# C. P. Sun - National Central University

## Contact Details

NameC. P. Sun |
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AffiliationNational Central University |
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CountryTaiwan |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## External Links |
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## Pub CategoriesQuantum Physics (16) Physics - Fluid Dynamics (7) Physics - Optics (7) Computer Science - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (5) Physics - Materials Science (5) High Energy Physics - Theory (4) Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (3) Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (2) Mathematical Physics (2) Mathematics - Algebraic Geometry (2) Mathematics - Optimization and Control (2) Mathematics - Analysis of PDEs (2) Computer Science - Computation and Language (2) General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (2) Physics - Instrumentation and Detectors (1) Computer Science - Human-Computer Interaction (1) Mathematics - Probability (1) Physics - Classical Physics (1) Mathematics - Combinatorics (1) Physics - Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics (1) Mathematics - Number Theory (1) Computer Science - Programming Languages (1) Physics - Statistical Mechanics (1) |

## Publications Authored By C. P. Sun

We study quantum thermodynamics for a time-dependent system in a non-adiabatic evolution. The definitions of heat and work are clarified for the general time evolution with quantum coherence characterized by the off-diagonal elements of the density matrix. By integrating the coherence effects in the exactly-solvable dynamics of quantum-spin precession, the internal energy is transferred as work rigorously in the thermodynamic adiabatic process. Read More

An urban traffic system is a heterogeneous system, which consists of different types of intersections and dynamics. In this paper, we focus on one type of heterogeneous traffic network, which consists of signalized junctions and non-signalized ones, where in the latter case vehicles usually follow the first-in-first-out principle. We propose a novel model describing the dynamic behaviors of such a system and validate it via simulations in VISSIM. Read More

This paper focuses on temporal localization of actions in untrimmed videos. Existing methods typically train classifiers for a pre-defined list of actions and apply them in a sliding window fashion. However, activities in the wild consist of a wide combination of actors, actions and objects; it is difficult to design a proper activity list that meets users' needs. Read More

We investigate the behavior of the maximal violations of the CHSH inequality and V$\grave{e}$rtesi's inequality under the local filtering operations. An analytical method has been presented for general two-qubit systems to compute the maximal violation of the CHSH inequality and the lower bound of the maximal violation of V$\acute{e}$rtesi's inequality over the local filtering operations. We show by examples that there exist quantum states whose non-locality can be revealed after local filtering operation by the V$\acute{e}$rtesi's inequality instead of the CHSH inequality. Read More

We analyze freely-acting discrete symmetries of Calabi-Yau three-folds defined as hypersurfaces in ambient toric four-folds. An algorithm which allows the systematic classification of such symmetries which are linearly realised on the toric ambient space is devised. This algorithm is applied to all Calabi-Yau manifolds with $h^{1,1}(X)\leq 3$ obtained by triangulation from the Kreuzer-Skarke list, a list of some $350$ manifolds. Read More

A fixed-point phenomenon in nonviscous flows is reported. The stagnation points of a pseudo-plane ideal flow tend to be vertically aligned in steady state, and the concentric structure represents a weak form of vertical coherence. Exception occurs in the rotating frame when a flow holds inertial period and skew center becomes possible. Read More

In this article, we study the low-regularity Cauchy problem of a one dimensional quadratic Schrodinger system with coupled parameter $\alpha\in (0, 1)$. When $\frac{1}{2}<\alpha<1$,we prove the global well-posedness in $H^s(\mathbb{R})$ with $s>-\frac{1}{4}$, while for $0<\alpha<\frac{1}{2}$, we obtain global well-posedness in $H^s(\mathbb{R})$ with $s>-\frac{5}{8}$. We have adapted the linear-nonlinear decomposition and resonance decomposition technique in different range of $\alpha$. Read More

We propose nearly-optimal control strategies for changing states of a quantum system. We argue that quantum control optimization can be studied analytically within some protocol families that depend on a small set of parameters for optimization. This optimization strategy can be preferred in practice because it is physically transparent and does not lead to combinatorial complexity in multistate problems. Read More

Temporal Action Proposal (TAP) generation is an important problem, as fast and accurate extraction of semantically important (e.g. human actions) segments from untrimmed videos is an important step for large-scale video analysis. Read More

