# B. L. Giles

## Contact Details

NameB. L. Giles |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesPhysics - Space Physics (3) Physics - Plasma Physics (2) Quantum Physics (2) Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (1) Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (1) Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (1) Physics - Materials Science (1) |

## Publications Authored By B. L. Giles

MMS observations recently confirmed that crescent-shaped electron velocity distributions in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field occur in the electron diffusion region near reconnection sites at Earth's magnetopause. In this paper, we re-examine the origin of the crescent-shaped distributions in the light of our new finding that ions and electrons are drifting in opposite directions when displayed in magnetopause boundary-normal coordinates. Therefore, ExB drifts cannot cause the crescent shapes. Read More

**Authors:**S. T. Yao, X. G. Wang, Q. Q. Shi, T. Pitkänen, M. Hamrin, Z. H. Yao, Z. Y. Li, X. F. Ji, A. De Spiegeleer, Y. C. Xiao, A. M. Tian, Z. Y. Pu, Q. G. Zong, C. J. Xiao, S. Y. Fu, H. Zhang, C. T. Russell, B. L. Giles, R. L. Guo, W. J. Sun, W. Y. Li, X. Z. Zhou, S. Y. Huang, J. Vaverka, M. Nowada, S. C. Bai, M. M. Wang, J. Liu

**Category:**Physics - Space Physics

Magnetic holes (MHs), with a scale much greater than \r{ho}i (proton gyroradius), have been widely reported in various regions of space plasmas. On the other hand, kinetic-size magnetic holes (KSMHs), previously called small size magnetic holes (SSMHs), with a scale of the order of magnitude of or less than \r{ho}i have only been reported in the Earth's magnetospheric plasma sheet. In this study, we report such KSMHs in the magnetosheath whereby we use measurements from the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, which provides three-dimensional (3D) particle distribution measurements with a resolution much higher than previous missions. Read More

**Authors:**S. Y. Huang, F. Sahraoui, Z. G. Yuan, J. S. He, J. S. Zhao, O. Le Contel, X. H. Deng, M. Zhou, H. S. Fu, Y. Pang, Q. Q. Shi, B. Lavraud, J. Yang, D. D. Wang, X. D. Yu, C. J. Pollock, B. L. Giles, R. B. Torbert, C. T. Russell, K. A. Goodrich, D. J. Gershman, T. E. Moore, R. E. Ergun, Y. V. Khotyaintsev, P. -A. Lindqvist, R. J. Strangeway, W. Magnes, K. Bromund, H. Leinweber, F. Plaschke, B. J. Anderson, J. L. Burch

We report the observations of an electron vortex magnetic hole corresponding to a new type of coherent structures in the magnetosheath turbulent plasma using the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission data. The magnetic hole is characterized by a magnetic depression, a density peak, a total electron temperature increase (with a parallel temperature decrease but a perpendicular temperature increase), and strong currents carried by the electrons. The current has a dip in the center of the magnetic hole and a peak in the outer region of the magnetic hole. Read More

The spin diffusion length for thermally excited magnon spins is measured by utilizing a non-local spin-Seebeck effect measurement. In a bulk single crystal of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) a focused laser thermally excites magnon spins. The spins diffuse laterally and are sampled using a Pt inverse spin Hall effect detector. Read More

Matsumoto and Amano (2008) showed that every single-qubit Clifford+T operator can be uniquely written of a particular form, which we call the Matsumoto-Amano normal form. In this mostly expository paper, we give a detailed and streamlined presentation of Matsumoto and Amano's results, simplifying some proofs along the way. We also point out some corollaries to Matsumoto and Amano's work, including an intrinsic characterization of the Clifford+T subgroup of SO(3), which also yields an efficient T-optimal exact single-qubit synthesis algorithm. Read More

We prove that a unitary matrix has an exact representation over the Clifford+T gate set with local ancillas if and only if its entries are in the ring Z[1/sqrt(2),i]. Moreover, we show that one ancilla always suffices. These facts were conjectured by Kliuchnikov, Maslov, and Mosca. Read More