C. S. Chiu

C. S. Chiu
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C. S. Chiu

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Pub Categories

Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (22)
Physics - Superconductivity (14)
Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (7)
Physics - Materials Science (7)
Nuclear Theory (5)
High Energy Physics - Experiment (4)
Physics - Instrumentation and Detectors (4)
Quantum Physics (4)
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (2)
Physics - Atomic Physics (2)
Computer Science - Learning (2)
Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (1)
Nuclear Experiment (1)
Mathematical Physics (1)
Computer Science - Artificial Intelligence (1)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (1)
Computer Science - Computation and Language (1)
Physics - Computational Physics (1)
Physics - Data Analysis; Statistics and Probability (1)
Statistics - Machine Learning (1)
Physics - Optics (1)

Publications Authored By C. S. Chiu

Magneto-electronic properties of buckled monolayer GaAs is studied by the developed generalized tight-binding model, considering the buckled structure, multi-orbital chemical bondings, spin-orbit coupling, electric field, and magnetic field simultaneously. Three group of spin-polarized Landau levels (LLs) near the Fermi level are induced by the magnetic quantization, whose initial energies, LL degeneracy, energy spacings, magnetic-field-dependence, and spin polarization are investigated. The Landau state probabilities describing the oscillation patterns, localization centers, and node regularities of the dominated/minor orbitals are analyzed, and their energy-dependent variations are discussed. Read More

There has recently been significant interest in hard attention models for tasks such as object recognition, visual captioning and speech recognition. Hard attention can offer benefits over soft attention such as decreased computational cost, but training hard attention models can be difficult because of the discrete latent variables they introduce. Previous work has used REINFORCE and Q-learning to approach these issues, but those methods can provide high-variance gradient estimates and be slow to train. Read More

In the presence of an applied magnetic field introducing Zeeman spin splitting, a superconducting (SC) proximitized one-dimensional (1D) nanowire with spin-orbit coupling can pass through a topological quantum phase transition developing zero-energy topological Majorana bound states (MBSs) on the wire ends. One of the promising experimental platforms in this context is a Coulomb blockaded island, where by measuring the two-terminal conductance one can in principle investigate the MBS properties. We theoretically study the tunneling transport of a single electron across the superconducting Coulomb blockaded nanowire at finite temperature to obtain the generic conductance equation. Read More

The surface of superconducting topological insulators (STIs) has been recognized as an effective $p\pm ip$ superconductivity platform for realizing elusive Majorana fermions. Chiral Majorana modes (CMMs), which are different from Majorana bound states localized at points, can be achieved readily in experiments by depositing a ferromagnetic overlayer on top of the STI surface. Here we simulate this heterostructure by employing a realistic tight-binding model and show that the CMM appears on the edge of the ferromagnetic islands only after the superconducting gap is inverted by the exchange coupling between the ferromagnet and the STI. Read More

Many exotic phenomena in strongly correlated electron systems emerge from the interplay between spin and motional degrees of freedom. For example, doping an antiferromagnet gives rise to interesting phases including pseudogap states and high-temperature superconductors. A promising route towards achieving a complete understanding of these materials begins with analytic and computational analysis of simplified models. Read More

