesting due to their remarkable characteristics that are well suited to applications in quantum-information processing and magnetic field sensing, as well as representing stable fluorescent sources. Multiple NV centers in nanodiamonds (NDs) are especially useful as biological fluorophores due to their chemical neutrality, brightness and room-temperature photostability. Furthermore, NDs containing multiple NV centers also have potential in high-precision magnetic field and temperature sensing. Read More

To study the complexity of hot Jupiter atmospheres revealed by observations of increasing quality, we have adapted the UK Met Office global circulation model (GCM), the Unified Model (UM), to these exoplanets. The UM solves the full 3D Navier-Stokes equations with a height-varying gravity, avoiding the simplifications used in most GCMs currently applied to exoplanets. In this work we present the coupling of the UM dynamical core to an accurate radiation scheme based on the two-stream approximation and correlated-k method with state-of-the-art opacities from ExoMol. Read More

Topological insulators (superconductors) are materials that host symmetry-protected metallic edge states in an insulating (superconducting) bulk. Although they are well understood, a thermodynamic description of these materials remained elusive, firstly because the edges yield a non-extensive contribution to the thermodynamic potential, and secondly because topological field theories involve non-local order parameters, and cannot be captured by the Ginzburg-Landau formalism. Recently, this challenge has been overcome: by using Hill thermodynamics to describe the Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang model in two dimensions, it was shown that at the topological phase change the thermodynamic potential does not scale extensively due to boundary effects. Read More

Recently, singlet-triplet measurements in double dots have emerged as a powerful tool in quantum information processing. In parallel, quantum dot arrays are being envisaged as analog quantum simulators of many-body models. Thus motivated, we explore the potential of the above singlet-triplet measurements for probing and exploiting the ground-state of a Heisenberg spin chain in such a quantum simulator. Read More

The Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) is a staged experiment to measure 21 cm emission from the primordial intergalactic medium (IGM) throughout cosmic reionization ($z=6-12$), and to explore earlier epochs of our Cosmic Dawn ($z\sim30$). During these epochs, early stars and black holes heated and ionized the IGM, introducing fluctuations in 21 cm emission. HERA is designed to characterize the evolution of the 21 cm power spectrum to constrain the timing and morphology of reionization, the properties of the first galaxies, the evolution of large-scale structure, and the early sources of heating. Read More

In this paper, we investigate the edge Majorana modes in the simplest possible $p{}_{x}+ip_{y}$ superconductor defined on surfaces with different geometry - the annulus, the cylinder, the M\"obius band and a cone (by cone we mean a cone with the tip cut away so it is topologically equivalent to the annulus and cylinder)- and with different configuration of magnetic fluxes threading holes in these surfaces. In particular, we shall address two questions: Given that, in the absence of any flux, the ground state on the annulus does not support Majorana modes, while the one on the cylinder does, how is it possible that the conical geometry can interpolate smoothly between the two? Given that in finite geometries edge Majorana modes have to come in pairs, how can a $p{}_{x}+ip_{y}$ state be defined on a M\"obius band, which has only one edge? We show that the key to answering these questions is that the ground state depends on the geometry, even though all the surfaces are locally flat. In the case of the truncated cone, there is a non-trivial holonomy, while the non-orientable M\"obius band must necessarily support a domain wall. Read More

Symmetries play an essential role in identifying and characterizing topological states of matter. Here, we classify topologically two-dimensional (2D) insulators and semimetals with vanishing spin-orbit coupling using time-reversal ($\mathcal{T}$) and inversion ($\mathcal{I}$) symmetry. This allows us to link the presence of edge states in $\mathcal{I}$ and $\mathcal{T}$ symmetric 2D insulators, which are topologically trivial according to the Altland-Zirnbauer table, to a $\mathbb{Z}_2$ topological invariant. Read More

We report the relationship between epitaxial strain and the crystallographic orientation of the in-phase rotation axis and A-site displacements in Pbnm-type perovskite films. Synchrotron diffraction measurements of EuFeO3 films under strain states ranging from 2% compressive to 0.9% tensile on cubic or rhombohedral substrates exhibit a combination of a-a+c- and a+a-c- rotational patterns. Read More

Structure functions, as measured in lepton-nucleon scattering, have proven to be very useful in studying the quark dynamics within the nucleon. However, it is experimentally difficult to separately determine the longitudinal and transverse structure functions, and consequently there are substantially less data available for the longitudinal structure function in particular. Here we present separated structure functions for hydrogen and deuterium at low four--momentum transfer squared, Q^2< 1 GeV^2, and compare these with parton distribution parameterizations and a k_T factorization approach. Read More

