C. S. Jeffery - Armagh Observatory UK

C. S. Jeffery
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C. S. Jeffery
Armagh Observatory UK
United Kingdom

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Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (30)
Astrophysics (16)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (4)
Computer Science - Programming Languages (1)
Computer Science - Software Engineering (1)
Computer Science - Computers and Society (1)

Publications Authored By C. S. Jeffery

The problem addressed in this paper is the challenge arising in enabling collaborative learning in the context distance education models. While research has made quantum leaps in the development of both effective collaborative pedagogical models as well as online learning environments, the research at the intersection of these two areas has been scarce. This paper presents the design for a new collaborative virtual model, named Collaborative Virtual Affinity Group model (CVAG), which is an extension of the successful Affinity Group Research (ARG) model. Read More

The majority of hot subdwarf stars are low-mass core-helium-burning stars. Their atmospheres are generally helium deficient; however a minority have extremely helium-rich surfaces. An additional fraction have an intermediate surface-helium abundance, occasionally accompanied by peculiar abundances of other elements. Read More

It is predicted that orbital decay by gravitational-wave radiation and tidal interaction will cause some close-binary stars to merge within a Hubble time. The merger of a helium-core white dwarf with a main-sequence star can produce a red giant branch star that has a low-mass hydrogen envelope when helium is ignited and thus become a hot subdwarf. Because detailed calculations have not been made, we compute post-merger models with a stellar evolution code. Read More

UVO0825+15 is a hot bright helium-rich subdwarf which lies in {\it K2} Field 5 and in a sample of intermediate helium-rich subdwarfs observed with {\it Subaru/HDS}. The {\it K2} light curve shows low-amplitude variations, whilst the {\it Subaru} spectrum shows Pb{\sc iv} absorption lines, indicative of a very high lead overabundance. UVO0825+15 also has a high proper motion with kinematics typical for a thick disk star. Read More

Isolated hot subdwarfs might be formed by the merging of two helium-core white dwarfs. Before merging, helium-core white dwarfs have hydrogen-rich envelopes and some of this hydrogen may survive the merger. We calculate the mass of hydrogen that is present at the start of such mergers and, with the assumption that hydrogen is mixed throughout the disrupted white dwarf in the merger process, estimate how much can survive. Read More

Many extremely low-mass (ELM) white-dwarf (WD) stars are currently being found in the field of the Milky Way. Some of these stars exhibit long-period nonradial $g$-mode pulsations, and constitute the class of ELMV pulsating WDs. In addition, several low-mass pre-WDs, which could be precursors of ELM WDs, have been observed to show short-period photometric variations likely due to nonradial $p$ modes and radial modes. Read More

Affiliations: 1Armagh Observatory, 2Armagh Observatory, 3Radboud Univ and UCT, 4Radboud Univ, 5UCT, 6Sheffield and IAC, 7Armagh, 8Warwick, 9Radboud, 10Warwick

OmegaWhite is a wide-field, high cadence, synoptic survey targeting fields in the southern Galactic plane, with the aim of discovering short period variable stars. Our strategy is to take a series of 39 s exposures in the g band of a 1 square degree of sky lasting 2 h using the OmegaCAM wide field imager on the VLT Survey Telescope (VST). We give an overview of the initial 4 years of data which covers 134 square degrees and includes 12. Read More

Using linear non-adabatic pulsation analysis, we explore the radial-mode (p-mode) stability of stars across a wide range of mass (0.2 <= M <= 50 Msun), composition (0 <= X <= 0.7, Z=0. Read More

Two low-mass pre-white dwarfs, which could be precursors of ELM white dwarfs, have been observed to show multiperiodic photometric variations. They could constitute a new class of pulsating low-mass pre-white dwarf stars. We present a detailed nonadiabatic pulsation study of such stars, employing full evolutionary sequences of low-mass He-core pre-white dwarf models. Read More