Authors: MicroBooNE Collaboration, R. Acciarri, C. Adams, R. An, A. Aparicio, S. Aponte, J. Asaadi, M. Auger, N. Ayoub, L. Bagby, B. Baller, R. Barger, G. Barr, M. Bass, F. Bay, K. Biery, M. Bishai, A. Blake, V. Bocean, D. Boehnlein, V. D. Bogert, T. Bolton, L. Bugel, C. Callahan, L. Camilleri, D. Caratelli, B. Carls, R. Castillo Fernandez, F. Cavanna, S. Chappa, H. Chen, K. Chen, C. Y. Chi, C. S. Chiu, E. Church, D. Cianci, G. H. Collin, J. M. Conrad, M. Convery, J. Cornele, P. Cowan, J. I. Crespo-Anadon, G. Crutcher, C. Darve, R. Davis, M. Del Tutto, D. Devitt, S. Duffin, S. Dytman, B. Eberly, A. Ereditato, D. Erickson, L. Escudero Sanchez, J. Esquivel, S. Farooq, J. Farrell, D. Featherston, B. T. Fleming, W. Foreman, A. P. Furmanski, V. Genty, M. Geynisman, D. Goeldi, B. Goff, S. Gollapinni, N. Graf, E. Gramellini, J. Green, A. Greene, H. Greenlee, T. Griffin, R. Grosso, R. Guenette, A. Hackenburg, R. Haenni, P. Hamilton, P. Healey, O. Hen, E. Henderson, J. Hewes, C. Hill, K. Hill, L. Himes, J. Ho, G. Horton-Smith, D. Huffman, C. M. Ignarra, C. James, E. James, J. Jan de Vries, W. Jaskierny, C. M. Jen, L. Jiang, B. Johnson, M. Johnson, R. A. Johnson, B. J. P. Jones, J. Joshi, H. Jostlein, D. Kaleko, L. N. Kalousis, G. Karagiorgi, T. Katori, P. Kellogg, W. Ketchum, J. Kilmer, B. King, B. Kirby, M. Kirby, E. Klein, T. Kobilarcik, I. Kreslo, R. Krull, R. Kubinski, G. Lange, F. Lanni, A. Lathrop, A. Laube, W. M. Lee, Y. Li, D. Lissauer, A. Lister, B. R. Littlejohn, S. Lockwitz, D. Lorca, W. C. Louis, G. Lukhanin, M. Luethi, B. Lundberg, X. Luo, G. Mahler, I. Majoros, D. Makowiecki, A. Marchionni, C. Mariani, D. Markley, J. Marshall, D. A. Martinez Caicedo, K. T. McDonald, D. McKee, A. McLean, J. Mead, V. Meddage, T. Miceli, G. B. Mills, W. Miner, J. Moon, M. Mooney, C. D. Moore, Z. Moss, J. Mousseau, R. Murrells, D. Naples, P. Nienaber, B. Norris, N. Norton, J. Nowak, M. OBoyle, T. Olszanowski, O. Palamara, V. Paolone, V. Papavassiliou, S. F. Pate, Z. Pavlovic, R. Pelkey, M. Phipps, S. Pordes, D. Porzio, G. Pulliam, X. Qian, J. L. Raaf, V. Radeka, A. Rafique, R. A Rameika, B. Rebel, R. Rechenmacher, S. Rescia, L. Rochester, C. Rudolf von Rohr, A. Ruga, B. Russell, R. Sanders, W. R. Sands III, M. Sarychev, D. W. Schmitz, A. Schukraft, R. Scott, W. Seligman, M. H. Shaevitz, M. Shoun, J. Sinclair, W. Sippach, T. Smidt, A. Smith, E. L. Snider, M. Soderberg, M. Solano-Gonzalez, S. Soldner-Rembold, S. R. Soleti, J. Sondericker, P. Spentzouris, J. Spitz, J. St. John, T. Strauss, K. Sutton, A. M. Szelc, K. Taheri, N. Tagg, K. Tatum, J. Teng, K. Terao, M. Thomson, C. Thorn, J. Tillman, M. Toups, Y. T. Tsai, S. Tufanli, T. Usher, M. Utes, R. G. Van de Water, C. Vendetta, S. Vergani, E. Voirin, J. Voirin, B. Viren, P. Watkins, M. Weber, T. Wester, J. Weston, D. A. Wickremasinghe, S. Wolbers, T. Wongjirad, K. Woodruff, K. C. Wu, T. Yang, B. Yu, G. P. Zeller, J. Zennamo, C. Zhang, M. Zuckerbrot

This paper describes the design and construction of the MicroBooNE liquid argon time projection chamber and associated systems. MicroBooNE is the first phase of the Short Baseline Neutrino program, located at Fermilab, and will utilize the capabilities of liquid argon detectors to examine a rich assortment of physics topics. In this document details of design specifications, assembly procedures, and acceptance tests are reported. Read More

