C. Qi - CFA

C. Qi
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C. Qi

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Nuclear Theory (18)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (14)
Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (7)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (7)
Computer Science - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (6)
Mathematics - Information Theory (3)
Computer Science - Information Theory (3)
Nuclear Experiment (3)
Physics - Chemical Physics (1)
Physics - Geophysics (1)
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (1)
Computer Science - Artificial Intelligence (1)
Physics - Instrumentation and Detectors (1)
Physics - Space Physics (1)

Publications Authored By C. Qi

Several recent works have shown that part-based image representation provides state-of-the-art performance for fine-grained categorization. Moreover, it has also been shown that image global representation generated by aggregating deep convolutional features provides excellent performance for image retrieval. In this paper we propose a novel aggregation method, which utilizes the information of retrieval object parts. Read More

The quenching of the experimental spectroscopic factor for proton emission from the short-lived $d_{3/2}$ isomeric state in $^{151m}$Lu was a long-standing problem. In the present work, proton emission from this isomer has been reinvestigated in an experiment at the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyv\"{a}skyl\"{a}. The proton-decay energy and half-life of this isomer were measured to be 1295(5) keV and 15. Read More

H2CO is one of the most readily detected organic molecules in protoplanetary disks. Yet its distribution and dominant formation pathway(s) remain largely unconstrained. To address these issues, we present ALMA observations of two H2CO lines (3_{12}-2_{11} and 5_{15}-4_{14}) at 0". Read More

Nitrogen fractionation is commonly used to assess the thermal history of Solar System volatiles. With ALMA it is for the first time possible to directly measure 14N/15N ratios in common molecules during the assembly of planetary systems. We present ALMA observations of the H13CN and HC15N J=3-2 lines at 0". Read More

The deuterium enrichment of molecules is sensitive to their formation environment. Constraining patterns of deuterium chemistry in protoplanetary disks is therefore useful for probing how material is inherited or reprocessed throughout the stages of star and planet formation. We present ALMA observations at $\sim0. Read More

Millimeter-wave (mmWave) communication operated in frequency bands between 30 and 300 GHz has attracted extensive attention due to the potential ability of offering orders of magnitude greater bandwidths combined with further gains via beamforming and spatial multiplexing from multi-element antenna arrays. MmWave system may exploit the hybrid analog and digital precoding to achieve simultaneously the diversity, array and multiplexing gain with a lower cost of implementation. Motivated by this, in this paper, we investigate the design of hybrid precoder and combiner with sub-connected architecture, where each radio frequency chain is connected to only a subset of base station (BS) antennas from the perspective of energy efficient transmission. Read More

Point cloud is an important type of geometric data structure. Due to its irregular format, most researchers transform such data to regular 3D voxel grids or collections of images. This, however, renders data unnecessarily voluminous and causes issues. Read More

We introduce a data-driven approach to complete partial 3D shapes through a combination of volumetric deep neural networks and 3D shape synthesis. From a partially-scanned input shape, our method first infers a low-resolution -- but complete -- output. To this end, we introduce a 3D-Encoder-Predictor Network (3D-EPN) which is composed of 3D convolutional layers. Read More

Heavy ions induced single event upset (SEU) sensitivity of three-dimensional integrated SRAMs are evaluated by using Monte Carlo sumulation methods based on Geant4. The cross sections of SEUs and Multi Cell Upsets (MCUs) for 3D SRAM are simulated by using heavy ions with different energies and LETs. The results show that the sensitivity of different die of 3D SRAM has obvious discrepancies at low LET. Read More

Large-scale shell-model calculations are carried out in the model space including neutron-hole orbitals $2p_{1/2}$, $1f_{5/2}$, $2p_{3/2}$, $0i_{13/2}$, $1f_{7/2}$ and $0h_{9/2}$ to study the structure and electromagnetic properties of neutron deficient Pb isotopes. An optimized effective interaction is used. Good agreement between full shell-model calculations and experimental data is obtained for the spherical states in isotopes $^{194-206}$Pb. Read More

