# B. Kraus - Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck, Austria

## Contact Details

NameB. Kraus |
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AffiliationInstitute for Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck, Austria |
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CityInnsbruck |
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CountryAustria |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## External Links |
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## Pub CategoriesQuantum Physics (50) Physics - Other (1) Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (1) Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (1) Mathematical Physics (1) Physics - Statistical Mechanics (1) |

## Publications Authored By B. Kraus

The notion of compressed quantum computation is employed to simulate the Ising interaction of a 1D--chain consisting out of $n$ qubits using the universal IBM cloud quantum computer running on $\log(n)$ qubits. The external field parameter that controls the quantum phase transition of this model translates into particular settings of the quantum gates that generate the circuit. We measure the magnetization, which displays the quantum phase transition, on a two--qubit system, which simulates a four--qubit Ising chain, and show its agreement with the theoretical prediction within a certain error. Read More

Spontaneous emission of a two--level atom in free space is modified by other atoms in its vicinity leading to super- and sub-radiance. In particular, for atomic distances closer than the transition wavelength the maximally entangled antisymmetric superposition state of two individually excited atomic dipole moments possesses no total dipole moment and will not decay spontaneously at all. Such a two-atom dark state does not exist, if the atoms possess alternative decay channels towards other atomic lower energy states. Read More

The stabilizer group of an n-qubit state \psi is the set of all matrices of the form g=g_1\otimes\cdots\otimes g_n, with g_1,... Read More

We show how quantum metrology protocols that seek to estimate the parameters of a Hamiltonian that exhibits a quantum phase transition can be efficiently simulated on an exponentially smaller quantum computer. Specifically, by exploiting the fact that the ground state of such a Hamiltonian changes drastically around its phase transition point, we construct a suitable observable from which one can estimate the relevant parameters of the Hamiltonian with Heisenberg scaling precision. We then show how, for the one-dimensional Ising Hamiltonian with transverse magnetic field acting on N spins, such a metrology protocol can be efficiently simulated on an exponentially smaller quantum computer while maintaining the same Heisenberg scaling, i. Read More

We studied pure state transformations using local operations assisted by finitely many rounds of classical communication ($LOCC_{\mathbb{N}}$) in C. Spee, J.I. Read More

We consider generic pure $n$-qubit states and a general class of pure states of arbitrary dimensions and arbitrary many subsystems. We characterize those states which can be reached from some other state via Local Operations assisted by finitely many rounds of Classical Communication ($LOCC_{\mathbb{N}}$). For qubits we show that this set of states is of measure zero, which implies that the maximally entangled set is generically of full measure if restricted to the practical scenario of finite-round LOCC. Read More

Entanglement is the resource to overcome the restriction of operations to Local Operations assisted by Classical Communication (LOCC). The Maximally Entangled Set (MES) of states is the minimal set of n-partite pure states with the property that any truly n-partite entangled pure state can be obtained deterministically via LOCC from some state in this set. Hence, this set contains the most useful states for applications. Read More

**Category:**Quantum Physics

Entanglement is a resource to overcome the natural restriction of operations used for state manipulation to Local Operations assisted by Classical Communication (LOCC). Hence, a bipartite maximally entangled state is a state which can be transformed deterministically into any other state via LOCC. In the multipartite setting no such state exists. Read More

Entanglement is the resource to overcome the natural limitations of spatially separated parties restricted to Local Operations assisted by Classical Communications (LOCC). Recently two new classes of operational entanglement measures, the source and the accessible entanglement, for arbitrary multipartite states have been introduced. Whereas the source entanglement measures from how many states the state of interest can be obtained via LOCC, the accessible entanglement measures how many states can be reached via LOCC from the state at hand. Read More

Since several years the preparation and manipulation of a small number of quantum systems in a controlled and coherent way is feasible in many experiments. In fact, these experiments are nowadays commonly used for quantum simulation and quantum computation. As recently shown, such a system can, however, also be utilized to simulate specific behaviors of exponentially larger systems. Read More

