B. Martelli

B. Martelli
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Mathematics - Geometric Topology (30)
 
Mathematics - Differential Geometry (7)
 
Mathematics - Representation Theory (1)
 
Mathematics - Quantum Algebra (1)
 
Mathematics - Group Theory (1)
 
Mathematics - Algebraic Geometry (1)
 
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (1)
 
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (1)
 
Mathematics - Metric Geometry (1)

Publications Authored By B. Martelli

The Extreme Energy Events Project is a synchronous sparse array of 52 tracking detectors for studying High Energy Cosmic Rays (HECR) and Cosmic Rays-related phenomena. The observatory is also meant to address Long Distance Correlation (LDC) phenomena: the network is deployed over a broad area covering 10 degrees in latitude and 11 in longitude. An overview of a set of preliminary results is given, extending from the study of local muon flux dependance on solar activity to the investigation of the upward-going component of muon flux traversing the EEE stations; from the search for anisotropies at the sub-TeV scale to the hints for observations of km-scale Extensive Air Shower (EAS). Read More

This book provides a self-contained introduction to the topology and geometry of surfaces and three-manifolds. The main goal is to describe Thurston's geometrisation of three-manifolds, proved by Perelman in 2002. The book is divided into three parts: the first is devoted to hyperbolic geometry, the second to surfaces, and the third to three-manifolds. Read More

We introduce and study some deformations of complete finite-volume hyperbolic four-manifolds that may be interpreted as four-dimensional analogues of Thurston's hyperbolic Dehn filling. We construct in particular an analytic path of complete, finite-volume cone four-manifolds $M_t$ that interpolates between two hyperbolic four-manifolds $M_0$ and $M_1$ with the same volume $\frac {8}3\pi^2$. The deformation looks like the familiar hyperbolic Dehn filling paths that occur in dimension three, where the cone angle of a core simple closed geodesic varies monotonically from $0$ to $2\pi$. Read More

This is a short survey on finite-volume hyperbolic four-manifolds. We describe some general theorems and focus on the concrete examples that we found in the literature. The paper contains no new result. Read More

In this paper we raise the question whether every closed Riemannian manifold has a spine of minimal area, and we answer it affirmatively in the surface case. On constant curvature surfaces we introduce the spine systole, a continuous real function on moduli space that measures the minimal length of a spine in each surface. We show that the spine systole is a proper function and has its global minima precisely on the extremal surfaces (those containing the biggest possible discs). Read More

We prove that every complete finite-volume hyperbolic 3-manifold $M$ that is tessellated into right-angled regular polyhedra (dodecahedra or ideal octahedra) embeds geodesically in a complete finite-volume connected orientable hyperbolic 4-manifold $W$, which is also tessellated into right-angled regular polytopes (120-cells and ideal 24-cells). If $M$ is connected, then Vol($W$) < $2^{49}$Vol($M$). This applies for instance to the Whitehead and the Borromean links complements. Read More

Using tropical geometry, Mikhalkin has proved that every smooth complex hypersurface in $\mathbb{CP}^{n+1}$ decomposes into pairs of pants: a pair of pants is a real compact $2n$-manifold with cornered boundary obtained by removing an open regular neighborhood of $n+2$ generic hyperplanes from $\mathbb{CP}^n$. As is well-known, every compact surface of genus $g\geqslant 2$ decomposes into pairs of pants, and it is now natural to investigate this construction in dimension 4. Which smooth closed 4-manifolds decompose into pairs of pants? We address this problem here and construct many examples: we prove in particular that every finitely presented group is the fundamental group of a 4-manifold that decomposes into pairs of pants. Read More

Eisermann has shown that the Jones polynomial of a $n$-component ribbon link $L\subset S^3$ is divided by the Jones polynomial of the trivial $n$-component link. We improve this theorem by extending its range of application from links in $S^3$ to colored knotted trivalent graphs in $\#_g(S^2\times S^1)$, the connected sum of $g\geqslant 0$ copies of $S^2\times S^1$. We show in particular that if the Kauffman bracket of a knot in $\#_g(S^2\times S^1)$ has a pole in $q=i$ of order $n$, the ribbon genus of the knot is at least $\frac {n+1}2$. Read More

A closed connected hyperbolic $n$-manifold bounds geometrically if it is isometric to the geodesic boundary of a compact hyperbolic $(n+1)$-manifold. A. Reid and D. Read More

