Bikash Sinha - Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta and Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta

Bikash Sinha
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Name
Bikash Sinha
Affiliation
Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta and Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta
City
Kolkata
Country
India

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Nuclear Theory (37)
 
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (20)
 
Astrophysics (6)
 
Nuclear Experiment (4)
 
Physics - General Physics (1)

Publications Authored By Bikash Sinha

The early stage of high multiplicity pp, pA and AA collider is represented by a nearly quarkless, hot, deconfined pure gluon plasma. According to pure Yang-Mills Lattice Gauge Theory, this hot pure glue matter undergoes, at a high temperature, $T_c = 270$ MeV, a first order phase transition into a confined Hagedorn-GlueBall fluid. These new scenario should be characterized by a suppression of high $p_T$ photons and dileptons, baryon suppression and enhanced strange meson production. Read More

The possibility that the relics of quark hadron phase transition in the microsecond old universe, the quark nuggets, may well be reasonable candidates for cold dark matter is critically examined. Read More

It is entirely plausible under reasonable condition, that a first order QCD phase transition occurred from quarks to hadrons when the universe was about a microsecond old. Relics, if there be any, after the quark hadron phase transition are the most deciding signatures of the phase transition. It is shown in this paper that the quark nuggets, possible relics of first order QCD phase transitions with baryon number larger than $10^{43}$ will survive the entire history of the universe uptil now and can be considered as candidates for the cold dark matter. Read More

We analyse the recently available experimental data on direct photon productions from Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=200 GeV RHIC and from Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=2.76 TeV LHC energies. The transverse momentum ($p_T$) distributions have been evaluated with the assumption of an initial quark gluon plasma phase at temperatures $T_i$=404 and 546 MeV with initial thermalisation times $\tau_i$=0. Read More

In the Israel-Stewart's 2nd order hydrodynamics, a viscous effect on dilepton emission from a QGP medium is investigated. Dileptons are strongly affected by QGP viscosity. Large invariant mass dileptons, due to their lower velocity, are less affected by viscosity than the low invariant mass dileptons. Read More

We simulate direct photon production in evolution of viscous QGP medium. Photons from Compton and annihilation processes are considered. Viscous effect on photon production is very strong and reliable simulation is possible only in a limited $p_T$ range. Read More

The effects of non-zero baryonic chemical potential on the drag and diffusion coefficients of heavy quarks propagating through a baryon rich quark gluon plasma have been studied. The nuclear suppression factor, $R_{\mathrm AA}$ for non-photonic single electron spectra resulting from the semileptonic decays of hadrons containing heavy flavours have been evaluated for low energy collisions. The role of non-zero baryonic chemical potential on $R_{\mathrm AA}$ has been highlighted. Read More

The major aim of nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC is to study the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark gluon plasma (QGP), formed in extreme conditions of temperature and energy density. We give a brief overview of the experimental program and discuss the signatures and observables for a detailed study of QGP matter. Read More

NA60 collaboration has extracted the inverse slope parameters, T_{eff} of the dimuon spectra originating from the In+In collisions at root(s_NN)=17.3 GeV for various invariant mass region. They have observed that the inverse slope parameter as a function of invariant mass of the lepton pair drops beyond the rho-peak. Read More

Theoretical calculation of transverse momentum($p_T$) distribution of thermal photons and dileptons originating from ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions suffer from several uncertainties since the evaluation of these spectra needs various inputs which are not yet known unambiguously. In the present work the ratio of the $p_T$ spectra of thermal photons to lepton pairs has been evaluated and it is shown that the ratio is insensitive to some of these parameters. Read More

It is shown that the ratio of transverse momentum (p_T) distribution of thermal photons to dileptons produced in heavy ion collisions reaches a plateau above p_T=1 GeV. We argue that the value of the ratio in the plateau region can be used to estimate the initial temperature. Read More

The ratio of transverse momentum distribution of thermal photons to dilepton has been evaluated. It is observed that this ratio reaches a plateau beyond a certain value of transverse momentum. We argue that this ratio can be used to estimate the initial temperature of the system by selecting the transverse momentum and invariance mass windows judiciously. Read More

The present day astrophysical observations indicate that the universe is composed of a large amount of dark energy (DE) responsible for an accelerated expansion of the universe, along with a sizeable amount of cold dark matter (CDM), responsible for structure formation. The explanations for the origin or the nature of both CDM and DE seem to require ideas beyond the standard model of elementary particle interactions. Here we show that CDM and DE both can arise from the standard principles of strong interaction physics and quantum entanglement. Read More

