B. D. Lehmer - The Johns Hopkins University

B. D. Lehmer
Are you B. D. Lehmer?

Claim your profile, edit publications, add additional information:

Contact Details

B. D. Lehmer
The Johns Hopkins University
United States

Pubs By Year

Pub Categories

Astrophysics of Galaxies (29)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (26)
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (25)

Publications Authored By B. D. Lehmer

Galaxy-scale bars are expected to provide an effective means for driving material towards the central region in spiral galaxies, and possibly feeding supermassive black holes (BHs). Here we present a statistically-complete study of the effect of bars on average BH accretion. From a well-selected sample of 50,794 spiral galaxies (with M* ~ 0. Read More

We present constraints on variations in the initial mass function (IMF) of nine local early-type galaxies based on their low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) populations. Comprised of accreting black holes and neutron stars, these LMXBs can be used to constrain the important high mass end of the IMF. We consider the LMXB populations beyond the cores of the galaxies ($>0. Read More

We investigate the dependence of black-hole accretion rate (BHAR) on host-galaxy star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass ($M_*$) in the CANDELS/GOODS-South field in the redshift range of $0.5\leq z < 2.0$. Read More

We report the identification of a bright hard X-ray source dominating the M31 bulge above 25 keV from a simultaneous NuSTAR-Swift observation. We find that this source is the counterpart to Swift J0042.6+4112, which was previously detected in the Swift BAT All-sky Hard X-ray Survey. Read More

We present the X-ray point source population of NGC 7457 based on 124 ks of Chandra observations. Previous deep Chandra observations of low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) in early-type galaxies have typically targeted the large populations of massive galaxies. NGC 7457 is a nearby, early-type galaxy with a stellar luminosity of $1. Read More

The stellar initial mass function (IMF), which is often assumed to be universal across unresolved stellar populations, has recently been suggested to be "bottom-heavy" for massive ellipticals. In these galaxies, the prevalence of gravity-sensitive absorption lines (e.g. Read More

We present X-ray source catalogs for the $\approx7$ Ms exposure of the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S), which covers a total area of 484.2 arcmin$^2$. Utilizing WAVDETECT for initial source detection and ACIS Extract for photometric extraction and significance assessment, we create a main source catalog containing 1008 sources that are detected in up to three X-ray bands: 0. Read More

Understanding galaxy formation and evolution requires studying the interplay between the growth of galaxies and the growth of their black holes across cosmic time. Here we explore a sample of Ha-selected star-forming galaxies from the HiZELS survey and use the wealth of multi-wavelength data in the COSMOS field (X-rays, far-infrared and radio) to study the relative growth rates between typical galaxies and their central supermassive black holes, from z=2.23 to z=0. Read More

We have observed the dust continuum of ten z=3.1 Lyman Break Galaxies with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array at ~450 mas resolution in Band 7. We detect and resolve the 870um emission in one of the targets with an integrated flux density of S(870)=(192+/-57) uJy, and measure a stacked 3-sigma signal of S(870)=(67+/-23) uJy for the remaining nine. Read More

We exploit the 7 Ms \textit{Chandra} observations in the \chandra\,Deep Field-South (\mbox{CDF-S}), the deepest X-ray survey to date, coupled with CANDELS/GOODS-S data, to measure the total X-ray emission arising from 2076 galaxies at $3.5\leq z < 6.5$. Read More

We present a Herschel/SPIRE survey of three protoclusters at z=2-3 (2QZCluster, HS1700, SSA22). Based on the SPIRE colours (S350/S250 and S500/S350) of 250 $\mu$m sources, we selected high redshift dusty star-forming galaxies potentially associated with the protoclusters. In the 2QZCluster field, we found a 4-sigma overdensity of six SPIRE sources around 4. Read More

Ly-alpha blobs (LABs) offer insight into the complex interface between galaxies and their circumgalactic medium. Whilst some LABs have been found to contain luminous star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei that could potentially power the Ly-alpha emission, others appear not to be associated with obvious luminous galaxy counterparts. It has been speculated that LABs may be powered by cold gas streaming on to a central galaxy, providing an opportunity to directly observe the `cold accretion' mode of galaxy growth. Read More