We study a transverse-field Ising model (TFIM) in a rotational reference frame. We find that the effective Hamiltonian of the TFIM of this system depends on the system's rotation velocity. Since the rotation contributes an additional transverse field, the dynamics of TFIM sensitively responses to the rotation velocity at the critical point of quantum phase transition. Read More

An infinite class of $4d$ $\mathcal{N}=1$ gauge theories can be engineered on the worldvolume of D3-branes probing toric Calabi-Yau 3-folds. This kind of setup has multiple applications, ranging from the gauge/gravity correspondence to local model building in string phenomenology. Brane tilings fully encode the gauge theories on the D3-branes and have substantially simplified their connection to the probed geometries. Read More

The aim of this note is to adapt the strategy in [4][See,B.Dodson, J.Murphy, a new proof of scattering below the ground state for the 3D radial focusing cubic NLS, arXiv:1611. Read More

Geometric analysis of steady pseudo-plane ideal flow reveals a fundamental relation between vertical coherence and streamline topology. It shows vertical alignment only exists in straightline jet and circular vortex. A geometric stability theory is then developed as a structural stability in contrast to traditional dynamical stability, suggesting all vertical-aligned pseudo-plane flows are geometrically stable and all non-aligned non-straightline flows are unstable. Read More

A drop of water that freezes from the outside-in presents an intriguing problem: the expansion of water upon freezing is incompatible with the self-confinement by a rigid ice shell. Using high-speed imaging we show that this conundrum is resolved through an intermittent fracturing of the brittle ice shell and cavitation in the enclosed liquid, culminating in an explosion of the partially frozen droplet. We propose a basic model to elucidate the interplay between a steady build-up of stresses and their fast release. Read More

Quadratic flows have the unique property of uniform strain and are commonly used in turbulence modeling and hydrodynamic analysis. While previous application focused on two-dimensional homogeneous fluid, this study examines the geometric structure of three-dimensional quadratic flows in stratified fluid by solving a steady-state pseudo-plane flow model. The complete set of exact solutions reveals that steady quadratic flows have invariant conic type in non-rotating frame and non-rotatory vertical structure in rotating frame. Read More

We propose to leverage concept-level representations for complex event recognition in photographs given limited training examples. We introduce a novel framework to discover event concept attributes from the web and use that to extract semantic features from images and classify them into social event categories with few training examples. Discovered concepts include a variety of objects, scenes, actions and event sub-types, leading to a discriminative and compact representation for event images. Read More

Although both epitaxial quantum dots (QDs) and colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) are quantum-confined semiconductor nanostructures, so far they have demonstrated dramatically-different exciton fine structure splittings (FSSs) at the cryogenic temperature. The single-QD photoluminescence (PL) is dominated by the bright-exciton FSS, while it is the energy separation between bright and dark excitons that is often referred to as the FSS in a single NC. Here we show that, in single perovskite CsPbI3 NCs synthesized from a colloidal approach, a bright-exciton FSS as large as hundreds of {\mu}eV can be resolved with two orthogonally- and linearly-polarized PL peaks. Read More

The goal of this paper is to serve as a guide for selecting a detection architecture that achieves the right speed/memory/accuracy balance for a given application and platform. To this end, we investigate various ways to trade accuracy for speed and memory usage in modern convolutional object detection systems. A number of successful systems have been proposed in recent years, but apples-to-apples comparisons are difficult due to different base feature extractors (e. Read More

In metal organic vapor phase epitaxy of GaN, the growth mode is sensitive to reactor temperature. In this study, V-pit-shaped GaN has been grown on normal c-plane cone-patterned sapphire substrate by decreasing the growth temperature of high-temperature-GaN to around 950 oC, which leads to the 3-dimensional growth of GaN. The so-called "WM" well describes the shape that the bottom of GaN V-pit is just right over the top of sapphire cone, and the regular arrangement of V-pits follows the patterns of sapphire substrate strictly. Read More

**Authors:**Lai Wang, Xiao Meng, Di Yang, Zilan Wang, Zhibiao Hao, Yi Luo, Changzheng Sun, Yanjun Han, Bing Xiong, Jian Wang, Hongtao Li

