# Barry C. Sanders - University of Calgary

## Contact Details

NameBarry C. Sanders |
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AffiliationUniversity of Calgary |
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CityCalgary |
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CountryCanada |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## External Links |
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## Pub CategoriesQuantum Physics (44) Physics - Optics (6) Physics - Superconductivity (2) Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (2) High Energy Physics - Theory (2) Physics - Atomic Physics (2) Physics - Other (2) Computer Science - Learning (2) Statistics - Machine Learning (2) Computer Science - Information Theory (1) Mathematics - Information Theory (1) Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (1) Mathematical Physics (1) Physics - Plasma Physics (1) General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (1) Physics - Computational Physics (1) |

## Publications Authored By Barry C. Sanders

We investigate the interplay between skew information of the subsystem and local quantum uncertainty of the corresponding bipartite system. Skew information can be converted to local quantum uncertainty by quantum operations whose Kraus operators commute with the observable, and the local quantum uncertainty created in the process is bounded above by the skew information. The skew information can also be extracted from local quantum uncertainty by quantum steering, and local quantum uncertainty is the upper bound of the skew information in the process. Read More

We determine bounds for the square of the complex propagation coefficient for fields at planar lossy interfaces, and we employ these bounds to determine rigorous criteria for electromagnetic susceptibilities that lead to existence of surface plasmon polaritons. Ascertaining existence or nonexistence of surface plasmon polaritons is important to check the viability of a given study or application. As an application we show that surface plasmon polaritons cannot exist for double-negative refractive index region with arbitrary values of permittivity and permeability and we employ our criteria to show that certain prior predictions of surface plasmon polaritons are not in fact correct. Read More

We present our approach for sharing photons and assessing resultant four-photon visibility between two distant parties using concatenated entanglement swapping. In addition we determine the corresponding key generation rate and the quantum bit-error rate. Our model is based on practical limitations of resources, including multipair parametric down-conversion sources, inefficient detectors with dark counts and lossy channels. Read More

We present a theory of cooperative light scattering valid in any dimension: connecting theories for an open line, open plane, and open space in the non-relativistic regime. This theory includes near-field and dipole-orientation effects, highlighting how field mode confinement controls the phenomena. We present a novel experimental implementation for planar collective effects. Read More

Quantum-enhanced metrology aims to estimate an unknown parameter such that the precision scales better than the shot-noise bound. Single-shot adaptive quantum-enhanced metrology (AQEM) is a promising approach that uses feedback to tweak the quantum process according to previous measurement outcomes. Techniques and formalism for the adaptive case are quite different from the usual non-adaptive quantum metrology approach due to the causal relationship between measurements and outcomes. Read More

Quantum control is valuable for various quantum technologies such as high-fidelity gates for universal quantum computing, adaptive quantum-enhanced metrology, and ultra-cold atom manipulation. Although supervised machine learning and reinforcement learning are widely used for optimizing control parameters in classical systems, quantum control for parameter optimization is mainly pursued via gradient-based greedy algorithms. Although the quantum fitness landscape is often compatible with greedy algorithms, sometimes greedy algorithms yield poor results, especially for large-dimensional quantum systems. Read More

Cat states are coherent quantum superpositions of macroscopically distinct states and are useful for understanding the boundary between the classical and the quantum world. Due to their macroscopic nature, cat states are difficult to prepare in physical systems. We propose a method to create cat states in one-dimensional quantum walks using delocalized initial states of the walker. Read More

We realize a pair of simultaneous ten-step one-dimensional quantum walks with two walkers sharing coins, which we prove is analogous to the ten-step two-dimensional quantum walk with a single walker holding a four-dimensional coin. Our experiment demonstrates a ten-step quantum walk over an 11x11 two-dimensional lattice with a line defect, thereby realizing a localized walker state. Read More

In this paper, we employ the properties of metamaterials to tailor the modes of metamaterial-dielectric waveguides operating at optical frequencies. We survey the effect of fishnet metamaterial structural parameters such as the magnetic oscillation strength, magnetic resonance frequency and magnetic damping on the double-negative refractive index frequency region in metamaterials and on the hybrid-modes in slab metamaterial-dielectric waveguides. To identify the robustness of the metamaterials to fluctuations in the metamaterial structural parameters, we investigate the behavior of metamaterials under Gaussian errors on their structural parameters. Read More

