# Bengt Friman - GSI

## Contact Details

NameBengt Friman |
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AffiliationGSI |
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Location |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## External Links |
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## Pub CategoriesHigh Energy Physics - Phenomenology (28) Nuclear Theory (27) High Energy Physics - Lattice (7) Nuclear Experiment (2) Astrophysics (1) Physics - Statistical Mechanics (1) |

## Publications Authored By Bengt Friman

Using the conservation laws for charge, energy, momentum, and angular momentum, we derive hydrodynamic equations for the charge density, local temperature, and fluid velocity, as well as for the spin tensor, starting from local equilibrium distribution functions for particles and antiparticles with spin 1/2. The resulting set of differential equations extend the standard picture of perfect-fluid hydrodynamics with a conserved entropy current in a minimal way. This framework can be used in space-time analyzes of the evolution of spin and polarization in various physical systems including high-energy nuclear collisions. Read More

We discuss the critical properties of net-baryon-number fluctuations at the chiral restoration transition in matter at nonzero temperature and net-baryon density. The chiral dynamics of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is modeled by the Polykov-loop extended Quark-Meson Lagrangian, that includes the coupling of quarks to temporal gauge fields. The Functional Renormalization Group is employed to account for the criticality at the phase boundary. Read More

We study the critical properties of net-baryon-number fluctuations at the chiral restoration transition in a medium at finite temperature and net baryon density. The chiral dynamics of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is modeled by the Polykov-loop extended Quark-Meson Lagrangian, that includes the coupling of quarks to vector meson and temporal gauge fields. The Functional Renormalization Group is employed to properly account for the $O(4)$ criticality at the phase boundary. Read More

We compare two approaches in modeling repulsive interactions among hadrons: the excluded volume approximation and the S-matrix formalism. These are applied to study the thermodynamics of the $\pi N \Delta$ system. It is shown that the introduction of an extraneous repulsion between pions and nucleons via the excluded volume approach, in addition to the interaction that generates the $\Delta$-resonance, is incompatible with the analysis based on the physical phase shift of pion-nucleon scattering in the $P_{33}$ channel. Read More

The scaling behavior of the order parameter at the chiral phase transition, the so-called magnetic equation of state, of strongly interacting matter is studied within effective models. We explore universal and nonuniversal structures near the critical point. These include the scaling functions, the leading corrections to scaling, and the corresponding size of the scaling window as well as their dependence on an external symmetry breaking field. Read More

Hadronic polarization and the related anisotropy of the dilepton angular distribution are studied for the reaction $\pi N \rightarrow Ne^+ e^-$. We employ consistent effective interactions for baryon resonances up to spin-5/2, where non-physical degrees of freedom are eliminated, to compute the anisotropy coefficients for isolated intermediate baryon resonances. It is shown that the spin and parity of the intermediate baryon resonance is reflected in the angular dependence of the anisotropy coefficient. Read More

We consider a momentum dependent relaxation time for the Boltzmann equation in the relaxation time approximation. We employ a power law parametrization for the momentum dependence of the relaxation time, and calculate the shear and bulk viscosity, as well as, the charge and heat conductivity. We show, that for the two popular parametrizations, referred to as the linear and quadratic ansatz, one can obtain transport coefficients which corresponds to the weak and strong coupling regimes, respectively. Read More

We explore the critical fluctuations near the chiral critical endpoint (CEP) in a chiral effective model and discuss possible signals of the CEP, recently explored experimentally in nuclear collision. Particular attention is paid to the dependence of such signals on the location of the phase boundary and the CEP relative to the chemical freeze-out conditions in nuclear collisions. We argue that in effective models, standard freeze-out fits to heavy-ion data should not be used directly. Read More

Motivated by recent lattice QCD studies, we explore the effects of interactions on strangeness fluctuations in strongly interacting matter at finite temperature. We focus on S-wave $K\pi$ scattering and discuss the role of the $K_0^*(800)$ and $K^*(1430)$ resonances. The interaction contribution is obtained within the S-matrix formulation of thermodynamics, using the empirical $K\pi$ phase shifts as input. Read More

Starting from the Boltzmann equation in the relaxation time approximation and employing a Chapman-Enskog like expansion for the distribution function close to equilibrium, we derive second-order evolution equations for the shear stress tensor and the dissipative charge current for a system of massless quarks and gluons. The transport coefficients are obtained exactly using quantum statistics for the phase space distribution functions at non-zero chemical potential. We show that, within the relaxation time approximation, the second-order evolution equations for the shear stress tensor and the dissipative charge current can be decoupled. Read More

We investigate the stability of an inhomogeneous chiral condensed phase against low energy fluctuations about a spatially modulated order parameter. This phase corresponds to the so-called dual chiral density wave in the context of quark matter, where the chiral condensate is spatially modulated with a finite wavevector in a single direction. From the symmetry viewpoint, the phase realizes a locking of flavor and translational symmetries. Read More