In this contribution I would like to discuss briefly the recent developments of the nuclear configuration interaction shell model approach. As examples, we apply the model to calculate the structure and decay properties of low-lying states in neutron-deficient nuclei around $^{100}$Sn and $^{208}$Pb that are of great experimental and theoretical interests. Read More

We present systematic calculations on the spectroscopy and transition properties of even-even Te isotopes by using the large-scale configuration interaction shell model approach with a realistic interaction. These nuclei are of particular interest since their yrast spectra show a vibrational-like equally-spaced pattern but the few known E2 transitions show anomalous rotational-like behavior, which cannot be reproduced by collective models. Our calculations reproduce well the equally-spaced spectra of those isotopes as well as the constant behavior of the $B(E2)$ values in $^{114}$Te. Read More

The advent of radioactive ion beam facilities and new detector technologies have opened up new possibilities to investigate the radioactive decays of highly unstable nuclei, in particular the proton emission, $\alpha$ decay and heavy cluster decays from neutron-deficient (or proton-rich) nuclei around the proton drip line. It turns out that these decay measurements can serve as a unique probe for studying the structure of the nuclei involved. On the theoretical side, the development in nuclear many-body theories and supercomputing facilities have also made it possible to simulate the nuclear clusterization and decays from a microscopic and consistent perspective. Read More

We have done systematic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations in coordinate space on the one-quasi-particle energies and binding energy odd-even staggering (OES) in semi-magic nuclei with the zero-range volume, mixed and surface pairing forces in order to explore the influence of their density dependence. The odd-$N$ isotopes are calculated within the blocking scheme. The strengths for the pairing forces are determined in two schemes by fitting locally to reproduce pairing gap in $^{120}$Sn and globally to all available data on the OES of semi-magic nuclei with $Z\geq8$. Read More

Building discriminative representations for 3D data has been an important task in computer graphics and computer vision research. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have shown to operate on 2D images with great success for a variety of tasks. Lifting convolution operators to 3D (3DCNNs) seems like a plausible and promising next step. Read More

Even tin isotopes of mass number $A = 108 \sim 124$ are calculated with realistic interactions in the generalized-seniority approximation of the nuclear shell model. For each nucleus, we compute the lowest ten thousand states ($5000$ of each parity) up to around $8$ MeV in excitation energy, by allowing as many as four broken pairs. The lowest fifty eigen energies of each parity are compared with the exact results of the large-scale shell-model calculation. Read More

3D shape models are becoming widely available and easier to capture, making available 3D information crucial for progress in object classification. Current state-of-the-art methods rely on CNNs to address this problem. Recently, we witness two types of CNNs being developed: CNNs based upon volumetric representations versus CNNs based upon multi-view representations. Read More

Affiliations: 1University of Michigan, 2University of Michigan, 3Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 4California Institute of Technology, 5University of Michigan, 6Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 7Leiden Observatory, 8Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

CO is widely used as a tracer of molecular gas. However, there is now mounting evidence that gas phase carbon is depleted in the disk around TW Hya. Previous efforts to quantify this depletion have been hampered by uncertainties regarding the radial thermal structure in the disk. Read More

Two types of average neutron-proton interaction formulas are compared: In the first type, neutron-proton interactions for even-even and odd-$A$ nuclei extracted from experimental binding energies show a smooth behavior as a function of mass number $A$ and are dominated by the contribution from the symmetry energy. Whereas in the second type large systematic staggering is seen between even-$A$ and odd-$A$ nuclei. This deviation is understood in term of the additional neutron-proton interaction in odd-odd nuclei relative to the neighboring even-even and odd-$A$ systems. Read More

The neutron-neutron and proton-proton pairing correlations have long been recognised to be the dominant many-body correlation beyond the nuclear mean field since the introduction of pairing mechanism by Bohr, Mottelson and Pines nearly 60 year ago. Nevertheless, few conclusion has been reached concerning the existence of analogous neutron-proton (np) pair correlated state. One can see a renaissance in np correlation studies in relation to the significant progress in radioactive ion beam facilities and detection techniques. Read More