We propose an optical scheme, employing optical parametric down-converters interlaced with nonlinear sign gates (NSGs), that completely converts an $n$-photon Fock-state pump to $n$ signal-idler photon pairs when the down-converters' crystal lengths are chosen appropriately. The proof of this assertion relies on amplitude amplification, analogous to that employed in Grover search, applied to the full quantum dynamics of single-mode parametric down-conversion. When we require that all Grover iterations use the same crystal, and account for potential experimental limitations on crystal-length precision, our optimized conversion efficiencies reach unity for $1\le n \le 5$, after which they decrease monotonically for $n$ values up to 50, which is the upper limit of our numerical dynamics evaluations. Read More

We determine the linear optical susceptibility of a radiation pulse propagating through a mixture of a gas of atoms or molecules and a plasma. For a specific range of radiation and plasma frequencies, resonant generation of volume plasmons significantly amplifies the radiation intensity. The conditions for resonant amplification are derived from the dispersion relations in the mixture, and the amplification is demonstrated in a numerical simulation of pulse propagation. Read More

The theory of relativity requires that no information travel faster than light, whereas the unitarity of quantum mechanics ensures that quantum information cannot be cloned. These conditions provide the basic constraints that appear in information replication tasks, which formalize aspects of the behavior of information in relativistic quantum mechanics. In this article, we provide continuous variable (CV) strategies for spacetime quantum information replication that are directly amenable to optical or mechanical implementation. Read More

Three-qubit quantum gates are key ingredients for quantum error correction and quantum information processing. We generate quantum-control procedures to design three types of three-qubit gates, namely Toffoli, Controlled-Not-Not and Fredkin gates. The design procedures are applicable to a system comprising three nearest-neighbor-coupled superconducting artificial atoms. Read More

We show that the stability theorem of the depolarizing channel holds for the output quantum $p$-R\'enyi entropy for $p \ge 2$ or $p=1$, which is an extension of the well known case $p=2$. As an application, we present a protocol in which Bob determines whether Alice prepares a pure quantum state close to a product state. In the protocol, Alice transmits to Bob multiple copies of a pure state through a depolarizing channel, and Bob estimates its output quantum $p$-R\'enyi entropy. Read More

We develop a theory for waveguides that respects the duality of electromagnetism, namely the symmetry of the equations arising through inclusion of magnetic monopoles in addition to including electrons (electric monopoles). The term magnetoelectric potential is sometimes used to signify the magnetic-monopole induced dual to the usual electromagnetic potential. To this end, we introduce a general theory for describing modes and characteristics of waveguides based on mixed-monopole materials, with both electric and magnetic responses. Read More

We demonstrate a quantum walk with time-dependent coin bias. With this technique we realize an experimental single-photon one-dimensional quantum walk with a linearly-ramped time-dependent coin flip operation and thereby demonstrate two periodic revivals of the walker distribution. In our beam-displacer interferometer, the walk corresponds to movement between discretely separated transverse modes of the field serving as lattice sites, and the time-dependent coin flip is effected by implementing a different angle between the optical axis of half-wave plate and the light propagation at each step. Read More

We explore the crucial role of relative space-time positioning between the two detectors in an operational two-party entanglement-harvesting protocol. Specifically we show that the protocol is robust if imprecision in spatial positioning and clock synchronization are much smaller than the spatial separation between the detectors and its light-crossing time thereof. This in principle guarantees robustness if the imprecision is comparable to a few times the size of the detectors, which suggests entanglement harvesting could be explored for tabletop experiments. Read More

We combine single- and two-photon interference procedures for characterizing any multi-port linear optical interferometer accurately and precisely. Accuracy is achieved by estimating and correcting systematic errors that arise due to spatiotemporal and polarization mode mismatch. Enhanced accuracy and precision are attained by fitting experimental coincidence data to curve simulated using measured source spectra. Read More

Boson realizations map operators and states of groups to transformations and states of bosonic systems. We devise a graph-theoretic algorithm to construct the boson realizations of the canonical SU$(n)$ basis states, which reduce the canonical subgroup chain, for arbitrary $n$. The boson realizations are employed to construct $\mathcal{D}$-functions, which are the matrix elements of arbitrary irreducible representations, of SU$(n)$ in the canonical basis. Read More

