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B. Gripaios
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B. Gripaios
United States

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High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (46)
High Energy Physics - Theory (15)
High Energy Physics - Experiment (10)
Physics - Data Analysis; Statistics and Probability (1)
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (1)
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (1)
Astrophysics (1)
Physics - Other (1)
Mathematical Physics (1)
Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (1)
Physics - Fluid Dynamics (1)

Publications Authored By B. Gripaios

In the Standard Model, the electroweak symmetry is broken by a complex, $SU(2)$-doublet Higgs field and the vacuum manifold $SU(2)\times U(1)/U(1)$ has the topology of a 3-sphere. We remark that there exist theoretical alternatives that are locally isomorphic, but in which the vacuum manifold is homeomorphic to an arbitrary non-trivial principal $U(1)$-bundle over a 2-sphere. These alternatives have non-trivial fundamental group and thus feature topologically-stable electroweak strings. Read More

We describe the anomaly structure of an composite Higgs model in which the $SO(5)/SO(4)$ coset structure of the minimal model is extended by an additional, non-linearly-realized $U(1)_{\eta}$. In addition, we show that the effective lagrangian admits a term that, like the Wess-Zumino-Witten term in the chiral lagrangian for QCD, is not invariant under the non-linearly realized symmetries, but rather changes by a total derivative. This term is unlike the Wess-Zumino-Witten term in that it does not arise from anomalies. Read More

Motivated by the possible di-gamma resonance at 750 GeV, we present a basis of effective operators for the Standard Model plus a scalar singlet at dimensions 5, 6, and 7. We point out that an earlier list at dimensions 5 and 6 contains two redundant operators at dimension 5. Read More

We propose renormalizable models of new physics that can explain various anomalies observed in decays of B-mesons to electron and muon pairs. The new physics states couple to linear combinations of Standard Model fermions, yielding a pattern of flavour violation that gives a consistent fit to the gamut of flavour data. Accidental symmetries prevent contributions to baryon- and lepton-number-violating processes, as well as enforcing a loop suppression of new physics contributions to flavour violating processes. Read More

We perform a general analysis of new physics interpretations of the recent ATLAS diboson excesses over Standard Model expectations in LHC Run I collisions. Firstly, we estimate a likelihood function for the true signal in the $WW$, $WZ$, and $ZZ$ channels, finding that the maximum has zero events in the $WZ$ channel, though the likelihood is sufficiently flat to allow other scenarios. Secondly, we survey the possible effective field theories containing the Standard Model plus a new resonance that could explain the data, finding just two possibilities, viz. Read More

In these 4 lectures, I give a brief introduction to the principles of effective field theory and discuss their application via 3 examples: (i) the Standard Model as an effective theory; (ii) non-linear sigma models and the composite Higgs; (iii) the quantum field theory of fluids. Read More

We consider the quantum version of Arnold's generalisation of a rigid body in classical mechanics. Thus, we quantise the motion on an arbitrary Lie group manifold of a particle whose classical trajectories correspond to the geodesics of any one-sided-invariant metric. We show how the derivation of the spectrum of energy eigenstates can be simplified by making use of automorphisms of the Lie algebra and (for groups of Type I) by methods of harmonic analysis. Read More

These four lectures, given at the British Universities Summer School in Theoretical Elementary Particle Physics (BUSSTEPP), held in 2014 in Southampton, are a brief introduction to a selection of current topics in physics Beyond the Standard Model. Read More

We attempt to explain recent anomalies in semileptonic $B$ decays at LHCb via a composite Higgs model, in which both the Higgs and an $SU(2)_L$-triplet leptoquark arise as pseudo-Goldstone bosons of the strong dynamics. Fermion masses are assumed to be generated via the mechanism of partial compositeness, which largely determines the leptoquark couplings and implies non-universal lepton interactions. The latter are needed to accommodate tensions in the $b \to s \mu \mu$ dataset and to be consistent with a discrepancy measured at LHCb in the ratio of $B^+ \to K^+ \mu^+ \mu^-$ to $B^+ \to K^+ e^+ e^-$ branching ratios. Read More