There has been increasing interest in studying the Richardson model from which one can derive the exact solution for certain pairing Hamiltonians. However, it is still a numerical challenge to solve the nonlinear equations involved. In this paper we tackle this problem by employing a simple hybrid polynomial approach. Read More

In this paper, we study the low-complexity channel reconstruction methods for downlink precoding in massive MIMO systems. When the user is allocated less streams than the number of its antennas, the BS or user usually utilizes the singular value decomposition (SVD) factorizations to get the effective channels, whose dimension is equal to the num of streams. This process is called channel reconstruction in BS for TDD mode. Read More

Massive spatial modulation (SM)-MIMO, which employs massive low-cost antennas but few power-hungry transmit radio frequency (RF) chains at the transmitter, is recently proposed to provide both high spectrum efficiency and energy efficiency for future green communications. However, in massive SM-MIMO, the optimal maximum likelihood (ML) detector has the prohibitively high complexity, while state-of-the-art low-complexity detectors for conventional small-scale SM-MIMO suffer from an obvious performance loss. In this paper, by exploiting the structured sparsity of multiple SM signals, we propose a low-complexity signal detector based on structured compressive sensing (SCS) to improve the signal detection performance. Read More

The disk around HD 141569 is one of a handful of systems whose weak infrared emission is consistent with a debris disk, but still has a significant reservoir of gas. Here we report spatially resolved mm observations of the CO(3-2) and CO(1-0) emission as seen with the SMA and CARMA. We find that the excitation temperature for CO is lower than expected from cospatial blackbody grains, similar to previous observations of analogous systems, and derive a gas mass that lies between that of gas-rich primordial disks and gas-poor debris disks. Read More

Affiliations: 1Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, The Netherlands, 2Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, The Netherlands, 3Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, The Netherlands, 4Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, The Netherlands, 5Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, The Netherlands, 6Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, USA, 7Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, USA, 8Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, USA

Grain growth in planet-forming disks is the first step toward the formation of planets. The growth of grains and their inward drift leaves a distinct imprint on the dust surface-density distribution and the resulting surface-brightness profile of the thermal continuum emission. We determine the surface-brightness profile of the continuum emission using resolved observations at millimeter wavelengths of the disk around TW Hya, and infer the signature of dust evolution on the surface density and dust opacity. Read More

HCN is a commonly observed molecule in Solar System bodies and in interstellar environments. Its abundance with respect to CN is a proposed tracer of UV exposure. HCN is also frequently used to probe the thermal history of objects, by measuring its degree of nitrogen fractionation. Read More

This paper discusses compelling science cases for a future long-baseline interferometer operating at millimeter and centimeter wavelengths, like the proposed Next Generation Vary Large Array (ngVLA). We report on the activities of the Cradle of Life science working group, which focused on the formation of low- and high-mass stars, the formation of planets and evolution of protoplanetary disks, the physical and compositional study of Solar System bodies, and the possible detection of radio signals from extraterrestrial civilizations. We propose 19 scientific projects based on the current specification of the ngVLA. Read More

The condensation fronts (snow lines) of H2O, CO and other abundant volatiles in the midplane of a protoplanetary disk affect several aspects of planet formation. Locating the CO snow line, where the CO gas column density is expected to drop substantially, based solely on CO emission profiles is challenging. This has prompted an exploration of chemical signatures of CO freeze-out. Read More

Affiliations: 1Rochester Institute of Technology, 2Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 3SETI Institute, 4Universite Grenoble Alpes, 5Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 6Institut de Planetologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble, 7Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 8Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

We have used the Submillimeter Array to image, at ~1" resolution, C2H(3-2) emission from the molecule-rich circumstellar disks orbiting the nearby, classical T Tauri star systems TW Hya and V4046 Sgr. The SMA imaging reveals that the C2H emission exhibits a ring-like morphology within each disk, the inner hole radius of the C2H ring within the V4046 Sgr disk (~70 AU) is somewhat larger than than of its counterpart within the TW Hya disk (~45 AU). We suggest that, in each case, the C2H emission likely traces irradiation of the tenuous surface layers of the outer disks by high-energy photons from the central stars. Read More