We devise a scalable scheme for simulating a quantum phase transition from paramagnetism to frustrated magnetism in a superconducting flux-qubit network, and we show how to characterize this system experimentally both macroscopically and microscopically. The proposed macroscopic characterization of the quantum phase transition is based on the transition of the probability distribution for the spin-network net magnetic moment with this transition quantified by the difference between the Kullback-Leibler divergences of the distributions corresponding to the paramagnetic and frustrated magnetic phases with respect to the probability distribution at a given time during the transition. Microscopic characterization of the quantum phase transition is performed using the standard local-entanglement-witness approach. Read More

Quantum simulators, which exploit quantum effects to reveal unknown or difficult-to-compute properties of a model of interest, play a significant role in quantum information science. Quantum simulation of the dynamics of many-body system has been widely studied for various quantum computing systems, including cold atoms, trapped ions and photons. However, simulation of quantum channels, which describes one of the most general quantum processes in realistic systems, has not yet been fully explored, even for single-qubit channels. Read More

For Doppler-broadened media operating under double-double electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) conditions, we devise a scheme to control and reduce the probe-field group velocity at the center of the second transparency window. We derive numerical and approximate analytical solutions for the width of EIT windows and for the group velocities of the probe field at the two distinct transparency windows, and we show that the group velocities of the probe field can be lowered by judiciously choosing the physical parameters of the system. Our modeling enables us to identify three signal-field strength regimes (with a signal-field strength always higher than the probe-field strength), quantified by the Rabi frequency, for slowing the probe field. Read More

We perform generalized measurements of a qubit by realizing the qubit as a coin in a photonic quantum walk and subjecting the walker to projective measurements. Our experimental technique can be used to realize photonically any rank-1 single-qubit positive operator-valued measure via constructing an appropriate interferometric quantum-walk network and then projectively measuring the walker's position at the final step. Read More

Remarkable experimental advances in quantum computing are exemplified by recent announcements of impressive average gate fidelities exceeding 99.9% for single-qubit gates and 99% for two-qubit gates. Although these high numbers engender optimism that fault-tolerant quantum computing is within reach, the connection of average gate fidelity with fault-tolerance requirements is not direct. Read More

A single-shot Toffoli, or controlled-controlled-NOT, gate is desirable for classical and quantum information processing. The Toffoli gate alone is universal for reversible computing and, accompanied by the Hadamard gate, forms a universal gate set for quantum computing. The Toffoli gate is also a key ingredient for (non-topological) quantum error correction. Read More

We develop a theory for long-distance quantum key distribution based on concatenated entanglement swapping using parametric down-conversion sources and show numerical results of our model. The model incorporates practical resources including multi-pair sources, inefficient detectors with dark counts and lossy channels. We calculate the maximum secret key-generation ratefor up to three entanglement swapping stations by optimizing over resource parameters, and our numerical simulation shows that the range of quantum key distribution can in principle be markedly increased but at the expense of an atrociously unfeasible secret key-generation rate; however, the upper bound of our key rates closely approach the Takeoka-Guha-Wilde upper bound. Read More

A successful approach to understand field theories is to resolve the physics into different length or energy scales using the renormalization group framework. We propose a quantum simulation of quantum field theory which encodes field degrees of freedom in a wavelet basis---a multi-scale description of the theory. Since wavelets are compact wavefunctions, this encoding allows for quantum simulations to create particle excitations with compact support and provides a natural way to associate observables in the theory to finite resolution detectors. Read More

We study phase-sensitive amplification of electromagnetically induced transparency in a warm ${}^{85}$Rb vapor wherein a microwave driving field couples the two lower-energy states of a {\Lambda} energy-level system thereby transforming into a {\Delta} system. Our theoretical description includes effects of ground-state coherence decay and temperature effects. In particular, we demonstrate that driving-field-enhanced electromagnetically induced transparency is robust against significant loss of coherence between ground states. Read More

