B. Nafradi - Institute of Physics of Complex Matter, FBS, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

B. Nafradi
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B. Nafradi
Institute of Physics of Complex Matter, FBS, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

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Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (18)
Physics - Materials Science (12)
Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (5)
Physics - Superconductivity (3)
Physics - Statistical Mechanics (1)

Publications Authored By B. Nafradi

We report magnetic and thermodynamic properties of a $4d^1$ (Mo$^{5+}$) magnetic insulator MoOPO$_4$ single crystal, which realizes a $J_1$-$J_2$ Heisenberg spin-$1/2$ model on a stacked square lattice. The specific-heat measurements show a magnetic transition at 16 K which is also confirmed by magnetic susceptibility, ESR, and neutron diffraction measurements. Magnetic entropy deduced from the specific heat corresponds to a two-level degree of freedom per Mo$^{5+}$ ion, and the effective moment from the susceptibility corresponds to the spin-only value. Read More

We report a detailed study of the electrical transport properties of single crystals of Pr$_4$Fe$_2$As$_2$Te$_{1-x}$O$_4$, a recently discovered iron-based superconductor. Resistivity, Hall effect and magnetoresistance are measured in a broad temperature range revealing the role of electrons as dominant charge carriers. The significant temperature dependence of the Hall coefficient and the violation of Kohler's law indicate multiband effects in this compound. Read More

We present a detailed study of the electrical transport properties of a recently discovered iron-based superconductor: Sm$_4$Fe$_2$As$_2$Te$_{0.72}$O$_{2.8}$F$_{1. Read More

Spatial positioning of nanocrystal building blocks on a solid surface is a prerequisite for assembling individual nanoparticles into functional devices. Here, we report on the graphoepitaxial liquid-solid growth of nanowires of the photovoltaic compound CH$_3$NH$_3$PbI$_3$ in open nanofluidic channels. The guided growth, visualized in real-time with a simple optical microscope, undergoes through a metastable solvatomorph formation in polar aprotic solvents. Read More

Methylammonium lead iodide perovskite has revolutionized the field of third generation solid-state solar cells leading to simple solar cell structures1 and certified efficiencies up to 20.1%. Recently the peculiar light harvesting properties of organometal halide perovskites have been exploited in photodetectors where responsivities of ~3. Read More

Field-effect phototransistors were fabricated based on individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) sensitized by CH$_3$NH$_3$PbI$_3$ nanowires (MAPbI$_3$NW). These devices represent light responsivities of R=7.7x10$^5$ A/W at low-lighting conditions in the nWmm$^{-2}$ range, unprecedented among CNT-based photo detectors. Read More

The demand for ever-increasing density of information storage and speed of manipulation boosts an intense search for new magnetic materials and novel ways of controlling the magnetic bit. Here, we report the synthesis of a ferromagnetic photovoltaic CH$_3$NH$_3$(Mn:Pb)I$_3$ material in which the photo-excited electrons rapidly melt the local magnetic order through the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interactions without heating up the spin system. Our finding offers an alternative, very simple and efficient way of optical spin control, and opens an avenue for applications in low power, light controlling magnetic devices. Read More

The time-window for processing electron spin information (spintronics) in solid-state quantum electronic devices is determined by the spin-lattice (T1) and spin-spin (T2) relaxation times of electrons. Minimising the effects of spin-orbit coupling and the local magnetic contributions of neighbouring atoms on T1 and T2 at room temperature remain substantial challenges to practical spintronics. Here, we report a record-high conduction electron T1=T2 of 175 ns at 300 K in 37 nm +/- 7 nm carbon spheres, which exceeds by far the highest values observed for any conducting solid state material of comparable size. Read More

The growing library of two-dimensional layered materials is providing researchers with a wealth of opportunity to explore and tune physical phenomena at the nanoscale. Here, we review the experimental and theoretical state-of-art concerning the electron spin dynamics in graphene, silicene, phosphorene, transition metal dichalcogenides, covalent heterostructures of organic molecules and topological materials. The spin transport, chemical and defect induced magnetic moments, and the effect of spin-orbit coupling and spin relaxation, are also discussed in relation to the field of spintronics. Read More

The $1/4$-filled organic compound, $\delta$-(EDT-TTF-CONMe$_{2}$)$_{2}$AsF$_6$ is a frustrated two-dimensional triangular magnetic system as shown by high-frequency (111.2 and 222.4 GHz) electron spin resonance (ESR) and structural data in the literature. Read More