The transverse momentum distribution of the direct photons measured by the PHENIX collaboration in $Au + Au$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV/A has been analyzed. It has been shown that the data can be reproduced reasonably well assuming a deconfined state of thermalized quarks and gluons with initial temperature more than the transition temperature for deconfinement inferred from lattice QCD. The value of the initial temperature depends on the equation of state of the evolving matter. Read More

It is now believed that the universe is composed of a small amount of the normal luminous matter, a substantial amount of matter (Cold Dark Matter: CDM) which is non-luminous and a large amount of smooth energy (Dark Energy: DE). Both CDM and DE seem to require ideas beyond the standard model of particle interactions. In this work, we argue that CDM and DE can arise entirely from the standard principles of strong interaction physics out of the same mechanism. Read More

The partonic energy loss has been calculated taking both the hard and soft contributions for all the $2 \to 2$ processes, revealing the importance of the individual channels. Cancellation of the intermediate separation scale has been exhibited. Subtleties related to the identical final state partons have properly been taken into account. Read More

The productions of muon pairs from the decay of heavy quarkonia have been evaluated for different centrality of the nuclear collisions at LHC energies. The effects of the various comover scenarios on the survival probability of the heavy quarkonia have been considered. The effects of shadowing and comover suppressions on the dilepton spectra originating from the decays of J/\psi is found to be substantial. Read More

We propose intensity interferometry with identical lepton pairs as an efficient tool for the estimation of the source size of the expanding hot zone produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions. This can act as a complementary method to two photon interferometry. The correlation function of two electrons with the same helicity has been evaluated for RHIC energies. Read More

Recent astrophysical observations indicate that the universe is composed of a large amount of dark energy (DE) responsible for an accelerated expansion of the universe, along with a sizeable amount of cold dark matter (CDM), responsible for structure formation. At present, the explanations for the origin or the nature of both CDM and DE seem to require ideas beyond the standard model of elementary particle interactions. Here, for the first time, we show that CDM and DE can arise entirely from the standard principles of strong interaction physics and quantum entanglement. Read More

The parameters obtained from the theoretical analysis of the single photon spectra observed by the WA98 collaboration at SPS energies have been used to evaluate the two photon correlation functions. The single photon spectra and the two photon correlations at RHIC energies have also been evaluated, taking into account the effects of the possible spectral change of hadrons in a thermal bath. We find that the ratio $R_{side}/R_{out} \sim 1$ for SPS and $R_{side}/R_{out} <1$ for RHIC energy. Read More

We propose that the cold dark matter (CDM) is composed entirely of quark matter, arising from a cosmic quark-hadron transition. We show that compact gravitational objects, with masses around 0.5 (M_{\odot}), could have evolved out of the such CDM. Read More

We propose that the cold dark matter (CDM) is composed entirely of quark matter, arising from a cosmic quark-hadron transition. We denote this phase as "quasibaryonic", distinct from the usual baryons. We show that compact gravitational lenses, with masses around 0. Read More

The space-time evolution of the hot and dense matter formed after the collisions of heavy nuclei at ultra-relativistic energies is investigated using (3+1) dimensional hydrodynamical models. The effects of the spectral shift of the hadronic properties are incorporated in the equation of state (EOS) of the evolving matter. In-medium shift of hadronic properties are considered for Quantum Hadrodynamics (QHD) and universal scaling scenarios. Read More

A honeycomb detector consisting of a matrix of 96 closely packed hexagonal cells, each working as a proportional counter with a wire readout, was fabricated and tested at the CERN PS. The cell depth and the radial dimensions of the cell were small, in the range of 5-10 mm. The appropriate cell design was arrived at using GARFIELD simulations. Read More

We compare the photon emission rates from hot hadronic matter with in-medium mass shift and Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP). It is observed that the WA98 data can be well reproduced by hadronic initial state with initial temperature $\sim 200$ MeV if the universal scaling of temperature dependent hadronic masses are assumed and the evolution of temperature with time is taken from transport model or (3+1) dimensional hydrodynamics. The data can also be reproduced by QGP initial state with similar initial temperature and non-zero initial radial velocity. Read More

We estimate the photon and dilepton emission rates from hot hadronic matter with in-medium spectral shift and broadening of vector mesons. It is observed that both the WA98 photon data and CERES/NA45 dilepton data can be well reproduced with similar initial conditions. The freeze-out condition has been constrained by the transverse mass spectra of pions and protons measured by the NA49 collaboration. Read More