We construct a classical algorithm that designs quantum circuits for algorithmic quantum simulation of arbitrary qudit channels on fault-tolerant quantum computers within a pre-specified error tolerance with respect to diamond-norm distance. The classical algorithm is constructed by decomposing a quantum channel into a convex combination of generalized extreme channels by optimization of a set of nonlinear coupled algebraic equations. The resultant circuit is a randomly chosen generalized extreme channel circuit whose run-time is logarithmic with respect to the error tolerance and quadratic with respect to Hilbert space dimension, which requires only a single ancillary qudit plus classical dits. Read More

Photon-mediated interactions between atoms are of fundamental importance in quantum optics, quantum simulations and quantum information processing. The exchange of real and virtual photons between atoms gives rise to non-trivial interactions the strength of which decreases rapidly with distance in three dimensions. Here we study much stronger photon mediated interactions using two superconducting qubits in an open onedimensional transmission line. Read More

**Category:**Quantum Physics

Quantum discord is the quantitative difference between two alternative expressions for bipartite mutual information, given respectively in terms of two distinct definitions for the conditional entropy. By constructing a stochastic model of shared states, classical discord can be similarly defined, quantifying the presence of some stochasticity in the measurement process. Therefore, discord can generally be understood as a quantification of the system's state disturbance due to local measurements, be it quantum or classical. Read More

We develop a theory and accompanying mathematical model for quantum communication via any number of intermediate entanglement swapping operations and solve numerically for up to three intermediate entanglement swapping operations. Our model yields two-photon interference visibilities post-selected on photon counts at the intermediate entanglement-swapping stations. Realistic experimental conditions are accommodated through parametric down-conversion rate, photon-counter efficiencies and dark-count rates, and instrument and transmission losses. Read More

The N00N state, which was introduced as a resource for quantum-enhanced metrology, is in fact a special case of a superposition of two SU(2) coherent states. We show here explicitly the derivation of the N00N state from the superposition state. This derivation makes clear the connection between these seemingly disparate states as well as shows how the N00N state can be generalized to a superposition of SU(2) coherent states. Read More

We develop a complete resource theory of charge-parity-time (CPT) inversion symmetry for both massive and massless relativistic particles of arbitrary spin. We show that a unitary representation of CPT can be consistently constructed for all spins and develop the resource theory associated with CPT super-selection, thereby identifying and quantifying the resources required to lift the super-selection rule. Read More

We investigate a method for generating nonlinear phase shifts on superpositions of photon number states. The light is stored in a Bose-Einstein condensate via electromagnetically-induced transparency memory techniques. The atomic collisions are exploited to generate a nonlinear phase shift of the stored state. Read More

Non-classical interference of photons lies at the heart of optical quantum information processing. This effect is exploited in universal quantum gates as well as in purpose-built quantum computers that solve the BosonSampling problem. Although non-classical interference is often associated with perfectly indistinguishable photons this only represents the degenerate case, hard to achieve under realistic experimental conditions. Read More

The Trotter-Suzuki decomposition is an important tool for the simulation and control of physical systems. We provide evidence for the stability of the Trotter-Suzuki decomposition. We model the error in the decomposition and determine sufficiency conditions that guarantee the stability of this decomposition under this model. Read More

Although quantum control typically relies on greedy (local) optimization, traps (irregular critical points) in the control landscape can make optimization hard by foiling local search strategies. We demonstrate the failure of greedy algorithms to realize two fast quantum computing gates: a qutrit phase gate and a controlled-not gate. Then we show that our evolutionary algorithm circumvents the trap to deliver effective quantum control in both instances. Read More

We use permutation-group methods plus SU(3) group-theoretic methods to determine the action of a three-channel passive optical interferometer on controllably delayed single-photon pulse inputs to each channel. Permutation-group techniques allow us to relate directly expressions for rates and, in particular, investigate symmetries in the coincidence landscape. These techniques extend the traditional Hong-Ou-Mandel effect analysis for two-channel interferometry to valleys and plateaus in three-channel interferometry. Read More

We realize quasi-periodic dynamics of a quantum walker over 2.5 quasi-periods by realizing the walker as a single photon passing through a quantum-walk optical-interferometer network. We introduce fully controllable polarization-independent phase shifters in each optical path to realize arbitrary site-dependent phase shifts, and we employ large clear-aperture beam displacers, while maintaining high-visibility interference, to enable reaching 10 quantum-walk steps. Read More

