Brenda C. Matthews - NRC, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, Canada

Brenda C. Matthews
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Brenda C. Matthews
NRC, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, Canada

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Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (18)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (18)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (14)
Astrophysics (7)
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (3)

Publications Authored By Brenda C. Matthews

Authors: Derek Ward-Thompson, Kate Pattle, Pierre Bastien, Ray S. Furuya, Woojin Kwon, Shih-Ping Lai, Keping Qiu, David Berry, Minho Choi, Simon Coudé, James Di Francesco, Thiem Hoang, Erica Franzmann, Per Friberg, Sarah F. Graves, Jane S. Greaves, Martin Houde, Doug Johnstone, Jason M. Kirk, Patrick M. Koch, Jungmi Kwon, Chang Won Lee, Di Li, Brenda C. Matthews, Joseph C. Mottram, Harriet Parsons, Andy Pon, Ramprasad Rao, Mark Rawlings, Hiroko Shinnaga, Sarah Sadavoy, Sven van Loo, Yusuke Aso, Do-Young Byun, Eswariah Chakali, Huei-Ru Chen, Mike C. -Y. Chen, Wen Ping Chen, Tao-Chung Ching, Jungyeon Cho, Antonio Chrysostomou, Eun Jung Chung, Yasuo Doi, Emily Drabek-Maunder, Stewart P. S. Eyres, Jason Fiege, Rachel K. Friesen, Gary Fuller, Tim Gledhill, Matt J. Griffin, Qilao Gu, Tetsuo Hasegawa, Jennifer Hatchell, Saeko S. Hayashi, Wayne Holland, Tsuyoshi Inoue, Shu-ichiro Inutsuka, Kazunari Iwasaki, Il-Gyo Jeong, Ji-hyun Kang, Miju Kang, Sung-ju Kang, Koji S. Kawabata, Francisca Kemper, Gwanjeong Kim, Jongsoo Kim, Kee-Tae Kim, Kyoung Hee Kim, Mi-Ryang Kim, Shinyoung Kim, Kevin M. Lacaille, Jeong-Eun Lee, Sang-Sung Lee, Dalei Li, Hua-bai Li, Hong-Li Liu, Junhao Liu, Sheng-Yuan Liu, Tie Liu, A-Ran Lyo, Steve Mairs, Masafumi Matsumura, Gerald H. Moriarty-Schieven, Fumitaka Nakamura, Hiroyuki Nakanishi, Nagayoshi Ohashi, Takashi Onaka, Nicolas Peretto, Tae-Soo Pyo, Lei Qian, Brendan Retter, John Richer, Andrew Rigby, Jean-François Robitaille, Giorgio Savini, Anna M. M. Scaife, Archana Soam, Motohide Tamura, Ya-Wen Tang, Kohji Tomisaka, Hongchi Wang, Jia-Wei Wang, Anthony P. Whitworth, Hsi-Wei Yen, Hyunju Yoo, Jinghua Yuan, Chuan-Peng Zhang, Guoyin Zhang, Jianjun Zhou, Lei Zhu, Philippe André, C. Darren Dowell, Sam Falle, Yusuke Tsukamoto

We present the first results from the B-fields In STar-forming Region Observations (BISTRO) survey, using the Sub-millimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2 (SCUBA-2) camera, with its associated polarimeter (POL-2), on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) in Hawaii. We discuss the survey's aims and objectives. We describe the rationale behind the survey, and the questions which the survey will aim to answer. Read More

We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of molecular line emission from d216-0939, one of the largest and most massive protoplanetary disks in the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). We model the spectrally resolved HCO$^+$ (4--3), CO (3--2), and HCN (4--3) lines observed at 0\farcs5 resolution to fit the temperature and density structure of the disk. We also weakly detect and spectrally resolve the CS (7--6) line but do not model it. Read More

We present observations of the Cepheus Flare obtained as part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Legacy Survey (GBLS) with the SCUBA-2 instrument. We produce a catalogue of sources found by SCUBA-2, and separate these into starless cores and protostars. We determine masses and densities for each of our sources, using source temperatures determined by the Herschel Gould Belt Survey. Read More

We present $H$-band near-infrared polarimetric imaging observations of the F5V star HD~157587 obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) that reveal the debris disk as a bright ring structure at a separation of $\sim$80$-$100~AU. The new GPI data complement recent HST/STIS observations that show the disk extending out to over 500~AU. The GPI image displays a strong asymmetry along the projected minor axis as well as a fainter asymmetry along the projected major axis. Read More