We consider how best to search for top partners in generic composite Higgs models. We begin by classifying the possible group representations carried by top partners in models with and without a custodial $SU(2)\times SU(2) \rtimes \mathbb{Z}_2$ symmetry protecting the rate for $Z \rightarrow b\overline{b}$ decays. We identify a number of minimal models whose top partners only have electric charges of $\frac{1}{3}, \frac{2}{3},$ or $\frac{4}{3}$ and thus decay to top or bottom quarks via a single Higgs or electroweak gauge boson. Read More

The quantum theory of fields is largely based on studying perturbations around non-interacting, or free, field theories, which correspond to a collection of quantum-mechanical harmonic oscillators. The quantum theory of an ordinary fluid is `freer', in the sense that the non-interacting theory also contains an infinite collection of quantum-mechanical free particles, corresponding to vortex modes. By computing a variety of correlation functions at tree- and loop-level, we give evidence that a quantum perfect fluid can be consistently formulated as a low-energy, effective field theory. Read More

We reconsider the prospects for observing a dimension-6, CP-violating operator involving $W^+W^-Z$ at the LHC. Firstly, we correct a number of earlier calculations of the loop contribution to the neutron electric dipole moment of a companion operator, involving $W^+W^-\gamma$, showing that measurements imply a very strong bound on the companion operator. Secondly, we quantify the link between the two operators, showing that strongly-coupled new physics could only be observable in proposed searches if it appeared at a scale below $\sim 170$ GeV. Read More

We point out that QCD coherence effects can help to identify the colour structure of possible new physics contributions to the anomalously large forward-backward asymmetry in top quark pair production. New physics models that yield the same inclusive asymmetry make different predictions for its dependence on the transverse momentum of the pair, if they have different colour structures. From both a fixed-order effective field theory approach and Monte Carlo studies of specific models, we find that an s-channel octet structure is preferred. Read More

When solving renormalisation group equations in a quantum field theory, one often specifies the boundary conditions at multiple renormalisation scales, such as the weak and grand-unified scales in a theory beyond the standard model. A point in the parameter space of such a model is usually specified by the values of couplings at these boundaries of the renormalisation group flow, but there is no theorem guaranteeing that such a point has a unique solution to the associated differential equations, and so there may exist multiple, phenomenologically distinct solutions, all corresponding to the same point in parameter space. We show that this is indeed the case in the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model (CMSSM), and we exhibit such solutions, which cannot be obtained using out-of-the-box computer programs in the public domain. Read More

We derive generating functions, valid to next-to-double logarithmic accuracy, for QCD jet rates according to the inclusive forms of the kt, Cambridge/Aachen and anti-kt algorithms, which are equivalent at this level of accuracy. We compare the analytical results with jet rates and average jet multiplicities from the SHERPA event generator, and study the transition between Poisson-like and staircase-like behaviour of jet ratios. Read More

We propose a method for reconstructing the mass of a particle, such as the Higgs boson, decaying into a pair of tau leptons, of which one subsequently undergoes a 3-prong decay. The kinematics is solved using information from the visible decay products, the missing transverse momentum, and the 3-prong tau decay vertex, with the detector resolution taken into account using a likelihood method. The method is shown to give good discrimination between a 125 GeV Higgs boson signal and the dominant backgrounds, such as Z decays to tau tau and W plus jets production. Read More