Monolayer tinene presents rich absorption spectra in electric fields. There are three kinds of special structures, namely shoulders, logarithmically symmetric peaks and asymmetric peaks in the square-root form, corresponding to the optical excitations of the extreme points, saddle points and constant-energy loops. With the increasing field strength, two splitting shoulder structures, which are dominated by the parabolic bands of ${5p_z}$ orbitals, come to exist because of the spin-split energy bands. Read More

Sequence-to-sequence models with soft attention had significant success in machine translation, speech recognition, and question answering. Though capable and easy to use, they require that the entirety of the input sequence is available at the beginning of inference, an assumption that is not valid for instantaneous translation and speech recognition. To address this problem, we present a new method for solving sequence-to-sequence problems using hard online alignments instead of soft offline alignments. Read More

We study the properties of a family of anti-pervoskite materials, which are topological crystalline insulators with an insulating bulk but a conducting surface. Using ab-initio DFT calculations, we investigate the bulk and surface topology and show that these materials exhibit type-I as well as type-II Dirac surface states protected by reflection symmetry. While type-I Dirac states give rise to closed circular Fermi surfaces, type-II Dirac surface states are characterized by open electron and hole pockets that touch each other. Read More

We study a vortex chain in a topological-insulator thin film with proximity-induced superconductivity---a promising platform to realize Majorana zero modes (MZMs)---by modeling it as a two-leg Majorana ladder. While each pair of MZMs hybridizes through vortex tunneling, we hereby show that MZMs can be stabilized on the ends of the ladder with the presence of tilted external magnetic field and four-Majorana interaction. Furthermore, a fruitful phase diagram is obtained by controlling the direction of magnetic field and the thickness of the sample. Read More

Germanene nanoribbons, with buckled structures, exhibit unique electronic properties. The complicated relations among the quantum confinement, the spin-orbital coupling, the magnetic quantization, the electric-field dominated quantum numbers, energy dispersions, energy gap, state degeneracy, and wave functions. Such mechanisms can diversify spatial charge distributions and spin configurations on distinct sublattices. Read More

Exotic phases of matter can emerge from strong correlations in quantum many-body systems. Quantum gas microscopy affords the opportunity to study these correlations with unprecedented detail. Here we report site-resolved observations of antiferromagnetic correlations in a two-dimensional, Hubbard-regime optical lattice and demonstrate the ability to measure the spin-correlation function over any distance. Read More

We theoretically consider superconducting proximity effect, using the Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory, in heterostructure sandwich-type geometries involving a normal s-wave superconductor and a non-superconducting material with the proximity effect being driven by Cooper pairs tunneling from the superconducting slab to the non-superconducting slab. Applications of the superconducting proximity effect may rely on an induced spectral gap or induced pairing correlations without any spectral gap. We clarify that in a non-superconducting material the induced spectral gap and pairing correlations are independent physical quantities arising from the proximity effect. Read More

Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering allows two parties to verify their entanglement, even if one party's measurements are untrusted. This concept has not only provided new insights into the nature of non-local spatial correlations in quantum mechanics, but also serves as a resource for one-sided device-independent quantum information tasks. Here, we investigate how EPR steering behaves when one-half of a maximally-entangled pair of qudits (multidimensional quantum systems) is cloned by a universal cloning machine. Read More

The band structures and optical properties of AAB-stacked trilayer graphenes (AAB-TLG) are calculated by the tight-binding model and gradient approximation. Three pairs of the energy bands exhibit very different energy dispersions at low energy and saddle points at the middle energy. At zero electric field, $3$$^2$ excitation channels exist in both the low and middle frequencies, and cause the very rich joint density of states (JDOS). Read More

The complexity of quantum many-body systems originates from the interplay of strong interactions, quantum statistics, and the large number of quantum-mechanical degrees of freedom. Probing these systems on a microscopic level with single-site resolution offers important insights. Here we report site-resolved imaging of two-component fermionic Mott insulators, metals, and band insulators using ultracold atoms in a square lattice. Read More