We present results from sensitive, multi-epoch NuSTAR observations of the late-type star-forming galaxy M83 (d=4.6 Mpc), which is the first investigation to spatially resolve the hard (E>10 keV) X-ray emission of this galaxy. The nuclear region and ~ 20 off-nuclear point sources, including a previously discovered ultraluminous X-ray (ULX) source, are detected in our NuSTAR observations. Read More

We present measurements of the evolution of normal-galaxy X-ray emission from $z \approx$ 0-7 using local galaxies and galaxy samples in the 6 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey. The majority of the CDF-S galaxies are observed at rest-frame energies above 2 keV, where the emission is expected to be dominated by X-ray binary (XRB) populations; however, hot gas is expected to provide small contributions to the observed- frame < 1 keV emission at $z < 1$. We show that a single scaling relation between X-ray luminosity ($L_{\rm X}$) and star-formation rate (SFR) is insufficient for characterizing the average X-ray emission at all redshifts. Read More


We present the results of a joint Swift-NuSTAR spectroscopy campaign on M31. We focus on the five brightest globular cluster X-ray sources in our fields. Two of these had previously been argued to be black hole candidates on the basis of apparent hard-state spectra at luminosities above those for which neutron stars are in hard states. Read More

We present improved point-source catalogs for the 2 Ms Chandra Deep Field-North (CDF-N) and the 250 ks Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (E-CDF-S), implementing a number of recent improvements in Chandra source-cataloging methodology. For the CDF-N/E-CDF-S, we provide a main catalog that contains 683/1003 X-ray sources detected with wavdetect at a false-positive probability threshold of $10^{-5}$ that also satisfy a binomial-probability source-selection criterion of $P<0.004$/$P<0. Read More

We have studied high mass X-ray binary (HMXB) populations within two low-metallicity, starburst galaxies, Haro 11 and VV 114. These galaxies serve as analogs to high-redshift (z>2) Lyman break galaxies, and within the larger sample of Lyman break analogs (LBAs) are sufficiently nearby (<87 Mpc) to be spatially-resolved by Chandra. Previous studies of the X-ray emission in LBAs have found that the 2-10 keV luminosity per star formation rate (SFR) in these galaxies is elevated, potentially because of their low metallicities (12+log[O/H]= 8. Read More

We exploit ALMA 870um observations to measure the star-formation rates (SFRs) of eight X-ray detected Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) in a z~3.1 protocluster, four of which reside in extended Ly-alpha haloes (often termed Ly-alpha blobs: LABs). Three of the AGNs are detected by ALMA and have implied SFRs of ~220-410~M_sun/yr; the non detection of the other five AGNs places SFR upper limits of <210 M_sun/yr. Read More

The over-dense environments of protoclusters of galaxies in the early Universe (z>2) are expected to accelerate the evolution of galaxies, with an increased rate of stellar mass assembly and black hole accretion compared to co-eval galaxies in the average density `field'. These galaxies are destined to form the passive population of massive systems that dominate the cores of rich clusters today. While signatures of accelerated growth of galaxies in the SSA22 protocluster (z=3. Read More

We present nearly simultaneous Chandra and NuSTAR observations of two actively star-forming galaxies within 50 Mpc: NGC 3256 and NGC 3310. Both galaxies are detected by both Chandra and NuSTAR, which together provide the first-ever spectra of these two galaxies spanning 0.3-30 keV. Read More

We present VLT VIMOS, Keck DEIMOS and Keck LRIS multi-object spectra of 367 sources in the field of the z ~ 3.09 protocluster SSA22. Sources are spectroscopically classified via template matching, allowing new identifications for 206 extragalactic sources, including 36 z > 2 Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) and Lyman-\alpha\ emitters (LAEs), 8 protocluster members, and 94 X-ray sources from the ~ 400 ks Chandra deep survey of SSA22. Read More