We investigate the gravitational wave (GW) signal generated by a population of double neutron-star binaries (DNS) with eccentric orbits caused by kicks during supernova collapse and binary evolution. The DNS population of a standard Milky-Way type galaxy has been studied as a function of star formation history, initial mass function (IMF) and metallicity and of the binary-star common-envelope ejection process. The model provides birth rates, merger rates and total numbers of DNS as a function of time. Read More

High resolution spectroscopy with the Subaru High Dispersion Spectrograph, and Swift ultraviolet photometry are presented for the pulsating extreme helium star V652\,Her. Swift provides the best relative ultraviolet photometry obtained to date, but shows no direct evidence for a shock at ultraviolet or X-ray wavelengths. Subaru has provided high spectral and high temporal resolution spectroscopy over 6 pulsation cycles (and eight radius minima). Read More

The helium-rich hot subdwarf LS IV -14 116 shows remarkably high surface abundances of zirconium, yttrium, strontium, and germanium, indicative of strong chemical stratification in the photosphere. It also shows photometric behaviour indicative of non-radial g-mode pulsations, despite having surface properties inconsistent with any known pulsational instability zone. We have conducted a search for radial velocity variability. Read More

Orbital decay by gravitational-wave radiation will cause some close-binary white dwarfs (WDs) to merge within a Hubble time. The results from previous hydrodynamical WD-merger simulations have been used to guide calculations of the post-merger evolution of carbon-oxygen + helium (CO+He) WD binaries. Our models include the formation of a hot corona in addition to a Keplerian disk. Read More


DY Cen has shown a steady fading of its visual light by about 1 magnitude in the last 40 years suggesting a secular increase in its effective temperature. We have conducted non-LTE and LTE abundance analyses to determine the star's effective temperature, surface gravity, and chemical composition using high-resolution spectra obtained over two decades. The derived stellar parameters for three epochs suggest that DY Cen has evolved at a constant luminosity and has become hotter by about 5000 K in 23 years. Read More

PG1544+488 is an exceptional short-period spectroscopic binary containing two subdwarf B stars. It is also exceptional because the surfaces of both components are extremely helium-rich. We present a new analysis of spectroscopy of PG1544+488 obtained with the William Herschel Telescope. Read More

K2, the two-wheel mission of the Kepler space telescope, observed the pulsating subdwarf B star EQ Psc during engineering tests in 2014 February. In addition to a rich spectrum of g-mode pulsation frequencies, the observations demonstrate a light variation with a period of 19.2 h and a full amplitude of 2%. Read More

Stars consume hydrogen in their interiors but, generally speaking, their surfaces continue to contain some 70% hydrogen (by mass) throughout their lives. Nevertheless, many types of star can be found with hydrogen-deficient surfaces, in some cases with as little as one hydrogen atom in 10 000. Amongst these, the luminous B- and A-type extreme helium stars are genuinely rare; only ~15 are known within a very substantial volume of the Galaxy. Read More

Early-type R stars and J stars are a special type of carbon star, having enhanced nitrogen ($\rm [N/Fe]\approx 0.5$), lithium, a low \iso{12}{C}/\iso{13}{C} ratio ($<15$) and no s-element enhancements. The merger of a helium white dwarf with a red giant is regarded to be a possible model for the origin of early-type R stars, but the details of nucleosynthesis are not clear. Read More

Affiliations: 1Armagh Observatory, 2Armagh Observatory, 3Armagh Observatory, 4IAC, 5Warwick, 6NASA Ames, 7ING, 8Armagh Observatory, 9Finca

Optical spectroscopy of the blue star KIC 10449976 shows that it is an extremely helium-rich subdwarf with effective temperature T=40000+/-300 K and surface gravity log g=5.3+/-0.1. Read More

The expected gravitational wave (GW) signal due to double degenerates (DDs) in the thin Galactic disc is calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation. The number of young close DDs that will contribute observable discrete signals in the frequency range $1.58 - 15. Read More