In an ordinary three-dimensional metal the Fermi surface forms a two-dimensional closed sheet separating the filled from the empty states. Topological semimetals, on the other hand, can exhibit protected one-dimensional Fermi lines or zero-dimensional Fermi points, which arise due to an intricate interplay between symmetry and topology of the electronic wavefunctions. Here, we study how reflection symmetry, time-reversal symmetry, SU(2) spin-rotation symmetry, and inversion symmetry lead to the topological protection of line nodes in three-dimensional semi-metals. Read More

A topological nodal-line semimetal is a new condensed matter state with one-dimensional bulk nodal lines and two-dimensional drumhead surface bands. Based on first-principles calculations and our effective k . p model, we propose the existence of topological nodal-line fermions in the ternary transition- metal chalcogenide TlTaSe2. Read More

Topological phases of matter that depend for their existence on interactions are fundamentally interesting and potentially useful as platforms for future quantum computers. Despite the multitude of theoretical proposals the only interaction-enabled topological phase experimentally observed is the fractional quantum Hall liquid. To help identify other systems that can give rise to such phases we present in this work a detailed study of the effect of interactions on Majorana zero modes bound to vortices in a superconducting surface of a 3D topological insulator. Read More

We study one-component fermions in chain lattices with proximity-induced superconducting gap and interparticle short-range interaction, capable of hosting Majorana fermions. By systematically tracking various physical quantities, we show that topological states and topological phase transitions in the system can be identified by multiple signatures in thermodynamic quantities and pair-condensate properties, in good agreement with the known signatures in the ground-state energy and entanglement spectrum. We find the disappearance of the topological phase in a largely attractive regime, in which the system undergoes a first-order transition between two topologically trivial states. Read More

Topological materials have become the focus of intense research in recent years, since they exhibit fundamentally new physical phenomena with potential applications for novel devices and quantum information technology. One of the hallmarks of topological materials is the existence of protected gapless surface states, which arise due to a nontrivial topology of the bulk wave functions. This review provides a pedagogical introduction into the field of topological quantum matter with an emphasis on classification schemes. Read More

We demonstrate stable, long-term trapping of fermionic $^6$Li atoms in an optical lattice with MHz trap frequencies for use in a quantum gas microscope. Adiabatic release from the optical lattice in the object plane of a high-numerical-aperture imaging system allows a measurement of the population distribution among the lowest three bands in both radial directions with atom numbers as low as $7\times 10^2$. We measure exponential ground band heating rates as low as 0. Read More

We demonstrate site-resolved imaging of individual fermionic lithium-6 atoms in a 2D optical lattice. To preserve the density distribution during fluorescence imaging, we simultaneously cool the atoms with 3D Raman sideband cooling. This laser cooling technique, demonstrated here for the first time for lithium-6 atoms, also provides a pathway to rapid low-entropy filling of an optical lattice. Read More

Systems of strongly interacting particles, fermions or bosons, can give rise to topological phases that are not acessible to non-interacting systems. Many such interaction-enabled topological phases have been discussed theoretically but few experimental realizations exists. Here we propose a new platform for interacting topological phases of fermions with time reversal symmetry $\bar T$ (such that $\bar T^2=1$) that can be realized in vortex lattices in the surface state of a topological insulator. Read More

Topological phases can not only be protected by internal symmetries (e.g., time-reversal symmetry), but also by crystalline symmetries, such as reflection or rotation symmetry. Read More

Interesting phases of quantum matter often arise when the constituent particles -- electrons in solids -- interact strongly. Such strongly interacting systems are however quite rare and occur only in extreme environments of low spatial dimension, low temperatures or intense magnetic fields. Here we introduce a new system in which the fundamental electrons interact only weakly but the low energy effective theory is described by strongly interacting Majorana fermions. Read More

Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering describes how different ensembles of quantum states can be remotely prepared by measuring one particle of an entangled pair. Here, we investigate quantum steering for single quantum d-dimensional systems (qudits) and devise efficient conditions to certify the steerability therein, which are applicable both to single-system steering and EPR steering. In the single-system case our steering conditions enable the unambiguous ruling-out of generic classical means of mimicking steering. Read More