In a protoplanetary disk, a combination of thermal and non-thermal desorption processes regulate where volatiles are liberated from icy grain mantles into the gas phase. Non-thermal desorption should result in volatile-enriched gas in disk-regions where complete freeze-out is otherwise expected. We present ALMA observations of the disk around the young star IM Lup in 1. Read More

The microscopic energies and nuclear deformations of about 1850 even-even nuclei are calculated systematically within the macroscopic-microscopic framework using three Woods-Saxon parameterizations, with different isospin dependences, which were constructed mainly for nuclear spectroscopy calculations. Calculations are performed in the deformation space $(\beta_2, \gamma, \beta_4)$. Both the monopole and doubly stretched quadrupole interactions are considered for the pairing channel. Read More

This work aims at a global assessment of the effect of the density dependence of the zero-range pairing interaction. Systematic Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations with the volume, surface and mixed pairing forces are carried out to study the pairing gaps in even-even nuclei over the whole nuclear chart. Calculations are also done in coordinate representation for unstable semi-magic even-even nuclei. Read More

The empirical pairing gaps derived from four different odd-even mass staggering formulas are compared. By performing single-$j$ shell and multi-shell seniority model calculations as well as by using the standard HFB approach with Skyrme force we show that the simplest three-point formula $\Delta_C^ {(3)}(N)=\frac{1}{2}\left[B(N,Z)+B(N-2,Z)-2B(N-1,Z)\right]$ can provide a good measure of the neutron pairing gap in even-$N$ nuclei. It removes to a large extent the contribution from the nuclear mean field as well as contributions from shell structure details. Read More

Shell model calculations are done to study the structure of neutron-rich carbon isotopes. For both even-A and odd-A neutron-rich carbon isotopes, the energy levels are strongly affected by the configuration mixing of valence neutrons. The calculated energy levels in the nucleus $^{17}$C are significantly improved compared with experimental values when the model space of the three valence neutrons is enlarged from pure $\nu(0d_{5/2})^{3}$ configuration to full $sd$ space. Read More

The distributions and abundances of small organics in protoplanetary disks are potentially powerful probes of disk physics and chemistry. HNC is a common probe of dense interstellar regions and the target of this study. We use the Submillimeter Array (SMA) to observe HNC 3--2 towards the protoplanetary disks around the T Tauri star TW Hya and the Herbig Ae star HD 163296. Read More

Resolved submillimeter imaging of transitional disks is increasingly revealing the complexity of disk structure. Here we present the first high-resolution submillimeter image of a recently identified transitional disk around IRAS 04125+2902 in the Taurus star-forming region. We measure an inner disk hole of ~20 AU around IRAS 04125+2902 by simultaneously modeling new 880 micron Submillimeter Array (SMA) data along with an existing spectral energy distribution supplemented by new Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) photometry. Read More

We investigate the chemistry of ion molecules in protoplanetary disks, motivated by the detection of N$_2$H$^+$ ring around TW Hya. While the ring inner radius coincides with the CO snow line, it is not apparent why N$_2$H$^+$ is abundant outside the CO snow line in spite of the similar sublimation temperatures of CO and N$_2$. Using the full gas-grain network model, we reproduced the N$_2$H$^+$ ring in a disk model with millimeter grains. Read More

Observations of comets and asteroids show that the Solar Nebula that spawned our planetary system was rich in water and organic molecules. Bombardment brought these organics to the young Earth's surface, seeding its early chemistry. Unlike asteroids, comets preserve a nearly pristine record of the Solar Nebula composition. Read More

Object viewpoint estimation from 2D images is an essential task in computer vision. However, two issues hinder its progress: scarcity of training data with viewpoint annotations, and a lack of powerful features. Inspired by the growing availability of 3D models, we propose a framework to address both issues by combining render-based image synthesis and CNNs. Read More

Affiliations: 1Rochester Institute of Technology, 2Harvard-Smithsonian CfA, 3SETI Institute, 4Institut de Planetologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble, 5Harvard-Smithsonian CfA, 6Institut de Planetologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble, 7Harvard-Smithsonian CfA, 8Harvard-Smithsonian CfA