Authors: G. Brooijmans, B. Gripaios, F. Moortgat, J. Santiago, P. Skands, D. Albornoz Vásquez, B. C. Allanach, A. Alloul, A. Arbey, A. Azatov, H. Baer, C. Balázs, A. Barr, L. Basso, M. Battaglia, P. Bechtle, G. Bélanger, A. Belyaev, K. Benslama, L. Bergström, A. Bharucha, C. Boehm, M. Bondarenko, O. Bondu, E. Boos, F. Boudjema, T. Bringmann, M. Brown, V. Bunichev, S. Calvet, M. Campanelli, A. Carmona, D. G. Cerdeño, M. Chala, R. S. Chivukula, D. Chowdhury, N. D. Christensen, M. Cirelli, S. Cox, K. Cranmer, J. Da Silva, T. Delahaye, A. De Roeck, A. Djouadi, E. Dobson, M. Dolan, F. Donato, G. Drieu La Rochelle, G. Duda, C. Duhr, B. Dumont, J. Edsjö, J. Ellis, C. Evoli, A. Falkowski, M. Felcini, B. Fuks, E. Gabrielli, D. Gaggero, S. Gascon-Shotkin, D. K. Ghosh, A. Giammanco, R. M. Godbole, P. Gondolo, T. Goto, D. Grasso, P. Gris, D. Guadagnoli, J. F. Gunion, U. Haisch, L. Hartgring, S. Heinemeyer, M. Hirsch, J. Hewett, A. Ismail, T. Jeltema, M. Kadastik, M. Kakizaki, K. Kannike, S. Khalil, J-L. Kneur, M. Krämer, S. Kraml, S. Kreiss, J. Lavalle, R. Leane, J. Lykken, L. Maccione, F. Mahmoudi, M. Mangano, S. P. Martin, D. Maurin, G. Moreau, S. Moretti, I. Moskalenko, G. Moultaka, M. Muhlleitner, I. Niessen, B. O'Leary, E. Orlando, P. Panci, G. Polesello, W. Porod, T. Porter, S. Profumo, H. Prosper, A. Pukhov, A. Racioppi, M. Raidal, M. Rausch de Traubenberg, A. Renaud, J. Reuter, T. G. Rizzo, T. Robens, A. Y. Rodríguez-Marrero, P. Salati, C. Savage, P. Scott, S. Sekmen, A. Semenov, C. -L. Shan, C. Shepherd-Themistocleous, E. H. Simmons, P. Slavich, C. Speckner, F. Staub, A. Strong, R. Taillet, F. S. Thomas, M. C. Thomas, I. Tomalin, M. Tytgat, M. Ughetto, L. Valéry, D. G. E. Walker, A. Weiler, S. M. West, C. D. White, A. J. Williams, A. Wingerter, C. Wymant, J. -H. Yu, C. -P. Yuan, D. Zerwas

We present the activities of the "New Physics" working group for the "Physics at TeV Colliders" workshop (Les Houches, France, 30 May-17 June, 2011). Our report includes new agreements on formats for interfaces between computational tools, new tool developments, important signatures for searches at the LHC, recommendations for presentation of LHC search results, as well as additional phenomenological studies. Read More

Gluinos that result in classic large missing transverse momentum signatures at the LHC have been excluded by 2011 searches if they are lighter than around 800 GeV. This adds to the tension between experiment and supersymmetric solutions of the naturalness problem, since the gluino is required to be light if the electroweak scale is to be natural. Here, we examine natural scenarios where supersymmetry is present, but was hidden from 2011 searches due to violation of R-parity and the absence of a large missing transverse momentum signature. Read More

We review tools that have been developed in recent years to maximize our ability to discover and characterize new physics appearing in LHC events with missing transverse momentum. Read More

We address electroweak baryogenesis in the context of composite Higgs models, pointing out that modifications to the Higgs and top quark sectors can play an important role in generating the baryon asymmetry. Our main observation is that composite Higgs models that include a light, gauge singlet scalar in the spectrum [as in the model based on the symmetry breaking pattern SO(6)/SO(5)], provide all necessary ingredients for viable baryogenesis. In particular, the singlet leads to a strongly first-order electroweak phase transition and introduces new sources of CP violation in dimension-five operators involving the top quark. Read More

We reconsider observables for discovering a heavy Higgs boson (with m_h > 2m_W) via its di-leptonic decays h -> WW -> l nu l nu. We show that observables generalizing the transverse mass that take into account the fact that both of the intermediate W bosons are likely to be on-shell give a significant improvement over the variables used in existing searches. We also comment on the application of these observables to other decays which proceed via narrow-width intermediates. Read More