The remarkable hot R Coronae Borealis star DY Cen is revealed to be the first and only binary system to be found among the R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars and their likely relatives, including the Extreme Helium stars and the hydrogen-deficient carbon stars. Radial velocity determinations from 1982-2010 have shown DY Cen is a single-lined spectroscopic binary in an eccentric orbit with a period of 39.67 days. Read More

In this paper, we report on our analysis using Hubble Space Telescope astrometry and Keck-I HIRES spectroscopy of the central six stars of Tycho's supernova remnant (SN 1572). With these data, we measured the proper motions, radial velocities, rotational velocities, and chemical abundances of these objects. Regarding the chemical abundances, we do not confirm the unusu- ally high [Ni/Fe] ratio previously reported for Tycho-G. Read More

Helium-rich subdwarfs are a rare subclass of hot subdwarf stars which constitute a small and inhomogeneous group showing varying degrees of helium enrichment. Only one star, LS IV $^\circ$14 116 has been found to show multiperiodic luminosity variations. The variability of LS IV $^\circ$14 116 has been explained as the consequence of nonradial g-mode oscillations, whose excitation is difficult to understand within the frame of the standard $\kappa$-mechanism driving pulsations in sdBV stars. Read More

Due to orbital decay by gravitational-wave radiation, some close-binary helium white dwarfs are expected to merge within a Hubble time. The immediate merger products are believed to be helium-rich sdO stars, essentially helium main-sequence stars. We present new evolution calculations for these post-merger stars beyond the core helium-burning phase. Read More

We introduce the first g-mode pulsator found to reside on the classical blue horizontal branch. One year of Kepler observations of KIC 1718290 reveals a rich spectrum of low-amplitude modes with periods between one and twelve hours, most of which follow a regular spacing of 276.3 s. Read More

Subluminous B stars come in a variety of flavours including single stars, close and wide binaries, and pulsating and non-pulsating variables. A majority have helium-poor surfaces (helium by number nHe<1%), whilst a minority have extremely helium-rich surfaces (nHe>90%). A small number have an intermediate surface helium abundance (~ 10 - 30%), accompanied by peculiar abundances of other elements. Read More

This is the triennial report of IAU Commission 27, mostly presenting a review of recent advances in the field. Read More

We investigate the relation between the star formation history and the evolution of the double-degenerate (DD) population in the thin disc of the Galaxy, which we assume to have formed 10 Gyr before the present. We introduce the use of star-formation contribution functions as a device for evaluating the birth rates, total number and merger rates of DDs. These contribution functions help to demonstrate the relation between star-formation history and the current DD population and, in particular, show how the numbers of different types of DD are sensitive to different epochs of star formation. Read More

The surface abundances of extreme helium (EHe) and R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are discussed in terms of the merger of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf with a helium white dwarf. The model is expressed as a linear mixture of the individual layers of both constituent white dwarfs, taking account of the specific evolution of each star. In developing this recipe from previous versions, particular attention has been given to the inter-shell abundances of the asymptotic giant branch star which evolved to become the carbon-oxygen white dwarf. Read More

Helium-rich subdwarf B (He-sdB) stars represent a small group of low-mass hot stars with luminosities greater than those of conventional subdwarf B stars, and effective temperatures lower than those of subdwarf O stars. By measuring their surface chemistry, we aim to explore the connection between He-sdB stars, He-rich sdO stars and normal sdB stars. LS IV-14 116 is a relatively intermediate He-sdB star, also known to be a photometric variable. Read More

The connection between helium-rich hot subdwarfs of spectral types O and B (He-sdB) has been relatively unexplored since the latter were found in significant numbers in the 1980's. In order to explore this connection further, we have analysed the surface composition of six He-sdB stars, including LB 1766, LB 3229, SB 21 (= Ton-S 137 = BPS 29503-0009), BPS 22940-0009, BPS 29496-0010, and BPS 22956-0094. Opacity-sampled line-blanketed model atmospheres have been used to derive atmospheric properties and elemental abundances. Read More