We fit the $\sim$0.1-500 MeV/nucleon H-Fe spectra in 46 large SEP events surveyed by Desai et al. (2016) with the double power-law Band function to obtain a normalization constant, low- and high-energy parameters $\gamma_a$ and $\gamma_b$; and break energy $E_B$. Read More

We compare the effect of single qubit incoherent and coherent errors on the logical error rate of the Steane [[7,1,3]] quantum error correction code by performing an exact full-density-matrix simulation of an error correction step. We find that the effective 1-qubit process matrix at the logical level reveals the key differences between the error models and provides insight into why the Pauli twirling approximation is a good approximation for incoherent errors and a poor approximation for coherent ones. Approximate channels composed of Clifford operations and Pauli measurement operators that are pessimistic at the physical level result in pessimistic error rates at the logical level. Read More

Topological states of matter are peculiar quantum phases showing different edge and bulk transport properties connected by the bulk-boundary correspondence. While non-interacting fermionic topological insulators are well established by now and have been classified according to a ten-fold scheme, the possible realisation of topological states for bosons has not been much explored yet. Furthermore, the role of interactions is far from being understood. Read More

Titan, with its thick, nitrogen-dominated atmosphere, has been seen from satellite and terrestrial observations to harbour methane clouds. To investigate whether atmospheric features such as clouds could also be visible from the surface of Titan, data taken with the Side Looking Imager (SLI) on-board the Huygens probe after landing have been analysed to identify any potential atmospheric features. In total, 82 SLI images were calibrated, processed and examined for features. Read More

3D atmosphere model results are used to comparatively study the kinetic, non-equilibrium cloud formation in the atmospheres of two example planets guided by the giant gas planets HD209458b and HD189733b. Rather independently of hydrodynamic model differences, our cloud modelling suggests that both planets are covered in mineral clouds throughout the entire modelling domain. Both planets harbour chemically complex clouds that are made of mineral particles that have a height-dependent material composition and size. Read More

The experimental observation of the renormalization of the Fermi velocity as a function of doping has been a landmark for confirming the importance of electronic interactions in graphene. Although the experiments were performed in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field B, the measurements are well described by a renormalization-group (RG) theory that did not include it. Here we clarify this issue and show that for the weak magnetic fields at which the experiments are performed, there is no change in the renormalization-group functions. Read More

Transits of exoplanets observed in the near-UV have been used to study the scattering properties of their atmospheres and possible star-planet interactions. We observed the primary transits of 15 exoplanets (CoRoT-1b, GJ436b, HAT-P-1b, HAT-P-13b, HAT-P-16b, HAT-P-22b, TrES-2b, TrES-4b, WASP-1b, WASP-12b, WASP-33b, WASP-36b, WASP-44b, WASP-48b, and WASP-77Ab) in the near-UV and several optical photometric bands to update their planetary parameters, ephemerides, search for a wavelength dependence in their transit depths to constrain their atmospheres, and determine if asymmetries are visible in their light curves. Here we present the first ground-based near-UV light curves for 12 of the targets (CoRoT-1b, GJ436b, HAT-P-1b, HAT-P-13b, HAT-P-22b, TrES-2b, TrES-4b, WASP-1b, WASP-33b, WASP-36b, WASP-48b, and WASP-77Ab). Read More

Motivated by questions about the open-system dynamics of topological quantum matter, we investigated the quantum Brownian motion of an electron in a homogeneous magnetic field. When the Fermi length $l_F=\hbar/(v_Fm_{\text{eff}})$ becomes much longer than the magnetic length $l_B=(\hbar c/eB)^{1/2}$, then the spatial coordinates $X,Y$ of the electron cease to commute, $[X,Y]=il_B^2$. As a consequence, localization of the electron becomes limited by Heisenberg uncertainty, and the linear bath-electron coupling becomes unconventional. Read More

The spin g-factor is an important physical quantity relating the magnetic dipole moment of a particle to its spin. For electrons in a material the is modified with respect to its value in vacuo because of interactions. Here, we report the results of the spin g-factor in graphene, taking into account the full electromagnetic interaction described by Pseudo-QED. Read More

We investigate the competition between electron-solid and quantum-liquid phases in graphene, which arise in partially filled Landau levels. The differences in the wave function describing the electrons in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field in graphene with respect to the conventional semiconductors, such as GaAs, can be captured in a form factor which carries the Landau level index. This leads to a quantitative difference in the electron-solid and -liquid energies. Read More

Topological insulators are states of matter distinguished by the presence of symmetry protected metallic boundary states. These edge modes have been characterised in terms of transport and spectroscopic measurements, but a thermodynamic description has been lacking. The challenge arises because in conventional thermodynamics the potentials are required to scale linearly with extensive variables like volume, which does not allow for a general treatment of boundary effects. Read More