We explore the influence of heavy quarks on the deconfinement phase transition in an effective model for gluons interacting with dynamical quarks in color SU(3). With decreasing quark mass, the strength of the explicit breaking of the Z(3) symmetry grows and the first-order transition ends in a critical endpoint. The nature of the critical endpoint is examined by studying the longitudinal and transverse fluctuations of the Polyakov loop, quantified by the corresponding susceptibilities. Read More

The relevance of higher order cumulants of conserved charges for the analysis of freeze-out and critical conditions in heavy ion collisions at LHC and RHIC is discussed. Using properties of $O(4)$ scaling functions, the generic structure of these higher cumulants at vanishing baryon chemical potential is discussed. Chiral model calculations are then used to study their properties at non-zero baryon chemical potential. Read More

We compute the probability distribution $P(N)$ of the net-baryon number at finite temperature and quark-chemical potential, $\mu$, at a physical value of the pion mass in the quark-meson model within the functional renormalization group scheme. For $\mu/T<1$, the model exhibits the chiral crossover transition which belongs to the universality class of the $O(4)$ spin system in three dimensions. We explore the influence of the chiral crossover transition on the properties of the net baryon number probability distribution, $P(N)$. Read More

We calculate the Polyakov loop susceptibilities in the SU(3) lattice gauge theory using the Symanzik improved gauge action on different-sized lattices. The longitudinal and transverse fluctu- ations of the Polyakov loop, as well as, that of its absolute value are considered. We analyze their properties in relation to the confinement-deconfinement phase transition. Read More

The susceptibilities of the real and imaginary parts, as well as of the modulus of the Polyakov loop, are computed in SU(3) lattice gauge theory. We show that the ratios of these susceptibilities are excellent probes of the deconfinement transition, independent of the renormalization of the Polyakov loop and only weakly dependent on the system size. The ratios are almost temperature independent above and below the transition and exhibit a discontinuity at the transition temperature. Read More

We investigate properties of the probability distribution of the net quark number near the chiral crossover transition in the quark-meson model. The calculations are performed within the functional renormalization group approach, as well as in the mean-field approximation. We find, that there is a substantial influence of the underlying chiral phase transition on the properties of the probability distribution. Read More

We discuss properties of the net baryon number probability distribution near the chiral phase transition to explore the effect of critical fluctuations. Our studies are performed within Landau theory, where the coefficients of the polynomial potential are parametrized, so as to reproduce the mean-field (MF), the $Z(2)$ and $O(4)$ scaling behaviors of the cumulants of the net baryon number. We show, that in the critical region, the structure of the probability distribution changes, dependently on values of the critical exponents. Read More

**Authors:**Jens Braun, Jiunn-Wei Chen, Jian Deng, Joaquín E. Drut, Bengt Friman, Chen-Te Ma, Yu-Dai Tsai

From ultracold atoms to quantum chromodynamics, reliable ab initio studies of strongly interacting fermions require numerical methods, typically in some form of quantum Monte Carlo calculation. Unfortunately, (non)relativistic systems at finite density (spin polarization) generally have a sign problem, such that those ab initio calculations are impractical. It is well-known, however, that in the relativistic case imaginary chemical potentials solve this problem, assuming the data can be analytically continued to the real axis. Read More

I discuss the analytic structure of thermodynamic quantities for complex values of thermodynamic variables within Landau theory. In particular, the singularities connected with phase transitions of second order, first order and cross over types are examined. A conformal mapping is introduced, which may be used to explore the thermodynamics of strongly interacting matter at finite values of the baryon chemical potential $\mu$ starting from lattice QCD results at $\mu^{2}\leq 0$. Read More

The phase structure of Polyakov-loop extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model is explored at imaginary chemical potential, with particular emphasis on the deconfinement transition. We point out that the statistical confinement nature of the model naturally leads to characteristic dependence of the chiral condensate $<\bar{q}q>$ on $\theta=\mu_I/T$. We introduce a dual parameter for the deconfinement transition by making use of this dependence. Read More

We investigate the critical dynamics of O(N)-symmetric scalar field theories to determine the critical exponents of transport coefficients as a second-order phase transition is approached from the symmetric phase. A set of stochastic equations of motion for the slow modes is formulated, and the long wavelength dynamics is examined for an arbitrary number of field components, $N$, in the framework of the dynamical renormalization group within the $\epsilon$ expansion. We find that for a single component scalar field theory, N=1, the system reduces to the model C of critical dynamics, whereas for $N>1$ the model G is effectively restored owing to dominance of O(N)-symmetric charge fluctuations. Read More

We explore the thermodynamics and phase structure of the Polyakov loop-extended two flavor chiral quark--meson (PQM) model beyond the mean-field approximation at imaginary chemical potential. Our approach is based on the functional renormalization group (FRG) method. At finite temperature and imaginary chemical potential, we solve the renormalization group flow equation for a scale-dependent thermodynamic potential in the presence of the gluonic background field. Read More

The phase structure of the two-flavor Polyakov-loop extended Nambu-Jona-Lashinio model is explored at finite temperature and imaginary chemical potential with a particular emphasis on the confinement-deconfinement transition. We point out that the confined phase is characterized by a $\cos3\mu_I/T$ dependence of the chiral condensate on the imaginary chemical potential while in the deconfined phase this dependence is given by $\cos\mu_I/T$ and accompanied by a cusp structure induced by the Z(3) transition. We demonstrate that the phase structure of the model strongly depends on the choice of the Polyakov loop potential $\mathcal{U}$. Read More