We introduce a simple algorithm which transforms every four-dimensional cubulation into a cusped finite-volume hyperbolic four-manifold. Combinatorially distinct cubulations give rise to topologically distinct manifolds. Using this algorithm we construct the first examples of finite-volume hyperbolic four-manifolds with one cusp. Read More

We use quantum invariants to define an analytic family of representations for the mapping class group of a punctured surface. The representations depend on a complex number A with |A| <= 1 and act on an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. They are unitary when A is real or imaginary, bounded when |A|<1, and only densely defined when |A| = 1 and A is not a root of unity. Read More

Let the complexity of a closed manifold M be the minimal number of simplices in a triangulation of M. Such a quantity is clearly submultiplicative with respect to finite coverings, and by taking the infimum on all finite coverings of M normalized by the covering degree we can promote it to a multiplicative invariant, a characteristic number already considered by Milnor and Thurston, which call the "stable complexity" of M. We study here the relation between the stable complexity of M and Gromov's simplicial volume ||M||. Read More

We consider in this paper the minimally twisted chain link with 5 components in the 3-sphere, and we analyze the Dehn surgeries on it, namely the Dehn fillings on its exterior M5. The 3-manifold M5 is a nicely symmetric hyperbolic one, filling which one gets a wealth of hyperbolic 3-manifolds having 4 or fewer (including 0) cusps. In view of Thurston's hyperbolic Dehn filling theorem it is then natural to face the problem of classifying all the exceptional fillings on M5, namely those yielding non-hyperbolic 3-manifolds. Read More

We exhibit a finite set of local moves that connect any two surgery presentations of the same 3-manifold via framed links in the three-sphere. The moves are handle-slides and blow-downs/ups of a particular simple kind. Read More

We prove that a closed 4-manifold has shadow-complexity zero if and only if it is a kind of 4-dimensional graph manifold, which decomposes into some particular blocks along embedded copies of S^2 x S^1, plus some complex projective spaces. We deduce a classification of all 4-manifolds with finite fundamental group and shadow-complexity zero. Read More

We extend Matveev's complexity of 3-manifolds to PL compact manifolds of arbitrary dimension, and we study its properties. The complexity of a manifold is the minimum number of vertices in a simple spine. We study how this quantity changes under the most common topological operations (handle additions, finite coverings, drilling and surgery of spheres, products, connected sums) and its relations with some geometric invariants (Gromov norm, spherical volume, volume entropy, systolic constant). Read More

In this paper we enumerate and classify the ``simplest'' pairs (M,G) where M is a closed orientable 3-manifold and G is a trivalent graph embedded in M. To enumerate the pairs we use a variation of Matveev's definition of complexity for 3-manifolds, and we consider only (0,1,2)-irreducible pairs, namely pairs (M,G) such that any 2-sphere in M intersecting G transversely in at most 2 points bounds a ball in M either disjoint from G or intersecting G in an unknotted arc. To classify the pairs our main tools are geometric invariants defined using hyperbolic geometry. Read More

Following Matveev, a k-normal surface in a triangulated 3-manifold is a generalization of both normal and (octagonal) almost normal surfaces. Using spines, complexity, and Turaev-Viro invariants of 3-manifolds, we prove the following results: 1) a minimal triangulation of a closed irreducible or a bounded hyperbolic 3-manifold contains no non-trivial k-normal sphere; 2) every triangulation of a closed manifold with at least 2 tetrahedra contains some non-trivial normal surface; 3) every manifold with boundary has only finitely many triangulations without non-trivial normal surfaces. Here, triangulations of bounded manifolds are actually ideal triangulations. Read More

We prove that for every countable group G there exists a hyperbolic 3-manifold M such that the isometry group of M, the mapping class group of M, and the outer automorphism group of the fundamental group of M are isomorphic to G. Read More

We show that only finitely many links in a closed 3-manifold share the same complement, up to twists along discs and annuli. Using the same techniques, we prove that by adding 2-handles on the same link we get only finitely many smooth cobordisms between two given closed 3-manifolds. As a consequence, there are finitely many smooth closed 4-manifolds constructed from some Kirby diagram with bounded number of crossings, discs, and strands, or from some Turaev special shadow with bounded number of vertices. Read More

We give a summary of known results on Matveev's complexity of compact 3-manifolds. The only relevant new result is the classification of all closed orientable irreducible 3-manifolds of complexity 10. Read More

We establish a bijective correspondence between the set T(n) of 3-dimensional triangulations with n tetrahedra and a certain class H(n) of relative handlebodies (i.e. handlebodies with boundary loops, as defined by Johannson) of genus n+1. Read More