It has been shown recently that the values of $J_T$ and $J_L$ which appear in Eqs.(2) and (5) of the above paper and which are taken from the work of Aurenche et al are too large by a factor of 4. Correcting for this changes the Fig. Read More

The production of single photons in $Pb+Pb$ collisions at the CERN SPS as measured by the WA98 experiment is analysed. A quark gluon plasma is assumed to be formed initially, which expands, cools, hadronizes, and undergoes freeze-out. A rich hadronic equation of state is used and the transverse expansion of the interacting system is taken into account. Read More

High energy photon emission rate from matter created in Pb + Pb collisions at CERN SPS energies is evaluated. The evolution of matter from the initial state up to freeze-out has been treated within the framework of (3+1) dimensional hydrodynamic expansion. We observe that the photon spectra measured by the WA98 experiment are well reproduced with hard QCD photons and photons from a thermal source with initial temperature ~ 200 MeV. Read More

The production of single photons in $Pb+Pb$ collisions at the CERN SPS as measured by the WA98 experiment is analysed. A quark gluon plasma is assumed to be formed initially, which expands, cools, hadronizes, and undergoes freeze-out. A rich hadronic equation of state is used and the transverse expansion of the interacting system is taken into account. Read More

One of the abiding mysteries in the so-called standard cosmological model is the nature of the dark matter. It is universally accepted that there is an abundance of matter in the universe which is non-luminous, due to their very weak interaction, if at all, with the other forms of matter, excepting of course the gravitational attraction. Speculations as to the nature of dark matter are numerous, often bordering on exotics, and searches for such exotic matter is a very active field of astroparticle physics at the dawn of the new century. Read More

The photon and dilepton emission rates from quark gluon plasma and hot hadronic matter have been evaluated. The in-medium modifications of the particles appearing in the internal loop of the self energy diagram are taken into account by using a phenomenological effective Lagrangian approach, Brown-Rho and Nambu scaling scenarios. We note that the in-medium effects on the low invariant mass distribution of dilepton and transverse momentum spectra of photon are clearly visible. Read More

The formulation of the real and virtual photon production rate from strongly interacting matter is presented in the framework of finite temperature field theory. The changes in the hadronic spectral function induced by temperature are discussed within the ambit of the Walecka type model, gauged linear and non-linear sigma models, hidden local symmetry approach and QCD sum rule approach. Possibility of observing the direct thermal photon and lepton pair from quark gluon plasma has been contrasted with those from hot hadronic matter with and without medium effects for various mass variation scenarios. Read More

We calculate the size distribution of quark nuggets, which could be formed due to first order QCD phase transition in the early universe. We find that there are a large number of stable Quark Nuggets which could be a viable candidate for cosmological dark matter. Read More

1999Jun
Affiliations: 1Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta, 2Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta and Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta
Category: Nuclear Theory

We reanalyze the production of single photons in S+Au collisions at CERN SPS to investigate: i) the consequences of using a much richer equation of state for hadrons than the one used in an earlier study by us; and, ii) to see if the recent estimates of photon production in quark-matter (at two loop level) by Aurenche et al. are consistent with the upper limit of the photon production measured by the WA80 experiment. We find that the measured upper limit is consistent with a quark hadron phase transition. Read More

The formalism of photon and dilepton productions in a thermal bath are discussed in the frame work of finite temperature field theory. The emission rate has been expressed in terms of the discontinuities or imaginary part of the photon self energy in the thermal bath. The photon and dilepton emissions have been computed by taking into account the in-medium modifications of the particles appearing in the internal loop of the self energy diagram using a phenomenological effective lagrangian approach. Read More

The abundance and size distribution of quark nuggets (QN), formed a few microseconds after the big bang due to first order QCD phase transition in the early universe, has been estimated. It appears that stable QNs could be a viable candidate for cosmological dark matter. The evolution of baryon inhomogeneity due to evaporated (unstable) QNs are also examined. Read More

The effects of the variation of vector meson masses and decay widths on photon production from hot strongly interacting matter formed after Pb + Pb and S + Au collisions at CERN SPS energies are considered. It has been shown that the present photon spectra measured by WA80 and WA98 Collaborations can not distinguish between the formation of quark matter and hadronic matter in the initial state. Read More