We present 1.3 mm observations of the Sun-like star $\tau$ Ceti with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) that probe angular scales of $\sim1$'' (4 AU). This first interferometric image of the $\tau$ Ceti system, which hosts both a debris disk and possible multiplanet system, shows emission from a nearly face-on belt of cold dust with a position angle of $90^\circ$ surrounding an unresolved central source at the stellar position. Read More

Using the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), we have resolved the circumstellar debris disk around HD 111520 at a projected range of ~30-100 AU in both total and polarized $H$-band intensity. The disk is seen edge-on at a position angle of ~165$^{\circ}$ along the spine of emission. A slight inclination or asymmetric warping are covariant and alters the interpretation of the observed disk emission. Read More

We present a new algorithm for space telescope high contrast imaging of close-to-face-on planetary disks called Optimized Spatially Filtered (OSFi) normalization. This algorithm is used on HR 8799 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) coronagraphic archival data, showing an over-luminosity after reference star point spread function (PSF) subtraction that may be from the inner disk and/or planetesimal belt components of this system. The PSF-subtracted radial profiles in two separate epochs from 2011 and 2012 are consistent with one another, and self-subtraction shows no residual in both epochs. Read More

Circumstellar disks have long been regarded as windows into planetary systems. The advent of high sensitivity, high resolution imaging in the submillimetre where both the solid and gas components of disks can be detected opens up new possibilities for understanding the dynamical histories of these systems and therefore, a better ability to place our own solar system, which hosts a highly evolved debris disk, in context. Comparisons of dust masses from protoplanetary and debris disks have revealed a stark downturn in mass in millimetre-sized grains around a stellar age of 10 Myr, ostensibly in the "transition disk" phase, suggesting a period of rapid accretion of such grains onto planetesimals. Read More

Lambda Boo stars are predominately A-type stars with solar abundant C, N, O, and S, but up to 2 dex underabundances of refractory elements. The stars' unusual surface abundances could be due to a selective accretion of volatile gas over dust. It has been proposed that there is a correlation between the Lambda Boo phenomenon and IR-excesses which are the result of a debris disk or interstellar medium (ISM) interaction providing the accreting material. Read More

We present the first scattered light detections of the HD 106906 debris disk using Gemini/GPI in the infrared and HST/ACS in the optical. HD 106906 is a 13 Myr old F5V star in the Sco-Cen association, with a previously detected planet-mass candidate HD 106906b projected 650 AU from the host star. Our observations reveal a near edge-on debris disk that has a central cleared region with radius $\sim$50 AU, and an outer extent $>$500 AU. Read More

We present far-infrared and submillimeter maps from the Herschel Space Observatory and the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope of the debris disk host star AU Microscopii. Disk emission is detected at 70, 160, 250, 350, 450, 500 and 850 micron. The disk is resolved at 70, 160 and 450 micron. Read More

We present the full catalog of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) identified in the 18 molecular clouds surveyed by the Spitzer Space Telescope "cores to disks" (c2d) and "Gould Belt" (GB) Legacy surveys. Using standard techniques developed by the c2d project, we identify 3239 candidate YSOs in the 18 clouds, 2966 of which survive visual inspection and form our final catalog of YSOs in the Gould Belt. We compile extinction corrected SEDs for all 2966 YSOs and calculate and tabulate the infrared spectral index, bolometric luminosity, and bolometric temperature for each object. Read More

We present ALMA observations of the largest protoplanetary disk in the Orion Nebula, 114-426. Detectable 345 GHz (856 micron) dust continuum is produced only in the 350 AU central region of the ~1000 AU diameter silhouette seen against the bright H-alpha background in HST images. Assuming optically thin dust emission at 345 GHz, a gas-to-dust ratio of 100, and a grain temperature of 20 K, the disk gas-mass is estimated to be 3. Read More

We present new observations of the Kuiper belt analogues around HD 38858 and HD 20794, hosts of super-Earth mass planets within 1 au. As two of the four nearby G-type stars (with HD 69830 and 61 Vir) that form the basis of a possible correlation between low-mass planets and debris disc brightness, these systems are of particular interest. The disc around HD 38858 is well resolved with Herschel and we constrain the disc geometry and radial structure. Read More

Circumstellar dust disks have been observed around many nearby stars. However, many stars are part of binary or multiple stellar systems. A natural question arises regarding the presence and properties of such disks in systems with more than one star. Read More

We present ALMA observations of a wide binary system in Orion, with projected separation 440 AU, in which we detect submillimeter emission from the protoplanetary disks around each star. Both disks appear moderately massive and have strong line emission in CO 3-2, HCO+ 4-3, and HCN 3-2. In addition, CS 7-6 is detected in one disk. Read More