We report Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) measurements on stage-I potassium intercalated graphite (KC$_8$). Angular dependent measurements show that the spin-lattice relaxation time is longer when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the graphene layer as compared to when the magnetic field is in the plane. This anisotropy is analyzed in the framework of the Elliott-Yafet theory of spin-relaxation in metals. Read More

Albeit difficult to access experimentally, the density of states (DOS) is a key parameter in solid state systems which governs several important phenomena including transport, magnetism, thermal, and thermoelectric properties. We study DOS in an ensemble of potassium intercalated single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and show using electron spin resonance spectroscopy that a sizeable number of electron states are present, which gives rise to a Fermi-liquid behavior in this material. A comparison between theoretical and the experimental DOS indicates that it does not display significant correlation effects, even though the pristine nanotube material shows a Luttinger-liquid behavior. Read More

We report the synthesis of single crystals of a novel layered iridate Ba$_{21}$Ir$_9$O$_{43}$, and present the crystallographic, transport and magnetic properties of this material. The compound has a hexagonal structure with two iridium oxide layers stacked along the $c$ direction. One layer consists of a triangular arrangement of Ir$_2$O$_9$ dimers while the other layer comprises two regular octahedra and one triangular pyramid, forming inter-penetrated triangular lattices. Read More

Since the discovery of its photovoltaic properties organometallic salt CH$_3$NH$_3$PbI$_3$ became the subject of vivid interest. The material exhibits high light conversion efficiency, it lases in red color, and it can serve as the basis for light emitting diodes and photodetectors. Here we report another surprising feature of this material family, the photo-tunability of the diode response of a heterojunction made of CH$_3$NH$_3$PbI$_3$ and its close relative, CH$_3$NH$_3$SnI$_3$. Read More

The intrinsic d.c. electrical resistivity ($\rho$) - measurable on single crystals only - is often the quantity first revealing the properties of a given material. Read More

We have used high-resolution neutron Larmor diffraction and capacitative dilatometry to investigate spontaneous and forced magnetostriction in undoped, antiferromagnetic YBa$_2$Cu$_3$O$_{6.0}$, the parent compound of a prominent family of high-temperature superconductors. Upon cooling below the N\'eel temperature, $T_N = 420$~K, Larmor diffraction reveals the formation of magneto-structural domains of characteristic size $\sim 240$~nm. Read More

The hybrid halide perovskites, the very performant compounds in photovoltaic applications, possess large Seebeck coefficient and low thermal conductivity making them potentially interesting high figure of merit ($ZT$) materials. For this purpose one needs to tune the electrical conductivity of these semiconductors to higher values. We have studied the CH$_3$NH$_3$MI$_3$ (M=Pb,Sn) samples in pristine form showing very low $ZT$ values for both materials; however, photoinduced doping (in M=Pb) and chemical doping (in M=Sn) indicate that, by further doping optimization, $ZT$ can be enhanced toward unity and reach the performance level of the presently most efficient thermoelectric materials. Read More

We study the vibrational, magnetic and transport properties of Few Layer Graphene (FLG) using Raman and electron spin resonance spectroscopy and microwave conductivity measurements. FLG samples were produced using wet chemical exfoliation with different post-processing, namely ultrasound treatment, shear mixing, and magnetic stirring. Raman spectroscopy shows a low intensity D mode which attests a high sample quality. Read More

We report resistivity, thermoelectric power and thermal conductivity of MoS2 single crystals prepared by chemical vapour transport (CVT) method using I2, Br2 and TeCl4 as transport agents. The material presents low-lying donor and acceptor levels, which dominate the in-plane charge transport. Intercalates into the Van der Waals gap strongly influence the inter-plane resistivity. Read More

We report on spherical neutron polarimetry and unpolarized neutron diffraction in zero magnetic field as well as flipping ratio and static magnetization measurements in high magnetic fields on the multiferroic square lattice antiferromagnet Ba$_2$CoGe$_2$O$_7$. We found that in zero magnetic field the magnetic space group is $Cm'm2'$ with sublattice magnetization parallel to the [100] axis of this orthorhombic setting. The spin canting has been found to be smaller than $0. Read More

We observe the electron spin resonance of conduction electrons in boron doped (6400 ppm) superconducting diamond (Tc =3.8 K). We clearly identify the benchmarks of conduction electron spin resonance (CESR): the nearly temperature independent ESR signal intensity and its magnitude which is in good agreement with that expected from the density of states through the Pauli spin-susceptibility. Read More