**Category:**Quantum Physics

In order to cope with the fact that there exists no single maximally entangled state (up to local unitaries) in the multipartite setting, we introduced in [J. I. de Vicente, C. Read More

We introduce two operational entanglement measures which are applicable for arbitrary multipartite (pure or mixed) states. One of them characterizes the potentiality of a state to generate other states via local operations assisted by classical communication (LOCC) and the other the simplicity of generating the state at hand. We show how these measures can be generalized to two classes of entanglement measures. Read More

We investigate quantum metrology using a Lie algebraic approach for a class of Hamiltonians, including local and nearest-neighbor interaction Hamiltonians. Using this Lie algebraic formulation, we identify and construct highly symmetric states that admit Heisenberg scaling in precision in the absence of noise, and investigate their performance in the presence of noise. To this aim we perform a numerical scaling analysis, and derive upper bounds on the quantum Fisher information. Read More

Hypergraph states are multi-qubit states that form a subset of the locally maximally entangleable states and a generalization of the well--established notion of graph states. Mathematically, they can conveniently be described by a hypergraph that indicates a possible generation procedure of these states; alternatively, they can also be phrased in terms of a non-local stabilizer formalism. In this paper, we explore the entanglement properties and nonclassical features of hypergraph states. Read More

**Category:**Quantum Physics

We investigate different quantum parameter estimation scenarios in the presence of noise, and identify optimal probe states. For frequency estimation of local Hamiltonians with dephasing noise, we determine optimal probe states for up to 70 qubits, and determine their key properties. We find that the so-called one-axis twisted spin-squeezed states are only almost optimal, and that optimal states need not to be spin-squeezed. Read More

We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for arbitrary multi--mode (pure or mixed) Gaussian states to be equivalent under Gaussian local unitary operations. To do so, we introduce a standard form for Gaussian states, which has the properties that (i) every state can be transformed into its standard form via Gaussian local unitaries and (ii) it is unique and (iii) it can be easily computed. Thus, two states are equivalent under Gaussian local unitaries iff their standard form coincides. Read More

We consider quantum metrology in noisy environments, where the effect of noise and decoherence limits the achievable gain in precision by quantum entanglement. We show that by using tools from quantum error-correction this limitation can be overcome. This is demonstrated in two scenarios, including a many-body Hamiltonian with single-qubit dephasing or depolarizing noise, and a single-body Hamiltonian with transversal noise. Read More

A pair of orthonormal bases is called mutually unbiased if all mutual overlaps between any element of one basis with an arbitrary element of the other basis coincide. In case the dimension, $d$, of the considered Hilbert space is a power of a prime number, complete sets of $d+1$ mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) exist. Here, we present a novel method based on the graph-state formalism to construct such sets of MUBs. Read More

Entanglement is a resource in quantum information theory when state manipulation is restricted to Local Operations assisted by Classical Communication (LOCC). It is therefore of paramount importance to decide which LOCC transformations are possible and, particularly, which states are maximally useful under this restriction. While the bipartite maximally entangled state is well known (it is the only state that cannot be obtained from any other and, at the same time, it can be transformed to any other by LOCC), no such state exists in the multipartite case. Read More

We extend the notion of compressed quantum simulation to the XY-model. We derive a quantum circuit processing log(n) qubits which simulates the 1D XY-model describing n qubits. In particular, we demonstrate how the adiabatic evolution can be realized on this exponentially smaller system and how the magnetization, which witnesses a quantum phase transition can be observed. Read More

**Category:**Quantum Physics

We introduce a new multipartite communication scheme, with the aim to enable the senders to remotely and obliviously provide the receivers with an arbitrary amount of multipartite entanglement. The scheme is similar to Remote State Preparation (RSP). However, we show that even though the receivers are restricted to local unitary operations, the required resources for remote entanglement preparation are less than for RSP. Read More

Locally maximally entangleable states (LMESs) constitute a large set of multipartite states, containing for instance all stabilizer states. LMESs are uniquely characterized by (2n-1) phases, where n denotes the number of qubits. We consider here those LMES whose phases are either 0 or {\pi} and present a multipartite entanglement purification protocol for arbitrary such states. Read More