The Density Matrix Renormalization Group algorithm is used to characterize the ground states of one-dimensional coupled cavities in the regime of low photon densities. Numerical results for photon and spin excitation densities, one- and two-body correlation functions, superfluid and condensate fractions, as well as the entanglement entropy and localizable entanglement are obtained for the Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard (JCH) model, and are compared with those for the Bose-Hubbard (BH) model where applicable. The results indicate that a Tonks-Girardeau phase, in which the photons are strongly fermionized, appears between the Mott-insulating and superfluid phases as a function of the inter-cavity coupling. Read More

We show that an alkali atom with a tripod electronic structure can yield rich electromagnetically induced transparency phenomena even at room temperature. In particular we introduce double-double electromagnetically induced transparency wherein signal and probe fields each have two transparency windows. Their group velocities can be matched in either the first or second pair of transparency windows. Read More

The concept of generalized concatenated quantum codes (GCQC) provides a systematic way for constructing good quantum codes from short component codes. We introduce a stabilizer formalism for GCQCs, which is achieved by defining quantum coset codes. This formalism offers a new perspective for GCQCs and enables us to derive a lower bound on the code distance of stabilizer GCQCs from component codes parameters,for both non-degenerate and degenerate component codes. Read More

A universal quantum simulator would enable efficient simulation of quantum dynamics by implementing quantum-simulation algorithms on a quantum computer. Specifically the quantum simulator would efficiently generate qubit-string states that closely approximate physical states obtained from a broad class of dynamical evolutions. I provide an overview of theoretical research into universal quantum simulators and the strategies for minimizing computational space and time costs. Read More

We develop a theory of charge-parity-time (CPT) frameness resources to circumvent CPT-superselection. We construct and quantify such resources for spin~0, $\frac{1}{2}$, 1, and Majorana particles and show that quantum information processing is possible even with CPT superselection. Our method employs a unitary representation of CPT inversion by considering the aggregate action of CPT rather than the composition of separate C, P and T operations, as some of these operations involve problematic anti-unitary representations. Read More

We study the collective effects that emerge in waveguide quantum electrodynamics where several (artificial) atoms are coupled to a one-dimensional superconducting transmission line. Since single microwave photons can travel without loss for a long distance along the line, real and virtual photons emitted by one atom can be reabsorbed or scattered by a second atom. Depending on the distance between the atoms, this collective effect can lead to super- and subradiance or to a coherent exchange-type interaction between the atoms. Read More

We devise a scheme to characterize tunneling of an excess electron shared by a pair of tunnel-coupled dangling bonds on a silicon surface -- effectively a two-level system. Theoretical estimates show that the tunneling should be highly coherent but too fast to be measured by any conventional techniques. Our approach is instead to measure the time-averaged charge distribution of our dangling-bond pair by a capacitively coupled atomic-force-microscope tip in the presence of both a surface-parallel electrostatic potential bias between the two dangling bonds and a tunable midinfrared laser capable of inducing Rabi oscillations in the system. Read More

We construct a theory for long-distance quantum communication based on sharing entanglement through a linear chain of $N$ elementary swapping segments of length~$L=Nl$ where $l$ is the length of each elementary swap setup. Entanglement swapping is achieved by linear optics, photon counting and post-selection, and we include effects due to multi-photon sources, transmission loss and detector inefficiencies and dark counts. Specifically we calculate the resultant four-mode state shared by the two parties at the two ends of the chain, and we derive the two-photon coincidence rate expected for this state and thereby the visibility of this long-range entangled state. Read More

Inspired by the Solovay-Kitaev decomposition for approximating unitary operations as a sequence of operations selected from a universal quantum computing gate set, we introduce a method for approximating any single-qubit channel using single-qubit gates and the controlled-NOT (CNOT). Our approach uses the decomposition of the single-qubit channel into a convex combination of "quasiextreme" channels. Previous techniques for simulating general single-qubit channels would require as many as 20 CNOT gates, whereas ours only needs one, bringing it within the range of current experiments. Read More

Quantum secret-sharing and quantum error-correction schemes rely on multipartite decoding protocols, yet the non-local operations involved are challenging and sometimes infeasible. Here we construct a quantum secret-sharing protocol with a reduced number of quantum communication channels between the players. Our scheme is based on embedding a classical linear code into a quantum error-correcting code. Read More