V-pit-defects in GaN-based light-emitting diodes induced by dislocations are considered beneficial to electroluminescence because they relax the strain in InGaN quantum wells and also enhance the hole lateral injection through sidewall of V-pits. In this paper, regularly arranged V-pits are formed on c-plane GaN grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy on conventional c-plane cone-patterned sapphire substrates. The size of V-pits and area of flat GaN can be adjusted by changing growth temperature. Read More

**Authors:**Lai Wang, Xiao Meng, Jiaxing Wang, Zhibiao Hao, Yi Luo, Changzheng Sun, Yanjun Han, Bing Xiong, Jian Wang, Hongtao Li

Efficiency droop effect under high injection in GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) strongly depends on wavelength, which is still not well understood. In this paper, through differential carrier lifetime measurements on commercialized near-UV, blue, and green LEDs, their different efficiency droop behaviors are attributed to different carrier lifetimes, which are prolonged as wavelength increases. This relationship between carrier lifetime and indium composition of InGaN quantum well is believed owing to the polarization-induced quantum confinement Stark effect. Read More

Squeezed-state interferometry plays an important role in quantum-enhanced optical phase estimation, as it allows the estimation precision to be improved up to the Heisenberg limit by using ideal photon-number-resolving detectors at the output ports. Here we show that for each individual $N$-photon component of the phase-matched coherent $\otimes$ squeezed vacuum input state, the classical Fisher information always saturates the quantum Fisher information. Moreover, the total Fisher information is the sum of the contributions from each individual $N$-photon components, where the largest $N$ is limited by the finite number resolution of available photon counters. Read More

The "CNN-RNN" design pattern is increasingly widely applied in a variety of image annotation tasks including multi-label classification and captioning. Existing models use the weakly semantic CNN hidden layer or its transform as the image embedding that provides the interface between the CNN and RNN. This leaves the RNN overstretched with two jobs: predicting the visual concepts and modelling their correlations for generating structured annotation output. Read More

Development of chip-scale optical frequency comb with the coverage from ultra-violet (UV) to mid-infrared (MIR) wavelength is of great significance. To expand the comb spectrum into the challenging UV region, a material platform with high UV transparency is crucial. In this paper, crystalline aluminum nitride (AlN)-onsapphire film is demonstrated for efficient Kerr frequency comb generation. Read More

**Category:**Quantum Physics

Since quantum coherence is an undoubted characteristic trait of quantum physics, the quantification and application of quantum coherence has been one of the long-standing central topics in quantum information science. Within the framework of a resource theory of quantum coherence proposed recently, a \textit{fiducial basis} should be pre-selected for characterizing the quantum coherence in specific circumstances, namely, the quantum coherence is a \textit{basis-dependent} quantity. Therefore, a natural question is raised: what are the maximum and minimum coherences contained in a certain quantum state with respect to a generic basis? While the minimum case is trivial, it is not so intuitive to verify in which basis the quantum coherence is maximal. Read More

For every affine variety over a global function field, we show that the set of its points with coordinates in an arbitrary rank-one multiplicative subgroup of this function field is topologically dense in the set of its points with coordinates in the topological closure of this subgroup in the product of the multiplicative group of those local completions of this function field over all but finitely many places. Read More

A program can be viewed as a syntactic structure P (syntactic skeleton) parameterized by a collection of the identifiers V (variable names). This paper introduces the skeletal program enumeration (SPE) problem: Given a fixed syntactic skeleton P and a set of variables V , enumerate a set of programs P exhibiting all possible variable usage patterns within P. It proposes an effective realization of SPE for systematic, rigorous compiler testing by leveraging three important observations: (1) Programs with different variable usage patterns exhibit diverse control- and data-dependence information, and help exploit different compiler optimizations and stress-test compilers; (2) most real compiler bugs were revealed by small tests (i. Read More

We study the spontaneous decoherence of the coupled harmonic oscillators confined in a ring container, where the nearest-neighbor harmonic potentials are taken into consideration. Without any external symmetry breaking field or surrounding environment, the quantum superposition state prepared in the relative degrees of freedom gradually loses its quantum coherence spontaneously. This spontaneous decoherence is interpreted by the hidden couplings between the center-of-mass and relative degrees of freedoms, which actually originates from the symmetries of the ring geometry and corresponding nontrivial boundary conditions. Read More