We present a microscopic approach to dynamical pionisation of the hot quark-gluon matter formed in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. The time evolution of the system is described assuming that quarks undergo Brownian motion in a thermal bath provided by the gluons. The rate of hadronization as well as the time dependence of the temperature of the system are seen to be quite sensitive to the QCD $\Lambda$ parameter. Read More

Unstable particles (such as the vector mesons) have an important role to play in low mass dilepton production resulting from heavy ion collisions and this has been a subject of several investigations. Yet subtleties, such as the implications of the generalization of the Breit-Wigner formula for nonzero temperature and density, e.g. Read More

Changes in the properties of the vector mesons in hot and dense hadronic matter, as produced in heavy ion collisions, lead to the intriguing possibility of the opening of the decay channel $\omega \ra \rho \pi$, for the omega meson, which is impossible in free space. This along with the channel $\omega \pi \ra \pi \pi$ would result in a decrease in its effective life-time enabling it to decay within the hot zone and act as a chronometer in contradiction to the commonly held opinion and would have implications vis a vis determination of the size of the region through pion interferometry. A new peak and a radically altered shape of the low invariant mass dilepton spectra appears due to different shift in the masses of $\rho$ and $\omega$ mesons. Read More

The modifications of hadronic masses and decay widths at finite temperature and baryon density are investigated using a phenomenological model of hadronic interactions in the Relativistic Hartree Approximation. We consider an exhaustive set of hadronic reactions and vector meson decays to estimate the photon emission from hot and dense hadronic matter. The reduction in the vector meson masses and decay widths is seen to cause an enhancement in the photon production. Read More

We investigate the equation of state (EOS) for nuclear matter, within the framework of the Relativistic Hartree Fock (RHF) theory, with special emphasis on the role of the Pauli coupling of the vector meson $\rho$ to the nucleon vis-a-vis the eventual softening of the EOS as revealed through a substantial reduction of the incompressibility parameter ($K_0$) for symmetric nuclear matter. Read More

Temperature dependence of hadronic decay widths and masses are studied within the framework of an effective Lagrangian approach. At finite temperature the hadronic masses do not seem to follow a universal scaling law. Considering an exhaustive set of hadronic reactions and vector meson decays we have estimated the photon spectrum emitted from hot hadronic matter taking into account medium effects through thermal loop corrections on the hadronic decay widths and masses. Read More

The relativistic Fokker Planck equation has been used to study the evolution of the quark distribution in the quark gluon phase expected to be formed in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. The effect of thermal masses for quarks and gluons is incorporated to take account of the in-medium properties. We find that the kinetic equilibrium is achieved before the system reaches the critical temperature of quark hadron phase transition. Read More

The cosmic first order phase transition from quarks to hadrons, occurring a few microseconds after the Big Bang, would lead to the formation of quark nuggets which would be stable on a cosmological time scale, if the associated baryon number is larger than a critical value. We examine the possibility that these surviving quark nuggets may not only be viable candidates for cold dark matter but even close the universe. Read More

We evaluate the production of large mass diphotons from quark annihilation at BNL RHIC and CERN LHC energies from central collisions of gold nuclei. The collision is assumed to lead to either a thermally and chemically equilibrated quark gluon plasma, or a free-streaming quark gluon gas having an identical initial entropy, or a chemically equilibrating quark gluon system, with the same entropy at $T=T_c$. We also obtain an estimate of hard photon pairs from initial state quark annihilation and find that the thermal production dominates the yield up to $M \approx$ 4 GeV at RHIC, and up to 6 GeV at LHC. Read More

We apply the momentum integrated Boltzmann transport equation to study the time evolution of various quark flavours in the central region of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. The effects of thermal masses for quarks and gluons are incorporated to take into account the in-medium properties of these ingredients of the putative quark gluon plasma. We find that even under very optimistic conditions, complete chemical equilibration in the quark gluon plasma appears unlikely. Read More

The production of low mass dileptons and soft photons from thermalized Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) and hadronic matter in relativistic heavy ion collisions is evaluated. A boost invariant longitudinal and cylindrically symmetric transverse expansion of the systems created in central collision of lead nuclei at CERN SPS, BNL RHIC, and CERN LHC, and undergoing a first order phase transition to hadronic matter is considered. A large production of low mass (M< 0. Read More

The effects of dissipation on the space time evolution of matter formed in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collision is discussed. The thermal photon spectra for RHIC and LHC energies with viscous flow is considered. The effects of viscosity in the thermal single photon spectra is seen to be important in QGP phase as compared to the hadronic phase. Read More