We investigate states on the surface of strong and weak topological insulators and superconductors that have been gapped by a symmetry breaking term. The surface of a strong 3D topological insulator gapped by a magnetic material is well known to possess a half quantum Hall effect. Furthermore, it has been known that the surface of a weak 3D topological insulator gapped by a charge density wave exhibits a half quantum spin Hall effect. Read More

After carefully studying the comment by Wang et al. (arXiv:1408.6420), we found it includes several mistakes and unjustified statements and Wang et al. Read More

While the topological classification of insulators, semimetals, and superconductors in terms of nonspatial symmetries is well understood, less is known about topological states protected by crystalline symmetries, such as mirror reflections and rotations. In this work, we systematically classify topological semimetals and nodal superconductors that are protected, not only by nonspatial (i.e. Read More

Accurate rotation-vibration line lists for two molecules, NaCl and KCl, in their ground electronic states are presented. These line lists are suitable for temperatures relevant to exoplanetary atmospheres and cool stars (up to 3000 K). Isotopologues $^{23}$Na$^{35}$Cl, $^{23}$Na$^{37}$Cl, $^{39}$K$^{35}$Cl, $^{39}$K$^{37}$Cl, $^{41}$K$^{35}$Cl and $^{41}$K$^{37}$Cl are considered. Read More

It is generally thought that adiabatic exchange of two identical particles is impossible in one spatial dimension. Here we describe a simple protocol that permits adiabatic exchange of two Majorana fermions in a one-dimensional topological superconductor wire. The exchange relies on the concept of "Majorana shuttle" whereby a $\pi$ domain wall in the superconducting order parameter which hosts a pair of ancillary Majoranas delivers one zero mode across the wire while the other one tunnels in the opposite direction. Read More

We observed electromagnetically-induced-transparency-based four-wave mixing (FWM) in the pulsed regime at low light levels. The FWM conversion efficiency of 3.8(9)% was observed in a four-level system of cold 87Rb atoms using a driving laser pulse with a peak intensity of approximately 80 {\mu}W/cm^2, corresponding to an energy of approximately 60 photons per atomic cross section. Read More

We study spin-half fermions in a one-dimensional extended Hubbard chain at low filling. We identify three triplet and one singlet pairing channels in the system, which are independently tunable as a function of nearest-neighbor charge and spin interactions. In a large-size system with translational invariance, we derive gap equations for the corresponding pairing gaps and obtain a Bogoliubov-de Gennes Hamiltonian with its non-trivial topology determined by the interplay of these gaps. Read More

We report on a measurement of the absorption length of scintillation light in liquid argon due to dissolved nitrogen at the part-per-million (ppm) level. We inject controlled quantities of nitrogen into a high purity volume of liquid argon and monitor the light yield from an alpha source. The source is placed at different distances from a cryogenic photomultiplier tube assembly. Read More

We discuss a topological classification of insulators and superconductors in the presence of both (non-spatial) discrete symmetries in the Altland-Zirnbauer classification and spatial reflection symmetry in any spatial dimensions. By using the structure of bulk Dirac Hamiltonians of minimal matrix dimensions and explicit constructions of topological invariants, we provide the complete classification, which still has the same dimensional periodicities with the original Altland-Zirnbauer classification. The classification of reflection-symmetry-protected topological insulators and superconductors depends crucially on the way reflection symmetry operation is realized. Read More

Scintillation light from liquid argon is produced at 128 nm and thus must be shifted to visible wavelengths in light detection systems used for Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs). To date, designs have employed tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings on photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) or plates placed in front of the PMTs. Recently, a new approach using TPB-coated light guides was proposed. Read More

The dispersion relation of the high energy optical \pi-plasmons of simple hexagonal intrinsic graphite was calculated within the self-consistent-field approximation. The plasmon frequency \omega_p is determined as functions of the transferred momentum $q_{\parallel}$ along the hexagonal plane in the Brillouin zone and its perpendicular component $q_z$. These plasmons are isotropic within the plane in the long wavelength limit. Read More