We present a perturbative calculation of the neutron matter equation of state based on low-momentum two- and three-nucleon interactions. Our results are compared to the model-independent virial equation of state and to variational calculations, and we provide theoretical error estimates by varying the cutoff used to regulate nuclear interactions. In addition, we study the dependence of the BCS $^1$S$_0$ superfluid pairing gap on nuclear interactions and on the cutoff. Read More

The $\pi^-p \to e^+e^- n$ and $\pi^+n \to e^+e^- p$ reaction cross sections are calculated below and in the vicinity of the vector meson ($\rho^0$, $\omega$) production threshold. These processes are largely responsible for the emission of $e^+e^-$ pairs in pion-nucleus reactions and contribute to the dilepton spectra observed in relativistic heavy ion collisions. They are dominated by the decay of low-lying baryon resonances into vector meson-nucleon channels. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}SUNY Stony Brook,

^{2}GSI,

^{3}SUNY Stony Brook

Renormalization group methods can be applied to the nuclear many-body problem using the approach proposed by Shankar. We start with the two-body low momentum interaction V_{low k} and use the RG flow from the particle-hole channels to calculate the full scattering amplitude in the vicinity of the Fermi surface. This is a new straightforward approach to the many-body problem which is applicable also to condensed matter systems without long-range interactions, such as liquid 3He. Read More

We study the changes in the partial decay widths of excited charmonium states into $D \bar{D}$, when the D meson mass decreases in nuclear matter, taking the internal structure of the hadrons into account. Calculations within the 3P0 model for $\psi(3686)$ and $\psi(3770)$ imply that naive estimates of the in-medium widths based only on phase space are grossly exaggerated. Due to nodes in the wave functions, these states may even become narrow at high densities, if the D meson mass is decreased by about 200 MeV. Read More

The study of the pi^- p -> rho^0 n and pi^- p -> omega n amplitudes close and below the vector meson production threshold (1.2< sqrt(s) <1.8 GeV) reveals a rich dynamics arising from the presence of specific baryon resonances in this energy range. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}GSI and TU Darmstadt,

^{2}Yonsei Univ,

^{3}Tokyo Inst. Tech

Using the QCD operator product expansion, we derive the real part of the transverse and longitudinal vector-vector correlation function with the quantum numbers of the rho and omega mesons to leading order in density and three momentum (q^2) for energy $\omega^2 --> -\infty $. The operator product expansion provides, through the Borel transformed energy dispersion relation, a model independent constraint for the momentum dependence of the vector meson spectral density in nuclear matter. Existing model calculations for the dispersion effect of the rho meson, where the vector-meson nucleon scattering amplitude is obtained by resonance saturation in the s-channel, in general violate this constraint. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}GSI,

^{2}Saclay, KIAS,

^{3}SNU

We discuss the Fermi-liquid properties of hadronic matter derived from a chiral Lagrangian field theory in which Brown-Rho (BR) scaling is incorporated. We identify the BR scaling as a contribution to Landau's Fermi liquid fixed-point quasiparticle parameter from "heavy" isoscalar meson degrees of freedom that are integrated out from a low-energy effective Lagrangian. We show that for the vector (convection) current, the result obtained in the chiral Lagrangian approach agrees precisely with that obtained in the semi-phenomenological Landau-Migdal approach. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}GSI, Darmstadt; RMKI, Budapest,

^{2}GSI, Darmstadt,

^{3}Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette

An $\omega$-meson in motion with respect to a nuclear medium can couple to a $\sigma$-meson through a particle-hole excitation. This coupling is large. We investigate its consequences for the width of $\omega$-mesons in matter and for the s-wave annihilation of pions into lepton pairs which can take place in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}GSI,

^{2}Heidelberg

We study the $p$-wave polarization operator of the $\rho$-meson due to $\rho N$ interactions via the $N^*$ (1720) and $\Delta (1905)$ resonances and compute the corresponding production rate for $e^+e^-$-pairs at finite temperature and baryon density. At high baryon density we find a significant shift of the spectrum to lower invariant masses. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}GSI,

^{2}Saclay

A simple relation between the effective parameters of chiral Lagrangians in medium as predicted by BR scaling and Landau Fermi liquid parameters is derived. This provides a link between an effective theory of QCD at mean-field level and many-body theory of nuclear matter. It connects in particular the scaling vector-meson mass probed by dileptons produced in heavy-ion collisions (e. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}GSI,

^{2}LNS,Saclay

**Category:**Nuclear Theory

We propose a simple meson-exchange model of the photoproduction of $\rho$- and $\omega$-mesons off protons near threshold ($E_\gamma$ less than 2 GeV). This model provides a good description of the available data and implies a large $\rho$-nucleon interaction in the scalar channel ($\sigma$-exchange). We use this phenomenological interaction to estimate the leading contribution to the self-energy of $\rho$-mesons in matter. Read More