We report on simultaneous observations of the local starburst system Arp 299 with NuSTAR and Chandra, which provides the first resolved images of this galaxy up to energies of ~ 45 keV. Fitting the 3-40 keV spectrum reveals a column density of $N_{\rm H}$ ~ 4 x10^{24} cm^{-2}, characteristic of a Compton-thick AGN, and a 10-30 keV luminosity of 1.2x 10^{43} ergs s^{-1}. Read More

Prior to the launch of NuSTAR, it was not feasible to spatially resolve the hard (E > 10 keV) emission from galaxies beyond the Local Group. The combined NuSTAR dataset, comprised of three ~165 ks observations, allows spatial characterization of the hard X-ray emission in the galaxy NGC 253 for the first time. As a follow up to our initial study of its nuclear region, we present the first results concerning the full galaxy from simultaneous NuSTAR, Chandra, and VLBA monitoring of the local starburst galaxy NGC 253. Read More

We derive photometric redshifts (\zp) for sources in the entire ($\sim0.4$ deg$^2$) Hawaii-Hubble Deep Field-North (\hdfn) field with the EAzY code, based on point spread function-matched photometry of 15 broad bands from the ultraviolet (\bandu~band) to mid-infrared (IRAC 4.5 $\mu$m). Read More

Affiliations: 1University of Durham, 2University of Durham, 3Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 4The Johns Hopkins University, 5University of Durham, 6University of Toledo, 7Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 8University of Pennsylvania

We present results from a Chandra study of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in a sample of 17 nearby (D_L<60 Mpc) luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), selected to have star formation rates (SFRs) in excess of 7 M_sun yr^-1 and low foreground Galactic column densities (N_H < 5*10^20 cm^-2). A total of 53 ULXs were detected and we confirm that this is a complete catalogue of ULXs for the LIRG sample. We examine the evolution of ULX spectra with luminosity by stacking the spectra of individual objects in three luminosity bins, finding a distinct change in spectral index at luminosity ~2 *10^39 erg s^-1. Read More

We present direct constraints on how the formation of low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) populations in galactic fields depends on stellar age. In this pilot study, we utilize Chandra and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data to detect and characterize the X-ray point source populations of three nearby early-type galaxies: NGC 3115, 3379, and 3384. The luminosity-weighted stellar ages of our sample span 3-10 Gyr. Read More

Affiliations: 1Texas Tech University, 2NASA/GSFC, Johns Hopkins, 3NASA/GSFC, ESA-ESAC, 4Iowa State University, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 5NASA/GSFC, 6NASA/GSFC, 7NASA/GSFC, 8University of Crete

We have discovered a persistent, but highly variable X-ray source in the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 253. The source varies at the level of a factor of about 5 in count rate on timescales of a few hours. Two long observations of the source with Chandra and XMM-Newton show suggestive evidence for the source having a period of about 14-15 hours, but the time sampling in existing data is insufficient to allow a firm determination that the source is periodic. Read More

A number of recent studies have proposed that the stellar initial mass function (IMF) of early type galaxies varies systematically as a function of galaxy mass, with higher mass galaxies having bottom heavy IMFs. These bottom heavy IMFs have more low-mass stars relative to the number of high mass stars, and therefore naturally result in proportionally fewer neutron stars and black holes. In this paper, we specifically predict the variation in the number of black holes and neutron stars based on the power-law IMF variation required to reproduce the observed mass-to-light ratio trends with galaxy mass. Read More

Affiliations: 1Department of Astronomy, Penn State, 2Department of Astronomy, Penn State, 3Department of Astronomy, Penn State, 4Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham Univ, 5Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham Univ, 6Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham Univ, 7Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, 8Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham Univ, 9The Johns Hopkins Univ, 10Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham Univ, 11Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham Univ, 12Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, 13Department of Physics & Astronomy, UC Irvine, 14Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, 15Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, 16Centre for Astrophysics, University of Hertfordshire, 17Universitat Wien, Institute fur Astrophysik, 18ESO, 19Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie, 20Leiden Observatory