A simple phenomenological relationship between the ridge distribution in $\Delta\eta$ and the single-particle distribution in $\eta$ can be established from the PHOBOS data on both distributions. The implication points to the possibility that there is no long-range longitudinal correlation. An interpretation of the relationship is then developed, based on the recognition that longitudinal uncertainty of the initial configuration allows for non-Hubble-like expansion at early time. Read More

The scintillation detection systems of liquid argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs) require wavelength shifters to detect the 128 nm scintillation light produced in liquid argon. Tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) is a fluorescent material that can shift this light to a wavelength of 425 nm, lending itself well to use in these detectors. We can coat the glass of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) with TPB or place TPB-coated plates in front of the PMTs. Read More

If superconductivity is induced in the metallic surface states of topological insulators via proximity, Majorana modes will be trapped on the vortex cores. The same effects hold for doped topological insulators which become bulk s-wave superconductors as long as the doping does not exceed a critical values $ \mu^{\pm}_c.$ It is this critical chemical potential at which the material forgets it arose from a band-inverted topological insulator; it loses its topological \emph{imprint. Read More

We present a formalism for gluon-gluon elastic scattering in the presence of the classical color field of the protons in high energy collision. The classical field is obtained by solving the classical Yang-Mills equation in the covariant gauge and treated as a prescribed background for the quantum gluons involved in the scattering process. The interaction between the classical field and the quantum gluon modifies the gluon propagator, and, in turn, the $gg\rightarrow gg$ amplitude. Read More

In a recent paper, we have evaluated the $gg\rightarrow gg$ scattering amplitude in the presence of classical color field generated by the colliding protons in the leading order approximation within the pQCD. In this work, we show that this amplitude can be resumed to obtain the classical color field modified $gg \rightarrow gg$ elastic scattering amplitude. This modified amplitude is suppressed when the longitudinal momentum fraction, $x$, of the incident gluon is small. Read More

3D topological insulator/s-wave superconductor heterostructures have been predicted as candidate systems for the observation of Majorana fermions in the presence of superconducting vortices. In these systems, Majorana fermions are expected to form at the interface between the topological insulator and the superconductor while the bulk plays no role. Yet the bulk of a 3D topological insulator penetrated by a magnetic flux is not inert and can gap the surface vortex modes destroying their Majorana nature. Read More

A relationship between the ridge distribution in $\Delta\eta$ and the single-particle distribution in $\eta$ is proposed. It is then verified by use of the data from PHOBOS on both distributions. The implication seems to point to the possibility that there is no long-range longitudinal correlation. Read More

We provide an account of some of the mathematics of Bott periodicity and the Atiyah, Bott, Shapiro construction. We apply these ideas to understanding the twisted bundles of electron bands that underly the properties of topological insulators, spin Hall systems, and other topologically interesting materials. Read More

It is well established that in a market with inclusion of a risk-free asset the single-period mean-variance efficient frontier is a straight line tangent to the risky region, a fact that is the very foundation of the classical CAPM. In this paper, it is shown that in a continuous-time market where the risky prices are described by Ito's processes and the investment opportunity set is deterministic (albeit time-varying), any efficient portfolio must involve allocation to the risk-free asset at any time. As a result, the dynamic mean-variance efficient frontier, though still a straight line, is strictly above the entire risky region. Read More

Ridge formation in near-side correlation in heavy-ion collisions is studied in the framework of a phenomenological model, called Correlated Emission Model (CEM). Successive soft emissions due to jet-medium interaction lead to the enhancement of thermal partons which follow the local flow directions. The correlation between the flow direction and the semihard parton direction is the major factor that causes the ridge formation to depend on the trigger direction relative to the reaction plane. Read More

Azimuthal anisotropy is studied by taking into account the ridges created by semi-hard scattering, which is sensitive to the initial spatial configuration in non-central heavy-ion collisions. No rapid thermalization is required. Although hydrodynamics is not used in this study, the validity of hydrodynamical expansion is not excluded at later time after equilibration is achieved. Read More