# Barbara Kraus

## Publications Authored By Barbara Kraus

Spontaneous emission of a two--level atom in free space is modified by other atoms in its vicinity leading to super- and sub-radiance. In particular, for atomic distances closer than the transition wavelength the maximally entangled antisymmetric superposition state of two individually excited atomic dipole moments possesses no total dipole moment and will not decay spontaneously at all. Such a two-atom dark state does not exist, if the atoms possess alternative decay channels towards other atomic lower energy states. Read More

The stabilizer group of an n-qubit state \psi is the set of all matrices of the form g=g_1\otimes\cdots\otimes g_n, with g_1,... Read More

Since several years the preparation and manipulation of a small number of quantum systems in a controlled and coherent way is feasible in many experiments. In fact, these experiments are nowadays commonly used for quantum simulation and quantum computation. As recently shown, such a system can, however, also be utilized to simulate specific behaviors of exponentially larger systems. Read More

We investigate quantum metrology using a Lie algebraic approach for a class of Hamiltonians, including local and nearest-neighbor interaction Hamiltonians. Using this Lie algebraic formulation, we identify and construct highly symmetric states that admit Heisenberg scaling in precision in the absence of noise, and investigate their performance in the presence of noise. To this aim we perform a numerical scaling analysis, and derive upper bounds on the quantum Fisher information. Read More

We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for arbitrary multi--mode (pure or mixed) Gaussian states to be equivalent under Gaussian local unitary operations. To do so, we introduce a standard form for Gaussian states, which has the properties that (i) every state can be transformed into its standard form via Gaussian local unitaries and (ii) it is unique and (iii) it can be easily computed. Thus, two states are equivalent under Gaussian local unitaries iff their standard form coincides. Read More

A pair of orthonormal bases is called mutually unbiased if all mutual overlaps between any element of one basis with an arbitrary element of the other basis coincide. In case the dimension, $d$, of the considered Hilbert space is a power of a prime number, complete sets of $d+1$ mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) exist. Here, we present a novel method based on the graph-state formalism to construct such sets of MUBs. Read More

Entanglement is a resource in quantum information theory when state manipulation is restricted to Local Operations assisted by Classical Communication (LOCC). It is therefore of paramount importance to decide which LOCC transformations are possible and, particularly, which states are maximally useful under this restriction. While the bipartite maximally entangled state is well known (it is the only state that cannot be obtained from any other and, at the same time, it can be transformed to any other by LOCC), no such state exists in the multipartite case. Read More

We extend the notion of compressed quantum simulation to the XY-model. We derive a quantum circuit processing log(n) qubits which simulates the 1D XY-model describing n qubits. In particular, we demonstrate how the adiabatic evolution can be realized on this exponentially smaller system and how the magnetization, which witnesses a quantum phase transition can be observed. Read More

Locally maximally entangleable states (LMESs) constitute a large set of multipartite states, containing for instance all stabilizer states. LMESs are uniquely characterized by (2n-1) phases, where n denotes the number of qubits. We consider here those LMES whose phases are either 0 or {\pi} and present a multipartite entanglement purification protocol for arbitrary such states. Read More

We introduce a new quantum communication protocol for the transmission of quantum information under collective noise. Our protocol utilizes a decoherence-free subspace in such a way that an optimal asymptotic transmission rate is achieved, while at the same time encoding and decoding operations can be efficiently implemented. The encoding and decoding circuit requires a number of elementary gates that scale linearly with the number of transmitted qudits, m. Read More

Matchgates are an especially multiflorous class of two-qubit nearest neighbour quantum gates, defined by a set of algebraic constraints. They occur for example in the theory of perfect matchings of graphs, non-interacting fermions, and one-dimensional spin chains. We show that the computational power of circuits of matchgates is equivalent to that of space-bounded quantum computation with unitary gates, with space restricted to being logarithmic in the width of the matchgate circuit. Read More

We apply the techniques introduced in [Kraus et. al., Phys. Read More

The first quantum cryptography protocol, proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984 (BB84), has been widely studied in the last years. This protocol uses four states (more precisely, two complementary bases) for the encoding of the classical bit. Recently, it has been noticed that by using the same four states, but a different encoding of information, one can define a new protocol which is more robust in practical implementations, specifically when attenuated laser pulses are used instead of single-photon sources [V. Read More

We show how one can entangle distant atoms by using squeezed light. Entanglement is obtained in steady state, and can be increased by manipulating the atoms locally. We study the effects of imperfections, and show how to scale up the scheme to build a quantum network. Read More

Several recent experiments have demonstrated the promise of atomic ensembles for quantum teleportation and quantum memory. In these cases the collective internal state of the atoms is well described by continuous variables $X_1, P_1$ and the interaction with the optical field ($X_2, P_2$) by a quadratic Hamiltonian $X_1X_2$. We show how this interaction can be used optimally to create entanglement and squeezing. Read More

We derive a necessary and sufficient condition for the separability of tripartite three mode Gaussian states, that is easy to check for any such state. We give a classification of the separability properties of those systems and show how to determine for any state to which class it belongs. We show that there exist genuinely tripartite bound entangled states and point out how to construct and prepare such states. Read More