We reconsider observables for discovering and measuring the mass of a Higgs boson via its di-leptonic decays: H --> WW* --> l nu l nu. We define an observable generalizing the transverse mass that takes into account the fact that one of the intermediate W-bosons is likely to be on-shell. We compare this new variable with existing ones and argue that it gives a significant improvement for discovery in the region m_h < 2 m_W. Read More

We suggest trying to count the number of invisible particles produced in missing energy events at the LHC, arguing that multiple production of such particles provides evidence that they constitute stable Dark Matter and that counting them could yield further insights into the nature of Dark Matter. We propose a method to count invisible particles, based on fitting the shapes of certain transverse- or invariant-mass distributions, discuss various effects that may affect the measurement, and simulate the use of the method to count neutrinos in Standard Model processes and Dark Matter candidates in new physics processes. Read More

We ask what new states may lie at or below the TeV scale, with sizable flavour-dependent couplings to light quarks, putting them within reach of hadron colliders via resonant production, or in association with Standard Model states. In particular, we focus on the compatibility of such states with stringent flavour-changing neutral current and electric-dipole moment constraints. We argue that the broadest and most theoretically plausible flavour structure of the new couplings is that they are hierarchical, as are Standard Model Yukawa couplings, although the hierarchical pattern may well be different. Read More

Authors: Daniele Alves1, Nima Arkani-Hamed2, Sanjay Arora3, Yang Bai4, Matthew Baumgart5, Joshua Berger6, Matthew Buckley7, Bart Butler8, Spencer Chang9, Hsin-Chia Cheng10, Clifford Cheung11, R. Sekhar Chivukula12, Won Sang Cho13, Randy Cotta14, Mariarosaria D'Alfonso15, Sonia El Hedri16, Rouven Essig17, Jared A. Evans18, Liam Fitzpatrick19, Patrick Fox20, Roberto Franceschini21, Ayres Freitas22, James S. Gainer23, Yuri Gershtein24, Richard Gray25, Thomas Gregoire26, Ben Gripaios27, Jack Gunion28, Tao Han29, Andy Haas30, Per Hansson31, JoAnne Hewett32, Dmitry Hits33, Jay Hubisz34, Eder Izaguirre35, Jared Kaplan36, Emanuel Katz37, Can Kilic38, Hyung-Do Kim39, Ryuichiro Kitano40, Sue Ann Koay41, Pyungwon Ko42, David Krohn43, Eric Kuflik44, Ian Lewis45, Mariangela Lisanti46, Tao Liu47, Zhen Liu48, Ran Lu49, Markus Luty50, Patrick Meade51, David Morrissey52, Stephen Mrenna53, Mihoko Nojiri54, Takemichi Okui55, Sanjay Padhi56, Michele Papucci57, Michael Park58, Myeonghun Park59, Maxim Perelstein60, Michael Peskin61, Daniel Phalen62, Keith Rehermann63, Vikram Rentala64, Tuhin Roy65, Joshua T. Ruderman66, Veronica Sanz67, Martin Schmaltz68, Stephen Schnetzer69, Philip Schuster70, Pedro Schwaller71, Matthew D. Schwartz72, Ariel Schwartzman73, Jing Shao74, Jessie Shelton75, David Shih76, Jing Shu77, Daniel Silverstein78, Elizabeth Simmons79, Sunil Somalwar80, Michael Spannowsky81, Christian Spethmann82, Matthew Strassler83, Shufang Su84, Tim Tait85, Brooks Thomas86, Scott Thomas87, Natalia Toro88, Tomer Volansky89, Jay Wacker90, Wolfgang Waltenberger, Itay Yavin, Felix Yu, Yue Zhao, Kathryn Zurek
Affiliations: 1Editor, 2Editor, 3Editor, 4Editor, 5Editor, 6Editor, 7Editor, 8Editor, 9Editor, 10Editor, 11Editor, 12Editor, 13Editor, 14Editor, 15Editor, 16Editor, 17Editor, 18Editor, 19Editor, 20Editor, 21Editor, 22Editor, 23Editor, 24Editor, 25Editor, 26Editor, 27Editor, 28Editor, 29Editor, 30Editor, 31Editor, 32Editor, 33Editor, 34Editor, 35Editor, 36Editor, 37Editor, 38Editor, 39Editor, 40Editor, 41Editor, 42Editor, 43Editor, 44Editor, 45Editor, 46Editor, 47Editor, 48Editor, 49Editor, 50Editor, 51Editor, 52Editor, 53Editor, 54Editor, 55Editor, 56Editor, 57Editor, 58Editor, 59Editor, 60Editor, 61Editor, 62Editor, 63Editor, 64Editor, 65Editor, 66Editor, 67Editor, 68Editor, 69Editor, 70Editor, 71Editor, 72Editor, 73Editor, 74Editor, 75Editor, 76Editor, 77Editor, 78Editor, 79Editor, 80Editor, 81Editor, 82Editor, 83Editor, 84Editor, 85Editor, 86Editor, 87Editor, 88Editor, 89Editor, 90Editor