The large gas and dust reservoirs of submm galaxies (SMGs) could potentially provide ample fuel to trigger an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), but previous studies of the AGN fraction in SMGs have been controversial largely due to the inhomogeneity and limited angular resolution of the available submillimeter surveys. Here we set improved constraints on the AGN fraction and X-ray properties of the SMGs with ALMA and Chandra observations in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (E-CDF-S). This study is the first among similar works to have unambiguously identified the X-ray counterparts of SMGs; this is accomplished using the fully submm-identified, statistically reliable SMG catalog with 99 SMGs from the ALMA LABOCA E-CDF-S Submillimeter Survey (ALESS). Read More

Affiliations: 1NASA/GSFC, 2Harvard/CfA, 3Washington, 4NASA/GSFC, 5Harvard/CfA, 6NASA/GSFC, 7NASA/GSFC, 8Northwestern, 9NASA/GSFC, 10NASA/GSFC

We present the largest-scale comparison to date between observed extragalactic X-ray binary (XRB) populations and theoretical models of their production. We construct observational X-ray luminosity functions (oXLFs) using Chandra observations of 12 late-type galaxies from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxy Survey (SINGS). For each galaxy, we obtain theoretical XLFs (tXLFs) by combining XRB synthetic models, constructed with the population synthesis code StarTrack, with observational star formation histories (SFHs). Read More

We present results from three nearly simultaneous NuSTAR and Chandra monitoring observations between 2012 Sep 2 and 2012 Nov 16 of local star-forming galaxy NGC 253. The 3-40 keV NuSTAR intensity of the inner 20 arcsec (~400 pc) nuclear region varied by a factor of ~2 across the three monitoring observations. The Chandra data reveal that the nuclear region contains three bright X-ray sources, including a luminous (L2-10 keV ~ few x 10^39 erg/s) point source ~1 arcsec from the dynamical center of the galaxy (within the 3sigma positional uncertainty of the dynamical center); this source drives the overall variability of the nuclear region at energies >3 keV. Read More

X-ray photons, because of their long mean-free paths, can easily escape the galactic environments where they are produced, and interact at long distances with the inter-galactic medium, potentially having a significant contribution to the heating and reionization of the early Universe. The two most important sources of X-ray photons in the Universe are active galactic nuclei (AGN) and X-ray binaries (XRBs). In this Letter we use results from detailed, large scale population synthesis simulations to study the energy feedback of XRBs, from the first galaxies (z~ 20) until today. Read More

In this paper, we study the relationship between the 2-10 keV X-ray luminosity (L_X), assumed to originate from X-ray binaries (XRBs), and star formation rate (SFR) in UV-selected z<0.1 Lyman break analogs (LBAs). We present Chandra observations for four new GALEX-selected LBAs. Read More

We present results from a ~100 ks Chandra observation of the 2QZ Cluster 1004+00 structure at z = 2.23 (hereafter, 2QZ Clus). 2QZ Clus was originally identified as an overdensity of four optically-selected QSOs at z = 2. Read More

Emission from X-ray binaries (XRBs) is a major component of the total X-ray luminosity of normal galaxies, so X-ray studies of high redshift galaxies allow us to probe the formation and evolution of X-ray binaries on very long timescales. In this paper, we present results from large-scale population synthesis models of binary populations in galaxies from z = 0 to 20. We use as input into our modeling the Millennium II Cosmological Simulation and the updated semi-analytic galaxy catalog by Guo et al. Read More

We report the detection of extended X-ray emission around two powerful high-z radio galaxies (HzRGs) at z~3.6 (4C03.24 & 4C19. Read More

We present results from deep X-ray stacking of >4000 high redshift galaxies from z~1 to 8 using the 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S) data, the deepest X-ray survey of the extragalactic sky to date. The galaxy samples were selected using the Lyman break technique based primarily on recent HST ACS and WFC3 observations. Based on such high specific star formation rates (sSFRs): log SFR/M* > -8. Read More