We associate in a natural way to any partially ordered set $(P,\leq)$ a directed graph $E_P$ (where the vertices of $E_P$ correspond to the elements of $P$, and the edges of $E_P$ correspond to related pairs of elements of $P$), and then describe the prime spectrum of the resulting Leavitt path algebra $L_K(E_P)$. This construction allows us to realize a wide class of partially ordered sets as the prime spectra of rings. More specifically, any partially ordered set in which every downward directed subset has a greatest lower bound, and where these greatest lower bounds satisfy certain compatibility conditions, can be so realized. Read More

The recently observed diphoton anomaly at the LHC appears to suggest the presence of a rather broad resonance. In this note, it is pointed out that this does not hold if the two photons are produced along with an extra state. Specifically, the diphoton invariant mass arising from various $A \to B\gamma\gamma$ processes, with $A,B$ being scalars, fermions, or vectors, though peaked at a rather large value, would naturally be broad and could fit rather well the observed deviations. Read More

We explore the wind-driving mechanism of giant stars through the nearby (117 pc), intermediate-luminosity ($L \approx 1600$ L$_\odot$) star EU Del (HIP 101810, HD 196610). APEX observations of the CO (3--2) and (2--1) transitions are used to derive a wind velocity of 9.51 $\pm$ 0. Read More

Spectator fragments resulting from relativistic heavy ion collisions, consisting of single protons and neutrons along with groups of stable nuclear fragments up to Nitrogen (Z=7), are measured in PHOBOS. These fragments are observed in Au+Au (sqrt(sNN)=19.6 GeV) and Cu+Cu (22. Read More

Multiply inverted balancer chromosomes that suppress exchange with their homologs are an essential part of the genetic toolkit in Drosophila melanogaster. Despite their widespread use, the organization of balancer chromosomes has not been characterized at the molecular level, and the degree of sequence variation among copies of any given balancer chromosome is unknown. To map inversion breakpoints and study potential sequence diversity in the descendants of a structurally identical balancer chromosome, we sequenced a panel of laboratory stocks containing the most widely used X-chromosome balancer, First Multiple 7 (FM7). Read More

Electrical readout of spin qubits requires fast and sensitive measurements, but these are hindered by poor impedance matching to the device. We demonstrate perfect impedance matching in a radio-frequency readout circuit, realized by incorporating voltage-tunable varactors to cancel out parasitic capacitances. In the optimized setup, a capacitance sensitivity of $1. Read More

Recently, several new materials exhibiting massless Dirac fermions have been proposed. However, many of these do not have the typical graphene honeycomb lattice, which is often associated with Dirac cones. Here, we present a classification of these different two-dimensional Dirac systems based on the space groups, and discuss our findings within the context of a minimal two-band model. Read More

The NASA New Horizons spacecraft flies past Pluto on July 14, 2015, carrying two instruments that detect charged particles. Pluto has a tenuous, extended atmosphere that is escaping the weak gravity of the planet. The interaction of the solar wind with the escaping atmosphere of Pluto depends on solar wind conditions as well as the vertical structure of the atmosphere. Read More

ALMA observations show a non-detection of carbon monoxide around the four most luminous asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae. Stellar evolution models and star counts show that the mass-loss rates from these stars should be ~1.2-3. Read More

A millimeter molecular line survey of three carbon-rich AGB stars and two oxygen-rich planetary nebulae has been carried out over the frequency range 80.5-115.5 GHz. Read More

We study 95 split gates of different size on a single chip using a multiplexing technique. Each split gate defines a one-dimensional channel on a modulation-doped GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure, through which the conductance is quantized. The yield of devices showing good quantization decreases rapidly as the length of the split gates increases. Read More

Affiliations: 1Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 2Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, 3Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, 4Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, 5National Institute for Materials Science, 6National Institute for Materials Science, 7Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 8Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 9Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge

We use scanning gate microscopy to map out the trajectories of ballistic carriers in high-mobility graphene encapsulated by hexagonal boron nitride and subject to a weak magnetic field. We employ a magnetic focusing geometry to image carriers that emerge ballistically from an injector, follow a cyclotron path due to the Lorentz force from an applied magnetic field, and land on an adjacent collector probe. The local electric field generated by the scanning tip in the vicinity of the carriers deflects their trajectories, modifying the proportion of carriers focused into the collector. Read More

We theoretically study the competition between two possible exotic superconducting orders that may occur in graphene-like systems, assuming dominant nearest-neighbor attraction: the gapless hidden superconducting order, which renormalizes the Fermi velocity, and the Kekule order, which opens a superconducting gap. We perform an analysis within the mean-field theory for Dirac electrons, at finite-temperature and finite chemical potential, as well as at half filling and zero-temperature, first excluding the possibility of the coexistence of the two orders. In that case, we find the dependence of the critical (more precisely, crossover) temperature and the critical interaction on the chemical potential. Read More