We introduce a new quantum communication protocol for the transmission of quantum information under collective noise. Our protocol utilizes a decoherence-free subspace in such a way that an optimal asymptotic transmission rate is achieved, while at the same time encoding and decoding operations can be efficiently implemented. The encoding and decoding circuit requires a number of elementary gates that scale linearly with the number of transmitted qudits, m. Read More

In [R. Jozsa, B. Kraus, A. Read More

We characterize the entanglement contained in a pure three-qubit state via operational entanglement measures. To this end we derive a new decomposition for arbitrary 3-qubit states which is characterized by five parameters (up to local unitary operations). We show that these parameters are uniquely determined by bipartite entanglement measures. Read More

We study a spin-gas model, where N_S system qubits are interacting with N_B bath qubits via many-body interactions. We consider multipartite Ising interactions and show how the effect of decoherence depends on the specific coupling between the system and its environment. For instance, we analyze the influence of decohenerce induced by k-body interactions for different values of k. Read More

The necessary and sufficient conditions for the equivalence of arbitrary n-qubit pure quantum states under Local Unitary (LU) operations derived in [B. Kraus Phys. Rev. Read More

Necessary and sufficient conditions for the equivalence of arbitrary n-qubit pure quantum states under Local Unitary (LU) operations are derived. First, an easily computable standard form for multipartite states is introduced. Two generic states are shown to be LU-equivalent iff their standard forms coincide. Read More

Matchgates are an especially multiflorous class of two-qubit nearest neighbour quantum gates, defined by a set of algebraic constraints. They occur for example in the theory of perfect matchings of graphs, non-interacting fermions, and one-dimensional spin chains. We show that the computational power of circuits of matchgates is equivalent to that of space-bounded quantum computation with unitary gates, with space restricted to being logarithmic in the width of the matchgate circuit. Read More

**Category:**Quantum Physics

We investigate the entanglement properties of pure quantum states describing $n$ qubits. We characterize all multipartite states which can be maximally entangled to local auxiliary systems using controlled operations. A state has this property iff one can construct out of it an orthonormal basis by applying independent local unitary operations. Read More

We investigate the possibility of using a dissipative process to prepare a quantum system in a desired state. We derive for any multipartite pure state a dissipative process for which this state is the unique stationary state and solve the corresponding master equation analytically. For certain states, like the Cluster states, we use this process to show that the jump operators can be chosen quasi-locally, i. Read More

**Authors:**S. Diehl

^{1}, A. Micheli

^{2}, A. Kantian

^{3}, B. Kraus

^{4}, H. P. Büchler

^{5}, P. Zoller

^{6}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck, Austria,

^{2}Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck, Austria,

^{3}Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck, Austria,

^{4}Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck, Austria,

^{5}Institute for Theoretical Physics III, University of Stuttgart, Germany,

^{6}Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck, Austria

An open quantum system, whose time evolution is governed by a master equation, can be driven into a given pure quantum state by an appropriate design of the system-reservoir coupling. This points out a route towards preparing many body states and non-equilibrium quantum phases by quantum reservoir engineering. Here we discuss in detail the example of a \emph{driven dissipative Bose Einstein Condensate} of bosons and of paired fermions, where atoms in an optical lattice are coupled to a bath of Bogoliubov excitations via the atomic current representing \emph{local dissipation}. Read More

We apply the techniques introduced in [Kraus et. al., Phys. Read More

**Category:**Quantum Physics

Kolmogorov complexity is a measure of the information contained in a binary string. We investigate here the notion of quantum Kolmogorov complexity, a measure of the information required to describe a quantum state. We show that for any definition of quantum Kolmogorov complexity measuring the number of classical bits required to describe a pure quantum state, there exists a pure n-qubit state which requires exponentially many bits of description. Read More

We investigate the influence of memory errors in the quantum repeater scheme for long-range quantum communication. We show that the communication distance is limited in standard operation mode due to memory errors resulting from unavoidable waiting times for classical signals. We show how to overcome these limitations by (i) improving local memory, and (ii) introducing two new operational modes of the quantum repeater. Read More