Affiliations: 1Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universitá di Bologna, Italy, 2Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universitá di Bologna, Italy, 3INAF-OABo, Italy, 4INAF-OABo, Italy, 5ICREA and ICC, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain, 6Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, USA, 7Department of Physics, University of Durham, UK, 8Max Planck Institut für Extraterrestische Physik, Garching, Germany, 9The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA, 10Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile, 11Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, USA, 12Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, China, 13Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, USA

We present results from a spectral analysis of a sample of high-redshift (z>3) X-ray selected AGN in the 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), the deepest X-ray survey to date. The sample is selected using the most recent spectroscopic and photometric information available in this field. It consists of 34 sources with median redshift z=3. Read More

Using the 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey, we have identified a sample of 6845 X-ray undetected galaxies that dominates the unresolved ~ 20-25% of the 6-8 keV cosmic X-ray background (XRB). This sample was constructed by applying mass and color cuts to sources from a parent catalog based on GOODS-South HST z-band imaging of the central 6'-radius area of the 4 Ms CDF-S. The stacked 6-8 keV detection is significant at the 3. Read More

Affiliations: 1Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 2Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, 3The Johns Hopkins University, 4Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 5Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics

We investigate the relation between total X-ray emission from star-forming galaxies and their star formation activity. Using nearby late-type galaxies and ULIRGs from Paper I and star-forming galaxies from Chandra Deep Fields, we construct a sample of 66 galaxies spanning the redshift range z~0-1.3 and the star-formation rate (SFR) range ~0. Read More

High redshift galaxies permit the study of the formation and evolution of X-ray binary populations on cosmological timescales, probing a wide range of metallicities and star-formation rates. In this paper, we present results from a large scale population synthesis study that models the X-ray binary populations from the first galaxies of the universe until today. We use as input to our modeling the Millennium II Cosmological Simulation and the updated semi-analytic galaxy catalog by Guo et al. Read More

We present 0.5-2 keV, 2-8 keV, 4-8 keV, and 0.5-8 keV cumulative and differential number counts (logN-logS) measurements for the recently completed ~4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey, the deepest X-ray survey to date. Read More

We study the X-ray properties of 393 optically selected early-type galaxies (ETGs) over the redshift range of z~0.0-1.2 in the Chandra Deep Fields. Read More

The 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) and other deep X-ray surveys have been highly effective at selecting active galactic nuclei (AGN). However, cosmologically distant low-luminosity AGN (LLAGN) have remained a challenge to identify due to significant contribution from the host galaxy. We identify long-term X-ray variability (~month-years, observed frame) in 20 of 92 CDF-S galaxies spanning redshifts z~0. Read More

We present an analysis of deep multiwavelength data for z ~ 0.3-3 starburst galaxies selected by their 70 um emission in the Extended-Chandra Deep Field-South and Extended Groth Strip. We identify active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in these infrared sources through their X-ray emission and quantify the fraction that host an AGN. Read More

(Abridged) While the Swift satellite is primarily designed to study gamma-ray bursts, its ultraviolet and optical imaging and spectroscopy capabilities are also being used for a variety of scientific programs. In this study, we use the UV/Optical Telescope (UVOT) instrument aboard Swift to discover 0.5Read More

(abridged) We identify a numerically significant population of heavily obscured AGNs at z~0.5-1 in the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) and Extended Chandra Deep Field-South by selecting 242 X-ray undetected objects with infrared-based star formation rates (SFRs) substantially higher (a factor of 3.2 or more) than their SFRs determined from the UV after correcting for dust extinction. Read More

We use the 4Ms CDF-S survey to place direct X-ray constraints on the ubiquity of z~2 heavily obscured AGNs in K<22 BzK galaxies. Forty seven of the 222 BzK galaxies in the central region of the CDF-S are detected at X-ray energies, 11 of which have hard X-ray spectral slopes (Gamma<1) indicating the presence of heavily obscured AGN activity. The other 36 X-ray detected BzK galaxies appear to be relatively unobscured AGNs and starburst galaxies; we use X-ray variability analyses over a rest-frame baseline of ~3 years to further confirm the presence of AGN activity in many of these systems. Read More