We report the first investigation on continuous-wave Raman lasing in high-quality-factor aluminum nitride (AlN) microring resonators. Although wurtzite AlN is known to exhibit six Raman-active phonons, single-mode Raman lasing with low threshold and high slope efficiency is demonstrated. Selective excitation of A$_1^\mathrm{TO}$ and E$_2^\mathrm{high}$ phonons with Raman shifts of $\sim$612 and 660 cm$^{-1}$ is observed by adjusting the polarization of the pump light. Read More

Biominerals formed by animals provide skeletal support, and many other functions. They were previously shown to grow by aggregation of amorphous nanoparticles, but never to grow ion-by-ion from solution, which is a common growth mechanism for abiotic crystals. We analyze vaterite CaCO3 multi crystalline spicules from the solitary tunicate Herdmania momus, with Polarization dependent Imaging Contrast PIC mapping, scanning and aberration corrected transmission electron microscopies. Read More

Spontaneous symmetry breaking is related to the appearance of emergent phenomena, while a non-vanishing order parameter has been viewed as the sign of turning into such symmetry breaking phase. Recently, we have proposed a continuous measure of symmetry of a physical system using group theoretical approach. Within this framework, we study the spontaneous symmetry breaking in the conventional superconductor and Bose-Einstein condensation by showing both the two many body systems can be mapped into the many spin model. Read More

We observe spin squeezing in three-component Bose gases where all three hyperfine states are coupled by synthetic spin-orbit coupling. This phenomenon is a direct consequence of spin-orbit coupling, as can be seen clearly from an effective spin Hamiltonian. By solving this effective model analytically with the aid of a Holstein-Primakoff transformation for spin-1 system in the low excitation limit, we conclude that the spin-nematic squeezing, a novel category of spin squeezing existing exclusively in large spin systems, is enhanced with increasing spin-orbit intensity and effective Zeeman field, which correspond to Rabi frequency and two-photon detuning within the Raman scheme for synthetic spin-orbit coupling, respectively. Read More

This paper examines the nonconvex quadratically constrained quadratic programming (QCQP) problems using an iterative method. One of the existing approaches for solving nonconvex QCQP problems relaxes the rank one constraint on the unknown matrix into semidefinite constraint to obtain the bound on the optimal value without finding the exact solution. By reconsidering the rank one matrix, an iterative rank minimization (IRM) method is proposed to gradually approach the rank one constraint. Read More

We present a necessary and sufficient condition to falsify whether a Hawking radiation spectrum indicates unitary emission process or not from the perspective of information theory. With this condition, we show the precise values of Bekenstein-Hawking entropies for Schwarzschild black holes and Reissner-Nordstr\"om black holes can be calculated by counting the microstates of their Hawking radiations. In particular, for the extremal Reissner-Nordstr\"om black hole, its number of microstate and the corresponding entropy we obtain are found to be consistent with the string theory results. Read More

A central challenge in quantum computing is to identify more computational problems for which utilization of quantum resources can offer significant speedup. Here, we propose a hybrid quantum-classical scheme to tackle the quantum optimal control problem. We show that the most computationally demanding part of gradient-based algorithms, namely computing the fitness function and its gradient for a control input, can be accomplished by the process of evolution and measurement on a quantum simulator. Read More

Avalanche photodiode (APD) has been intensively investigated as a promising candidate to replace photomultiplier tubes (PMT) for weak light detection. However, in conventional APDs, a large portion of carrier energy drawn from the electric field is thermalized, and the multiplication efficiencies of electron and hole are low and close. In order to achieve high gain, the device should work under breakdown bias, where carrier multiplication proceeds bi-directionally to form a positive feedback multiplication circle. Read More

We explore the recently discovered solution of the driven Tavis-Cummings model (DTCM). It describes interaction of arbitrary number of two-level systems with a bosonic mode that has linearly time-dependent frequency. We derive compact and tractable expressions for transition probabilities in terms of the well known special functions. Read More