This document proposes a collection of simplified models relevant to the design of new-physics searches at the LHC and the characterization of their results. Both ATLAS and CMS have already presented some results in terms of simplified models, and we encourage them to continue and expand this effort, which supplements both signature-based results and benchmark model interpretations. A simplified model is defined by an effective Lagrangian describing the interactions of a small number of new particles. Read More

We consider the problem of reconstructing energies, momenta, and masses in collider events with missing energy, along with the complications introduced by combinatorial ambiguities and measurement errors. Typically, one reconstructs more than one value and we show how the wrong values may be correlated with the right ones. The problem has a natural formulation in terms of the theory of Riemann surfaces. Read More

Fermion masses may arise via mixing of elementary fermions with composite fermions of a strong sector in scenarios of strongly-coupled electroweak symmetry breaking. The strong sector may contain leptoquark states with masses as light as several hundred GeV. In the present study we focus on the scalar modes of such leptoquarks since their bosonic couplings are determined completely and hence their production cross sections only depend on their masses. Read More

If electroweak symmetry breaking arises via strong dynamics, electroweak precision tests and flavour physics experiments suggest that the minimal model should closely resemble the Standard Model at the LHC. I describe two directions going beyond the minimal model that result in radically different physics at the LHC. One direction extends the Higgs sector and the other involves composite leptoquark states. Read More

We study the idea of the Higgs as a pseudo-Goldstone boson within the framework of partial supersymmetry in Randall-Sundrum scenarios and their CFT duals. The Higgs and third generation of the MSSM are composites arising from a strongly coupled supersymmetric CFT with global symmetry SO(5) spontaneously broken to SO(4), whilst the light generations and gauge fields are elementary degrees of freedom whose couplings to the strong sector explicitly break the global symmetry as well as supersymmetry. The presence of supersymmetry in the strong sector may allow the compositeness scale to be raised to ~10 TeV without fine tuning, consistent with the bounds from precision electro-weak measurements and flavour physics. Read More

If electroweak symmetry breaking arises via strongly-coupled physics, the observed suppression of flavour-changing processes suggests that fermion masses should arise via mixing of elementary fermions with composite fermions of the strong sector. The strong sector then carries colour charge, and may contain composite leptoquark states, arising either as TeV scale resonances, or even as light, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons. The latter, since they are coupled to colour, get a mass of the order of several hundred GeV, beyond the reach of current searches at the Tevatron. Read More

Discoveries at the LHC will soon set the physics agenda for future colliders. This report of a CERN Theory Institute includes the summaries of Working Groups that reviewed the physics goals and prospects of LHC running with 10 to 300/fb of integrated luminosity, of the proposed sLHC luminosity upgrade, of the ILC, of CLIC, of the LHeC and of a muon collider. The four Working Groups considered possible scenarios for the first 10/fb of data at the LHC in which (i) a state with properties that are compatible with a Higgs boson is discovered, (ii) no such state is discovered either because the Higgs properties are such that it is difficult to detect or because no Higgs boson exists, (iii) a missing-energy signal beyond the Standard Model is discovered as in some supersymmetric models, and (iv) some other exotic signature of new physics is discovered. Read More