We present submillimeter observations of the young brown dwarfs KPNO Tau 1, KPNO Tau 3, and KPNO Tau 6 at 450 micron and 850 micron taken with the Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array on the James Clerke Maxwell Telescope. KPNO Tau 3 and KPNO Tau 6 have been previously identified as Class II objects hosting accretion disks, whereas KPNO Tau 1 has been identified as a Class III object and shows no evidence of circumsubstellar material. Our 3 sigma detection of cold dust around KPNO Tau 3 implies a total disk mass of (4. Read More

We present ALMA observations of protoplanetary disks ("proplyds") in the Orion Nebula Cluster. We imaged 5 individual fields at 856um containing 22 HST-identified proplyds and detected 21 of them. Eight of those disks were detected for the first time at submillimeter wavelengths, including the most prominent, well-known proplyd in the entire Orion Nebula, 114-426. Read More

We present a survey of 28 molecular outflows driven by low-mass protostars, all of which are sufficiently isolated spatially and/or kinematically to fully separate into individual outflows. Using a combination of new and archival data from several single-dish telescopes, 17 outflows are mapped in CO (2-1) and 17 are mapped in CO (3-2), with 6 mapped in both transitions. For each outflow, we calculate and tabulate the mass, momentum, kinetic energy, mechanical luminosity, and force assuming optically thin emission in LTE at an excitation temperature of 50 K. Read More

Affiliations: 1NRC, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, Canada, 2Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Germany, 3Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge, UK, 4Jet Propulsion Laboratory, USA, 5Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain

Main sequence stars, like the Sun, are often found to be orbited by circumstellar material that can be categorized into two groups, planets and debris. The latter is made up of asteroids and comets, as well as the dust and gas derived from them, which makes debris disks observable in thermal emission or scattered light. These disks may persist over Gyrs through steady-state evolution and/or may also experience sporadic stirring and major collisional breakups, rendering them atypically bright for brief periods of time. Read More

Affiliations: 1McGill University, 2Dalhousie University, 3National Research Council of Canada, 4National Research Council of Canada, 5Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, 6University of British Columbia, 7McMaster University

We survey the present landscape in submillimetre astronomy for Canada and describe a plan for continued engagement in observational facilities to ~2020. Building on Canada's decadal Long Range Plan process, we emphasize that continued involvement in a large, single-dish facility is crucial given Canada's substantial investment in ALMA and numerous PI-led submillimetre experiments. In particular, we recommend: i) an extension of Canadian participation in the JCMT until at least the unique JCMT Legacy Survey program is able to realize the full scientific potential provided by the world-leading SCUBA-2 instrument; and ii) involvement of the entire Canadian community in CCAT, with a large enough share in the partnership for Canadian astronomers to participate at all levels of the facility. Read More

Affiliations: 1National Research Council of Canada Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophsyics, BC, Canada, 2Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, 3SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Groningen, the Netherlands, 4Instituto de Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile, 5Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, 6University of Victoria, BC, Canada, 7Lawrence Livermore National Labs, CA, U.S.A, 8National Research Council of Canada Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophsyics, BC, Canada

We present Herschel far-infrared and submillimeter maps of the debris disk associated with the HR 8799 planetary system. We resolve the outer disk emission at 70, 100, 160 and 250 um and detect the disk at 350 and 500 um. A smooth model explains the observed disk emission well. Read More

We present 350 micron polarization observations of four low-mass cores containing Class 0 protostars: L483, L1157, L1448-IRS2, and Serp-FIR1. This is the second paper in a larger survey aimed at testing magnetically regulated models for core-collapse. One key prediction of these models is that the mean magnetic field in a core should be aligned with the symmetry axis (minor axis) of the flattened YSO inner envelope (aka pseudodisk). Read More

Motivated by the long-standing "luminosity problem" in low-mass star formation whereby protostars are underluminous compared to theoretical expectations, we identify 230 protostars in 18 molecular clouds observed by two Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy surveys of nearby star-forming regions. We compile complete spectral energy distributions, calculate Lbol for each source, and study the protostellar luminosity distribution. This distribution extends over three orders of magnitude, from 0. Read More

We have mapped the Auriga/California molecular cloud with the Herschel PACS and SPIRE cameras and the Bolocam 1.1 mm camera on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) with the eventual goal of quantifying the star formation and cloud structure in this Giant Molecular Cloud (GMC) that is comparable in size and mass to the Orion GMC, but which appears to be forming far fewer stars. We have tabulated 60 compact 70/160um sources that are likely pre-main-sequence objects and correlated those with Spitzer and WISE mid-IR sources. Read More