Using a detailed Galactic model in which we consider distinct contributions from the bulge, thin disc, thick disc, and halo, and a population synthesis approach, we determined the birth rates, numbers, and period distributions of double white dwarfs (DWDs) within each component. In the Galaxy as a whole, our model predicts the current birth rate of DWDs to be 3.21x10^{-2} yr^{-1}, the local density to be 2. Read More

Affiliations: 1Armagh Observatory, 2Jagiellonian University, 3Armagh, UCL/MSSL, 4Warwick Univ, 5Leicester Univ, 6Armagh, 7Warwick, 8Warwick, 9Warwick

We present multi-wavelength observations of the helium-dominated accreting binary KL Dra which has an orbital period of 25 mins. Our ground-based optical monitoring programme using the Liverpool Telescope has revealed KL Dra to show frequent outbursts. Although our coverage is not uniform, our observations are consistent with the outbursts recurring on a timescale of ~60 days. Read More

In a large coordinated attempt to further our understanding of the $p$-mode pulsating sdB star PG1605+072, the Multi-Site Spectroscopic Telescope (MSST) collaboration has obtained simultaneous time-resolved spectroscopic and photometric observations. The photometry was extended by additional WET data which increased the time base. This contribution outlines the analysis of the MSST photometric light curve, including the four-colour BUSCA data from which chromatic amplitudes have been derived, as well as supplementary FUV spectra and light curves from two different epochs. Read More

We present an unbiased orbit solution and mass determination of the components of the eclipsing binary NY Vir as a critical test for the formation scenarios of subdwarf B stars. We obtained high-resolution time series VLT/UVES spectra and high-speed multicolour VLT/ULTRACAM photometric observations of NY Vir, a rapidly pulsating subdwarf B star in a short period eclipsing binary. Combining the radial velocity curve obtained from the VLT/UVES spectra with the VLT/ULTRACAM multicolour lightcurves, we determined numerical orbital solutions for this eclipsing binary. Read More

Affiliations: 1University of Utrecht, The Netherlands, 2Armagh Observatory, Northern Ireland, 3Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
Category: Astrophysics

The early-R stars are carbon-rich K-type giants. They are enhanced in C12, C13 and N14, have approximately solar oxygen, magnesium isotopes, s-process and iron abundances, have the luminosity of core-helium burning stars, are not rapid rotators, are members of the Galactic thick disk and, most peculiarly of all, are all single stars. Conventional single-star stellar evolutionary models cannot explain such stars, but mergers in binary systems have been proposed to explain their origin. Read More

Affiliations: 1Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge, 2Armagh Observatory
Category: Astrophysics

We investigate the uncertainty in surface abundances and yields of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. We apply three different mass loss laws to a 1.5 solar mass star of metallicity Z=0. Read More

Over an interval of 120 years, the extraordinary object FG Sge has been transformed from a hot post-AGB star to a very luminous cool supergiant. Theoretically, this evolution has been associated with the reignition of a helium-shell during the post-AGB stage. A series of studies of the chemical composition of the photosphere have suggested that this evolution has been associated with a dramatic increase of approximately 3 dex in the abundances of s-process elements between about 1960 and 1995. Read More

The identification of non-radial g-mode oscillations as the cause of variability in cool subdwarf B stars (PG1716 variables) has been frustrated by a 5 000 K discrepancy between the observed and theoretical blue edge of the instability domain (Fontaine et al. 2003). A major component in the solution to this problem has been identified} by (a) using updated OP instead of OPAL opacities and (b) considering an enhancement of nickel, in addition to that of iron, in the driving zone. Read More

We study the angular momentum evolution of binaries containing two white dwarfs which merge and become cool helium-rich supergiants. Our object is to compare predicted rotation velocities with observations of highly evolved stars believed to have formed from such a merger, including RCrB and extreme helium stars. The principal study involves a binary containing a 0. Read More

We consider the excitation of radial and non-radial oscillations in low-mass B stars by the iron-bump opacity mechanism. The results are significant for the interpretation of pulsations in subdwarf B stars, helium-rich subdwarfs and extreme helium stars, including the EC14026 and PG1716 variables. We demonstrate that, for radial oscillations, the driving mechanism becomes effective by increasing the contrast between the iron-bump opacity and the opacity from other sources. Read More