We classify all closed non-orientable P2-irreducible 3-manifolds with complexity up to 7, fixing two mistakes in our previous complexity-up-to-6 classification. We show that there is no such manifold with complexity less than 6, five with complexity 6 (the four flat ones and the filling of the Gieseking manifold, which is of type Sol, and three with complexity 7 (one manifold of type Sol, and the two manifolds of type H2xR with smallest base orbifolds). Read More

We compute for all orientable irreducible geometric 3-manifolds certain complexity functions that approximate from above Matveev's natural complexity, known to be equal to the minimal number of tetrahedra in a triangulation. We can show that the upper bounds on Matveev's complexity implied by our computations are sharp for thousands of manifolds, and we conjecture they are for infinitely many, including all Seifert manifolds. Our computations and estimates apply to all the Dehn fillings of M6_1^3 (the complement of the three-component chain-link, conjectured to be the smallest triply cusped hyperbolic manifold), whence to infinitely many among the smallest closed hyperbolic manifolds. Read More

We define for each g>=2 and k>=0 a set M_{g,k} of orientable hyperbolic 3-manifolds with $k$ toric cusps and a connected totally geodesic boundary of genus g. Manifolds in M_{g,k} have Matveev complexity g+k and Heegaard genus g+1, and their homology, volume, and Turaev-Viro invariants depend only on g and k. In addition, they do not contain closed essential surfaces. Read More

We classify the orientable finite-volume hyperbolic 3-manifolds having non-empty compact totally geodesic boundary and admitting an ideal triangulation with at most four tetrahedra. We also compute the volume of all such manifolds, we describe their canonical Kojima decomposition, and we discuss manifolds having cusps. The manifolds built from one or two tetrahedra were previously known. Read More

We classify all closed non-orientable P2-irreducible 3-manifolds having complexity up to 6 and we describe some having complexity 7. We show in particular that there is no such manifold with complexity less than 6, and that those having complexity 6 are precisely the 4 flat non-orientable ones and the filling of the Gieseking manifold, which is of type Sol. The manifolds having complexity 7 we describe are Seifert manifolds of type H2 x S1 and a manifold of type Sol. Read More

Using the theory of hyperbolic manifolds with totally geodesic boundary, we provide for every integer n greater than 1 a class of such manifolds all having Matveev complexity equal to n and Heegaard genus equal to n+1. All the elements of this class have a single boundary component of genus n, and the numbers of distinct members of the class grows at least exponentially with n. Read More

We classify all the non-hyperbolic Dehn fillings of the complement of the chain-link with 3 components, conjectured to be the smallest hyperbolic 3-manifold with 3 cusps. We deduce the classification of all non-hyperbolic Dehn fillings of infinitely many 1-cusped and 2-cusped hyperbolic manifolds, including most of those with smallest known volume. Among other consequences of this classification, we mention the following: - for every integer n we can prove that there are infinitely many hyperbolic knots in the 3-sphere having exceptional surgeries n, n+1, n+2, n+3, with n+1, n+2 giving small Seifert manifolds and n, n+3 giving toroidal manifolds; - we exhibit a 2-cusped hyperbolic manifold that contains a pair of inequivalent knots having homeomorphic complements; - we exhibit a chiral 3-manifold containing a pair of inequivalent hyperbolic knots with orientation-preservingly homeomorphic complements; - we give explicit lower bounds for the maximal distance between small Seifert fillings and any other kind of exceptional filling. Read More

Let M be a (possibly non-orientable) compact 3-manifold with (possibly empty) boundary consisting of tori and Klein bottles. Let $X\subset\partial M$ be a trivalent graph such that $\partial M\setminus X$ is a union of one disc for each component of $\partial M$. Building on previous work of Matveev, we define for the pair (M,X) a complexity c(M,X) and show that, when M is closed, irreducible and P^2-irreducible, $c(M,\emptyset)$ is the minimal number of tetrahedra in a triangulation of M. Read More

We describe an algorithm which has enabled us to give a complete list, without repetitions, of all closed oriented irreducible 3-manifolds of complexity up to 9. More interestingly, we have actually been able to give a "name" to each such manifold, by recognizing its canonical decomposition into Seifert fibred spaces and hyperbolic manifolds. The algorithm relies on the extension of Matveev's theory of complexity to the case of manifolds bounded by suitably marked tori, and on the notion of assembling of two such manifolds. Read More