We re-examine the kinematic variable m_T2 and its relatives in the light of recent work by Cheng and Han. Their proof that m_T2 admits an equivalent, but implicit, definition as the `boundary of the region of parent and daughter masses that is kinematically consistent with the event hypothesis' is far-reaching in its consequences. We generalize their result both to simpler cases (m_T, the transverse mass) and to more complex cases (m_TGen). Read More

It is expected that hadron collider measurements of the Higgs boson mass using the decay h -> W^+W^-, followed by the leptonic decay of each W-boson, will be performed by fitting the shape of a distribution which is sensitive to the Higgs mass. We demonstrate that the variable most commonly used to measure the Higgs mass in this channel is not optimal as it contains an unnecessary and even counter-productive approximation. We remove that approximation, without introducing any cost in complexity, and demonstrate that the new variable is a clear improvement over the old: its performance is never worse, and in some cases (particularly the high Higgs mass region) it might reduce the fit uncertainty on the Higgs mass in that channel by a factor approaching two. Read More

The Higgs spectrum of the minimal composite Higgs model, based on the SO(5)/SO(4) coset, consists of a unique Higgs doublet whose phenomenology does not differ greatly from the Standard Model (SM). Nevertheless, extensions beyond this minimal coset structure exhibit a richer Higgs spectrum and therefore very different Higgs physics. We explore one of these extensions, the SO(6)/SO(5) model, whose Higgs spectrum contains a CP-odd singlet scalar, eta, in addition to the Higgs doublet. Read More

Affiliations: 1CERN, 2Seoul Natl. U., 3ITPP, Lausanne, 4ITPP, Lausanne, 5ITPP, Lausanne

We study supersymmetric QED in AdS4 with massless matter. At 1-loop the ultra-violet regulator of the theory generates a contribution to the gaugino mass that is naively inconsistent with unbroken supersymmetry. We show that this effect, known in flat space as anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking, is required to cancel an infra-red contribution arising from the boundary conditions in AdS space, which necessarily break chiral symmetry. Read More

I consider anomalies in effective field theories (EFTs) of gauge fields coupled to fermions on an interval in AdS_5, and their holographic duals. The anomalies give rise to constraints on the consistent EFT description, which are stronger than the usual four-dimensional anomaly cancellation condition for the zero modes. Even though the anomalies occur on both boundaries of the interval, corresponding to both the UV and the IR of the holographic dual, they are nevertheless consistent with the non-renormalization of the anomaly and the 't Hooft matching condition. Read More

We consider the application of endpoint techniques to the problem of mass determination for new particles produced at a hadron collider, where these particles decay to an invisible particle of unknown mass and one or more visible particles of known mass. We also consider decays of these types for pair-produced particles and in each case consider situations both with and without initial state radiation. We prove that, in most (but not all) cases, the endpoint of an appropriate transverse mass observable, considered as a function of the unknown mass of the invisible particle, has a kink at the true value of the invisible particle mass. Read More

I consider the two-body decay of a particle at a hadron collider into a visible and an invisible particle, generalizing $W \to e \nu$, where the masses of the decaying particle and the invisible decay particle are, {\em a priori}, unknown. I prove that the transverse mass, when maximized over possible kinematic configurations, can be used to determine both of the unknown masses. I argue that the proof can be generalized to cover cases such as decays of pair-produced superpartners to the lightest, stable superpartner at the Large Hadron Collider. Read More

We consider, in the effective field theory context, anomalies of gauge field theories on a slice of a five-dimensional, Anti-de Sitter geometry and their four-dimensional, holographic duals. A consistent effective field theory description can always be found, notwithstanding the presence of the anomalies and without modifying the degrees of freedom of the theory. If anomalies do not vanish, the d=4 theory contains additional pseudoscalar states, which are either present in the low-energy theory as physical, light states, or are eaten by (would-be massless) gauge bosons. Read More