In the maritime industry, the injection of air bubbles into the turbulent boundary layer under the ship hull is seen as one of the most promising techniques to reduce the overall fuel consumption. However, the exact mechanism behind bubble drag reduction is unknown. Here we show that bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow dramatically depends on the bubble size. Read More

The functioning of 2D d2, d3, and d4 transition metal carbides as CO2 conversion catalysts has been proved by well resolved density functional theory (DFT) and DFT+U theoretical calculations. Whilst MXenes from the d2 series (M = Ti, Zr, and Hf) have demonstrated active behaviors for the capture of CO2, the V3C2, Nb3C2, Cr3C2, and Mo3C2 materials exhibit the most promising results for their application in the selective CO2 conversion into CH4, with limiting reaction energies of 1.55, 1. Read More

Polarized light microscopy using path-entangled $N$-photon states (i.e., the N00N states) has been demonstrated to surpass the shot-noise limit at very low light illumination. Read More

We report on the Lagrangian statistics of acceleration of small (sub-Kolmogorov) bubbles and tracer particles with Stokes number St << 1 in turbulent flow. At decreasing Reynolds number, the bubble accelerations show deviations from that of tracer particles, i.e. Read More

In this paper, we proposed a sentence encoding-based model for recognizing text entailment. In our approach, the encoding of sentence is a two-stage process. Firstly, average pooling was used over word-level bidirectional LSTM (biLSTM) to generate a first-stage sentence representation. Read More

The engineering of quantum devices has reached the stage where we now have small scale quantum processors containing multiple interacting qubits within them. Simple quantum circuits have been demonstrated and scaling up to larger numbers is underway. However as the number of qubits in these processors increases, it becomes challenging to implement switchable or tunable coherent coupling among them. Read More

In this paper we extended the Neyman-Pearson lemma by replacing two probabilities into two sublinear operators and divide our problem into two cases to get the reminiscent form of the optimal solution as in the linear case if the optimal solution exists. We also studied the existence of the optimal solution. Read More

Modeling human conversations is the essence for building satisfying chat-bots with multi-turn dialog ability. Conversation modeling will notably benefit from domain knowledge since the relationships between sentences can be clarified due to semantic hints introduced by knowledge. In this paper, a deep neural network is proposed to incorporate background knowledge for conversation modeling. Read More

We discuss the generic phenomenology of quantum gravity and, in particular, argue that the observable effects of quantum gravity, associated with new, extended, non-local, non-particle-like quanta, and accompanied by a dynamical energy-momentum space, are not necessarily Planckian and that they could be observed at much lower and experimentally accessible energy scales. Read More

The impact of a laser pulse on a highly absorbing liquid drop can lead to a violent response: the drop is accelerated, strongly deforms, and eventually fragments. Shock waves, the ejection of matter, and even plasma formation can accompany this process .. Read More

We formulate the Frobenius-norm-based measures for quantum coherence and asymmetry respectively. In contrast to the resource theory of coherence and asymmetry, we construct a natural measure of quantum coherence inspired from optical coherence theory while the group theoretical approach is employed to quantify the asymmetry of quantum states. Besides their simple structures and explicit physical meanings, we observe that these quantities are intimately related to the purity (or linear entropy) of the corresponding quantum states. Read More

The blocks editor, such as the editor in Scratch, is widely applied for visual programming languages (VPL) nowadays. Despite it's friendly for non-programmers, it exists three main limitations while displaying block codes: (1) the readability, (2) the program structure, and (3) the re-use. To cope with these issues, we introduce a novel formatting tool, block shelves, into the editor for organizing blocks. Read More

Over the last two decades, intensive research efforts have been devoted to the suppressions of photoluminescence (PL) blinking and Auger recombination in metal-chalcogenide nanocrystals (NCs), with significant progresses being made only very recently in several specific heterostructures. Here we show that nonblinking PL is readily available in the newly-synthesized perovskite CsPbI3 (cesium lead iodide) NCs, and their Auger recombination of charged excitons is greatly slowed down, as signified by a PL lifetime about twice shorter than that of neutral excitons. Moreover, spectral diffusion is completely absent in single CsPbI3 NCs at the cryogenic temperature, leading to a resolution-limited PL linewidth of ~200 {\mu}eV. Read More