We present observations of the debris disk around gamma Doradus, an F1V star, from the Herschel Key Programme DEBRIS (Disc Emission via Bias-free Reconnaissance in the Infrared/Submillimetre). The disk is well-resolved at 70, 100 and 160 micron, resolved along its major axis at 250 micron, detected but not resolved at 350 micron, and confused with a background source at 500 micron. It is one of our best resolved targets and we find it to have a radially broad dust distribution. Read More

The majority of debris discs discovered so far have only been detected through infrared excess emission above stellar photospheres. While disc properties can be inferred from unresolved photometry alone under various assumptions for the physical properties of dust grains, there is a degeneracy between disc radius and dust temperature that depends on the grain size distribution and optical properties. By resolving the disc we can measure the actual location of the dust. Read More

The Hertz and SCUBA polarimeters, working at 350 micron and 850 micron respectively, have measured the polarized emission in scores of Galactic clouds. Of the clouds in each dataset, 17 were mapped by both instruments with good polarization signal-to-noise ratios. We present maps of each of these 17 clouds comparing the dual-wavelength polarization amplitudes and position angles at the same spatial locations. Read More

Submillimetre continuum radiation allows us to probe cold objects, particularly the earliest, dusty phases of star formation, high-redshift galaxies and circumstellar disks. The submillimetre window gives a unique view of the physical and dynamical conditions in the neutral and molecular interstellar medium. In the next decade a combination of wide-field surveys with single-dish telescopes and targeted follow-up with ALMA and other facilities should enable rapid progress in answering questions about the origins of planetary systems, stars and galaxies. Read More

We present results from the earliest observations of DEBRIS, a Herschel Key Programme to conduct a volume- and flux-limited survey for debris discs in A-type through M-type stars. PACS images (from chop/nod or scan-mode observations) at 100 and 160 micron are presented toward two A-type stars and one F-type star: beta Leo, beta UMa and eta Corvi. All three stars are known disc hosts. Read More

The SCUBA polarized 850 microns thermal emission data of the region OMC-2 in Orion A are added to and homogeneously reduced with data already available in the region OMC-3. The data set shows that OMC-2 is a region generally less polarized than OMC-3. Where coincident, most of the 850 microns polarization pattern is similar to that measured in 350 microns polarization data. Read More

We report interferometric observations of the high-mass star-forming object IRAS 23033+5951. Our observations reveal two massive molecular cloud cores, designated IRAS 23033+5951-MMS1 and IRAS 23033+5951-MMS2. MMS1 has already formed a massive protostar and MMS2 appears to be on the verge of doing so. Read More

Affiliations: 1Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Canada, 2UC Berkeley, U.S.A., 3UC Berkeley, U.S.A., 4UC Berkeley, U.S.A.
Category: Astrophysics

Observations of outflows associated with pre-main-sequence stars reveal details about morphology, binarity and evolutionary states of young stellar objects. We present molecular line data from the Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association array and Five Colleges Radio Astronomical Observatory toward the regions containing the Herbig Ae/Be stars LkHa 198 and LkHa 225S. Single dish observations of 12CO 1-0, 13CO 1-0, N2H+ 1-0 and CS 2-1 were made over a field of 4. Read More

We have used the Hubble Space Telescope/ACS coronagraph to make polarization maps of the AU Mic debris disk. The fractional linear polarization rises monotonically from about 0.05 to 0. Read More

Affiliations: 1UC Berkeley, 2IfA, U. Hawaii, 3UC Berkeley
Category: Astrophysics

We present the discovery of a circumstellar dust disk surrounding AU Microscopium (AU Mic, GJ 803, HD 197481). This young M star at 10 parsec has the same age and origin as beta Pictoris, another nearby star surrounded by a dust disk. The AU Mic disk is detected between 50 AU and 210 AU radius, a region where dust lifetimes exceed the present stellar age. Read More

(Abridged) We present results from a JCMT/SCUBA 850 um search for cold dust around nearby young stars belonging to the beta Pic (t~12 Myr) and the Local Association (t~50 Myr) moving groups. Unlike most past sub-mm studies, our sample was chosen on the basis of stellar age. Our observations achieve about an order of magnitude greater sensitivity in dust mass compared to previous work in this age range. Read More

We present 850 micron polarimetry from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope toward several dense cores within the dark cloud Barnard 1 in Perseus. Significant polarized emission is detected from across the mapped area and is not confined to the locations of bright cores. This indicates the presence of aligned grains and hence a component of the magnetic field in the plane of the sky. Read More

The first polarimetric images of the OMC-3 region of the Orion A filamentary molecular cloud are presented. Using the JCMT, we have detected polarized thermal emission at 850 microns from dust along a 6' length of the dense filament. The polarization pattern is highly ordered and is aligned with the filament throughout most of the region. Read More