We study a number of realizations of axions existing in a multi-`throat' generalization of the warped throat geometry of a Randall-Sundrum slice of $AdS_5$. As argued by previous authors, the problem of generating a suitable, phenomenologically allowed Peccei-Quinn scale is simply and elegantly solved by the warping. In compactifications with two or more throats it is possible to simultaneously solve the Standard Model hierarchy problem by the Randall-Sundrum mechanism while implementing interesting warped axion models. Read More

We consider field-theoretic models of a warped extra dimension with multiple throats, in which fermions that are singlets of the Standard Model gauge group propagate in a separate throat from the Standard Model fields, which we call the sterile throat. The singlets mix with Standard Model fields via interactions localized on the UV brane that connects the two throats. This leads to three, light, mostly-active, Majorana neutrinos via a higher-dimensional see-saw mechanism, together with Kaluza-Klein towers of mostly-sterile neutrinos, whose scale is set by the warp factor in the sterile throat and can be very low if the throat is deep. Read More

We present a supersymmetric model of electroweak symmetry-breaking exhibiting improved naturalness, wherein the stop mass can be pushed beyond the reach of the Large Hadron Collider without unnatural fine tuning. This implies that supersymmetry may still solve the hierarchy problem, even if it eludes detection at the LHC. Read More

A self consistent effective field theory of modified gravity has recently been proposed with spontaneous breaking of local Lorentz invariance. The symmetry is broken by a vector field with the wrong-sign mass term and it has been shown to have additional graviton modes and modified dispersion relations. In this paper we study the evolution of a homogeneous and isotropic universe in the presence of such a vector field with a minimum lying along the time-like direction. Read More

Many models of electroweak symmetry-breaking with an extended Higgs sector exhibit improved naturalness, wherein the new physics scale, at which quadratic divergences of Higgs mass parameters due to top quark loops are cut off, can be pushed beyond the reach of the Large Hadron Collider without unnatural fine tuning. Such models include examples where the new physics is supersymmetry, implying that supersymmetry may still solve the hierarchy problem, even if it eludes detection at the LHC. Read More

We construct effective field theories in which gravity is modified via spontaneous breaking of local Lorentz invariance. This is a gravitational analogue of the Higgs mechanism. These theories possess additional graviton modes and modified dispersion relations. Read More

Effective superpotentials obtained by integrating out matter in super Yang-Mills and conformal supergravity backgrounds in N=1 SUSY theories are considered. The pure gauge and supergravity contributions (generalizing Veneziano-Yankielowicz terms) are derived by considering the case with matter fields in the fundamental representation of the gauge group. These contributions represent quantum corrections to the tree-level Yang-Mills and conformal supergravity actions. Read More

The Veneziano-Yankielowicz glueball superpotential for an arbitrary N=1 SUSY pure gauge theory with classical gauge group is derived using an approach following recent work of Dijkgraaf, Vafa and others. These non-perturbative terms, which had hitherto been included by hand in the above approach, are thus seen to arise naturally, and the approach is rendered self-contained. By minimising the glueball superpotential for theories with fundamental matter added, the expected vacuum structure with gaugino condensation and chiral symmetry breaking is obtained. Read More

A variational analysis of the pure SU(N) gauge theory in 3+1 dimensions at finite temperature is performed, extending the work of Kogan, Kovner and Milhano in hep-ph/0208053 . A de-confining phase transition is found at a temperature of 470 MeV, somewhat higher than lattice estimates. This value is however rather sensitive, for reasons which are discussed. Read More

The status of the `BRST-invariant' condensate of mass dimension two in QCD is explained. The condensate is only invariant under an `on-shell' BRST symmetry which includes a partial gauge-fixing. The on-shell BRST symmetry represents the residual gauge symmetry under gauge transformations which preserve the partial gauge fixing. Read More