We have used the Submillimeter Array to image, at ~1.5" resolution, C2H (3-2) emission from the circumstellar disk orbiting the nearby (D = 54 pc), ~8 Myr-old, ~0.8 Msun classical T Tauri star TW Hya. Read More

In this Letter we model the chemistry of DCO$^{+}$ in protoplanetary disks. We find that the overall distribution of the DCO$^{+}$ abundance is qualitatively similar to that of CO but is dominated by thin layer located at the inner disk surface. To understand its distribution, we investigate the different key gas-phase deuteration pathways that can lead to the formation of DCO$^{+}$. Read More

We present an observational and theoretical study of the primary ionizing agents (cosmic rays and X-rays) in the TW Hya protoplanetary disk. We use a set of resolved and unresolved observations of molecular ions and other molecular species, encompassing eleven lines total, in concert with a grid of disk chemistry models. The molecular ion constraints comprise new data from the Submillimeter Array on HCO$^+$, acquired at unprecedented spatial resolution, and data from the literature, including ALMA observations of N$_2$H$^+$. Read More

A general physics-based model is developed for heterogeneous electrocatalysis in porous electrodes and used to predict and interpret the impedance of solid oxide fuel cells. This model describes the coupled processes of oxygen gas dissociative adsorption and surface diffusion of the oxygen intermediate to the triple phase boundary, where charge transfer occurs. The model accurately captures the Gerischer-like frequency dependence and the oxygen partial pressure dependence of the impedance of symmetric cathode cells. Read More

Chemical differentiation of rocky planets occurs by melt segregation away from the region of melting. The mechanics of this process, however, are complex and incompletely understood. In partially molten rocks undergoing shear deformation, melt pockets between grains align coherently in the stress field; it has been hypothesized that this anisotropy in microstructure creates an anisotropy in the viscosity of the aggregate. Read More

We present high angular resolution Submillimeter Array observations ofthe outbursting Jupiter family comet 17P/Holmes on 2007 October 26-29, achieving a spatial resolution of 2.5", or ~3000 km at the comet distance. The observations resulted in detections of the rotational lines CO 3-2, HCN 4-3, H$^{13}$CN 4-3, CS 7-6, H$_2$CO 3$_{1,2}$-2$_{1,1}$, H$_2$S 2$_{2,0}$-2$_{1,1}$, and multiple CH$_3$OH lines, along with the associated dust continuum at 221 and 349 GHz. Read More

In this note we give a short introduction to the Duflo-Zuker shell model mass formula which has been shown to have great prediction power but is mostly used as a black box due to its complex nature. Read More

It is becoming increasingly important to understand the uncertainties of nuclear mass model calculations and their limitations when extrapolating to driplines. In this paper we evaluate the parameter uncertainties the Duflo-Zuker (DZ) shell model mass formulae by fitting to the latest experimental mass compilation AME2012 and analyze the propagation of the uncertainties in binding energy calculations when extrapolated to driplines. The parameter uncertainties and uncertain propagations are evaluated with the help of the covariance matrix thus derived. Read More

The Geiger-Nuttall (GN) law relates the partial $\alpha$-decay half-life with the energy of the escaping $\alpha$ particle and contains for every isotopic chain two experimentally determined coefficients. The expression is supported by several phenomenological approaches, however its coefficients lack a fully microscopic basis. In this paper we will show that: 1) the empirical coefficients that appear in the GN law have a deep physical meaning and 2) the GN law is successful within the restricted experimental data sets available so far, but is not valid in general. Read More

The properties of loosely bound proton-rich nuclei around A = 20 are investigated within the framework of nuclear shell model. In these nuclei, the strength of the effective interactions involving the loosely bound proton s1=2 orbit are significantly reduced in comparison with those in their mirror nuclei. We evaluate the reduction of the effective interaction by calculating the monopole-baseduniversal interaction (VMU) in the Woods-Saxon basis. Read More