We have used a combination of neutron resonant spin-echo and triple-axis spectroscopies to determine the energy and linewidth of the magnon resonance in IPA-Cu(Cl$_{0.95}$Br$_{0.05}$)$_3$, a model spin-1/2 ladder antiferromagnet where Br substitution induces bond randomness. Read More

We report a novel synthesis route of homogeneously manganese-doped titanium dioxide nanotubes in a broad concentration range. The scroll-type trititanate (H(2)Ti(3)O(7)) nanotubes prepared by hydrothermal synthesis were used as precursors. Mn2+ ions were introduced by an ion exchange method resulting Mn(x)H(2-x)Ti(3)O(7). Read More

Field-induced antiferromagnetic (AF) fluctuations and magnetization are observed above the (zero-field) ordering temperature, T_N = 23 K by electron spin resonance in kappa-(BEDT-TTF)_2Cu[N(CN)_2]Cl, a quasi two-dimensional antiferromagnet with a large isotropic Heisenberg exchange interaction. The Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction is the main source of anisotropy, the exchange anisotropy and the interlayer coupling are very weak. The AF magnetization is induced by magnetic fields perpendicular to the DM vector; parallel fields have no effect. Read More

We have used a combination of neutron resonant spin-echo and triple-axis spectroscopies to determine the energy, fine structure, and linewidth of the magnon resonance in the model spin-1/2 ladder antiferromagnet IPA-CuCl_3 at temperatures T << Delta_0 /k_B, where Delta_0 is the spin gap at T=0. In this low-temperature regime we find that the results deviate substantially from the predictions of the non-linear sigma model proposed as a description of magnon excitations in one-dimensional quantum magnets and attribute these deviations to real-space and spin-space anisotropies in the spin Hamiltonian as well as scattering of magnon excitations from a dilute density of impurities. These effects are generic to experimental realizations of one-dimensional quantum magnets. Read More

We present a multi-frequency Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) study in the range of 4 GHz to 420 GHz of the quasi-one-dimensional, non-dimerized, quarter-filled Mott insulators, delta-(EDT-TTF-CONMe_2)_2X (X=AsF_6, Br). In the high temperature orthorhombic phase above T~190 K, the magnitude and the temperature dependence of the high temperature spin susceptibility are described by a S = 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chain with J_AsF6=298 K and J_Br=474 K coupling constants for X=AsF_6 and Br respectively. We estimate from the temperature dependence of the line width an exchange anisotropy, J'/J of ~2 * 10^{-3}. Read More

A high frequency (111.2-420 GHz) electron spin resonance study of the inter-layer (perpendicular) spin diffusion as a function of pressure and temperature is presented in the conducting phases of the layered organic compounds, {\kappa}-(BEDT-TTF)2-Cu[N(CN)2]X ({\kappa}-ET2-X), X=Cl or Br. The resolved ESR lines of adjacent layers at high temperatures and high frequencies allows for the determination of the inter-layer cross spin relaxation time, Tx and the intrinsic spin relaxation time, T2 of single layers. Read More

Affiliations: 1Institute of Physics of Complex Matter, FBS, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, 2Institute of Physics of Complex Matter, FBS, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, 3Institute of Physics of Complex Matter, FBS, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, 4Institute of Physics of Complex Matter, FBS, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

We report the development of the frequency-modulation (FM) method for measuring electron spin resonance (ESR) absorption in the 210-420 GHz frequency range. We demonstrate that using a high-frequency ESR spectrometer without resonating microwave components enables us to overcome technical difficulties associated with the FM method due to nonlinear microwave-elements, without sacrificing spectrometer performance. FM was achieved by modulating the reference oscillator of a 13 GHz Phase Locked Dielectric Resonator Oscillator, and amplifying and frequency-multiplying the resulting millimeter-wave radiation up to 210, 315 and 420 GHz. Read More

We studied the temperature stability of the endohedral fullerene molecule, N@C60, inside single-wall carbon nanotubes using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. We found that the nitrogen escapes at higher temperatures in the encapsulated material as compared to its pristine, crystalline form. The temperature dependent spin-lattice relaxation time, T_1, of the encapsulated molecule is significantly shorter than that of the crystalline material, which is explained by the interaction of the nitrogen spin with the conduction electrons of the nanotubes. Read More

C59N magnetic fullerenes were formed inside single-wall carbon nanotubes by vacuum annealing functionalized C59N molecules encapsulated inside the tubes. A hindered, anisotropic rotation of C59N was deduced from the temperature dependence of the electron spin resonance spectra near room temperature. Shortening of spin-lattice relaxation time, T_1, of C59N indicates a reversible charge transfer toward the host nanotubes above $\sim 350$ K. Read More