Quantitative analyses of extreme helium stars to date face the difficulty that theory fails to reproduce the observed helium lines in their entirety, wings and line cores. Here, we demonstrate how the issues can be resolved using state-of-the-art non-LTE line formation for these chemically peculiar objects. Two unique B-type objects are discussed in detail, the pulsating variable V652 Her and the metal-poor star HD144941. Read More

Two evolutionary scenarios are proposed for the formation of extreme helium stars: a post-AGB star suffering from a late thermal pulse, or the merger of two white dwarfs. An identification of the evolutionary channel for individual objects has to rely on surface abundances. We present preliminary results from a non-LTE analysis of CNO, Mg and S for two unique objects, V652 Her and HD144941. Read More


Abundances of about 18 elements including the heavy elements Y and Zr are determined from Hubble Space Telescope Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph ultraviolet spectra of seven extreme helium stars (EHes): LSE 78, BD+10 2179, V1920 Cyg, HD 124448, PV Tel, LS IV -1 2, and FQ Aqr. New optical spectra of the three stars -- BD+10 2179, V1920 Cyg, and HD 124448 were analysed. The abundance analyses is done using LTE line formation and LTE model atmospheres especially constructed for these EHe stars. Read More

Quantitative analyses of low-mass hydrogen-deficient (super-)giant stars - so-called extreme helium stars - to date face two major difficulties. First, theory fails to reproduce the observed helium lines in their entirety, wings and line cores. Second, a general mismatch exists for effective temperatures derived from ionization equilibria and from spectral energy distributions. Read More

We present results and analysis for the 2m spectroscopic part of the MultiSite Spectroscopic Telescope (MSST) campaign undertaken in May/June 2002. The goal of the project was to observe the pulsating subdwarf B star PG1605+072 simultaneously in velocity and photometry and to resolve as many of the >50 known modes as possible, which will allow a detailed asteroseismological analysis. We have obtained over 150 hours of spectroscopy, leading to an unprecedented noise level of only 207m/s. Read More

Affiliations: 1Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore, India, 2University of Texas at Austin, USA, 3Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore, India, 4Armagh Observatory, Armagh, UK
Category: Astrophysics

Analysis of HST STIS ultraviolet spectra of two hot extreme helium stars (EHes): V1920 Cyg and HD 124448 provide the first measurements of abundances of neutron-capture elements for EHes. Although the two stars have similar abundances for elements up through the iron-group, they differ strikingly in their abundances of heavier elements: V1920 Cyg is enriched by a factor of 30 in light neutron-capture elements (Y/Fe, Zr/Fe) relative to HD 124448. These differences in abundances of neutron-capture elements among EHes mirrors that exhibited by the RCrB stars, and is evidence supporting the view that there is an evolutionary connection between these two groups of hydrogen-deficient stars. Read More

UFO is a new implementation of FORMAN, a declarative monitoring language, in which rules are compiled into execution monitors that run on a virtual machine supported by the Alamo monitor architecture. Read More

We present the first results from the MultiSite Spectroscopic Telescope (MSST) observations of the sdBV star PG1605+072. Pulsating sdB stars (also known as EC14026 stars) offer the chance to gain new insights into the formation and evolution of extreme Horizontal Branch stars using the tools of asteroseismology. PG1605+072 is an outstanding object in its class, with the richest frequency spectrum, the longest periods, and the largest variations. Read More

A small fraction of subluminous B stars show short-period, multiperiodic light variations and form the new class of pulsating star known as EC 14026 variables, after the prototype. The Multi-Site Spectroscopic Telescope (MSST) is a virtual instrument and is also the name of a collaboration that aims to open up a new observational window to provide access to a mode identification for and an asteroseismological analysis of the pulsating sdB star PG 1605+072. Although the primary aim is to obtain time resolved spectroscopy it also includes the most extended photometric monitoring campaign for PG 1605+072. Read More