General Trojan horse attacks on quantum key distribution systems are analyzed. We illustrate the power of such attacks with today's technology and conclude that all system must implement active counter-measures. In particular all systems must include an auxiliary detector that monitors any incoming light. Read More

The first quantum cryptography protocol, proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984 (BB84), has been widely studied in the last years. This protocol uses four states (more precisely, two complementary bases) for the encoding of the classical bit. Recently, it has been noticed that by using the same four states, but a different encoding of information, one can define a new protocol which is more robust in practical implementations, specifically when attenuated laser pulses are used instead of single-photon sources [V. Read More

We propose a new method for efficient storage and recall of non-stationary light fields, e.g. single photon time-bin qubits, in optically dense atomic ensembles. Read More

We present a new technique for proving the security of quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols. It is based on direct information-theoretic arguments and thus also applies if no equivalent entanglement purification scheme can be found. Using this technique, we investigate a general class of QKD protocols with one-way classical post-processing. Read More

We investigate a general class of quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols using one-way classical communication. We show that full security can be proven by considering only collective attacks. We derive computable lower and upper bounds on the secret key rate of those QKD protocol involving only entropies of two--qubit density operators. Read More

We show how one can entangle distant atoms by using squeezed light. Entanglement is obtained in steady state, and can be increased by manipulating the atoms locally. We study the effects of imperfections, and show how to scale up the scheme to build a quantum network. Read More

Several recent experiments have demonstrated the promise of atomic ensembles for quantum teleportation and quantum memory. In these cases the collective internal state of the atoms is well described by continuous variables $X_1, P_1$ and the interaction with the optical field ($X_2, P_2$) by a quadratic Hamiltonian $X_1X_2$. We show how this interaction can be used optimally to create entanglement and squeezing. Read More

We introduce a formalism that connections entanglement witnesses and the distillation and activation properties of a state. We apply this formalism to two cases: First, we rederive the results presented in quant-ph/0104095 by Eggeling et al., namely that on copy of any bipartite state with non--positive partial transpose (NPPT) is either distillable, or activable. Read More

We present an abstract formulation of the so-called Innsbruck-Hannover programme that investigates quantum correlations and entanglement in terms of convex sets. We present a unified description of optimal decompositions of quantum states and the optimization of witness operators that detect whether a given state belongs to a given convex set. We illustrate the abstract formulation with several examples, and discuss relations between optimal entanglement witnesses and n-copy non-distillable states with non-positive partial transpose. Read More

We provide a necessary and sufficient condition for separability of Gaussian states of bipartite systems of arbitrarily many modes. The condition provides an operational criterion since it can be checked by simple computation. Moreover, it allows us to find a pure product-state decomposition of any given separable Gaussian state. Read More

We derive a necessary and sufficient condition for the separability of tripartite three mode Gaussian states, that is easy to check for any such state. We give a classification of the separability properties of those systems and show how to determine for any state to which class it belongs. We show that there exist genuinely tripartite bound entangled states and point out how to construct and prepare such states. Read More

We consider a general unitary operator acting on two qubits in a product state. We find the conditions such that the state of the qubits after the action is as entangled as possible. We also consider the possibility of using ancilla qubits to increase the entanglement. Read More

We study when a physical operation can produce entanglement between two systems initially disentangled. The formalism we develop allows to show that one can perform certain non-local operations with unit probability by performing local measurement on states that are weakly entangled. Read More

Quantum mechanics is already 100 years old, but remains alive and full of challenging open problems. On one hand, the problems encountered at the frontiers of modern theoretical physics like Quantum Gravity, String Theories, etc. concern Quantum Theory, and are at the same time related to open problems of modern mathematics. Read More

We provide a canonical form of mixed states in bipartite quantum systems in terms of a convex combination of a separable state and a, so-called, edge state. We construct entanglement witnesses for all edge states. We present a canonical form of nondecomposable entanglement witnesses and the corresponding positive maps. Read More