# Assaf Naor

## Contact Details

NameAssaf Naor |
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## Pub CategoriesMathematics - Functional Analysis (41) Mathematics - Metric Geometry (36) Computer Science - Data Structures and Algorithms (12) Mathematics - Combinatorics (8) Mathematics - Group Theory (5) Computer Science - Computational Complexity (5) Mathematics - Probability (2) Mathematics - Operator Algebras (2) Computer Science - Computational Geometry (2) Mathematics - Classical Analysis and ODEs (2) Mathematics - Differential Geometry (1) Mathematics - Spectral Theory (1) Mathematics - Analysis of PDEs (1) |

## Publications Authored By Assaf Naor

We prove that the integrality gap of the Goemans--Linial semidefinite programming relaxation for the Sparsest Cut Problem is $\Omega(\sqrt{\log n})$ on inputs with $n$ vertices. Read More

The discrete Heisenberg group $\mathbb{H}_{\mathbb{Z}}^{2k+1}$ is the group generated by $a_1,b_1,\ldots,a_k,b_k,c$, subject to the relations $[a_1,b_1]=\ldots=[a_k,b_k]=c$ and $[a_i,a_j]=[b_i,b_j]=[a_i,b_j]=[a_i,c]=[b_i,c]=1$ for every distinct $i,j\in \{1,\ldots,k\}$. Denote $S=\{a_1^{\pm 1},b_1^{\pm 1},\ldots,a_k^{\pm 1},b_k^{\pm 1}\}$. The horizontal boundary of $\Omega\subset \mathbb{H}_{\mathbb{Z}}^{2k+1}$, denoted $\partial_{h}\Omega$, is the set of all $(x,y)\in \Omega\times (\mathbb{H}_{\mathbb{Z}}^{2k+1}\setminus \Omega)$ such that $x^{-1}y\in S$. Read More

We prove that there is a universal constant $C>0$ with the following property. Suppose that $n\in \mathbb{N}$ and that $\mathsf{A}=(a_{ij})\in M_n(\mathbb{R})$ is a symmetric stochastic matrix. Denote the second-largest eigenvalue of $\mathsf{A}$ by $\lambda_2(\mathsf{A})$. Read More

For every Banach space $(Y,\|\cdot\|_Y)$ that admits an equivalent uniformly convex norm we prove that there exists $c=c(Y)\in (0,\infty)$ with the following property. Suppose that $n\in \mathbb{N}$ and that $X$ is an $n$-dimensional normed space with unit ball $B_X$. Then for every $1$-Lipschitz function $f:B_X\to Y$ and for every $\varepsilon\in (0,1/2]$ there exists a radius $r\ge\exp(-1/\varepsilon^{cn})$, a point $x\in B_X$ with $x+rB_X\subset B_X$, and an affine mapping $\Lambda:X\to Y$ such that $\|f(y)-\Lambda(y)\|_Y\le \varepsilon r$ for every $y\in x+rB_X$. Read More

$ \renewcommand{\subset}{\subseteq} \newcommand{\N}{\mathbb N} $For $p\in [2,\infty)$ the metric $X_p$ inequality with sharp scaling parameter is proven here to hold true in $L_p$. The geometric consequences of this result include the following sharp statements about embeddings of $L_q$ into $L_p$ when $2< q

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Suppose that $m,n\in \mathbb{N}$ and that $A:\mathbb{R}^m\to \mathbb{R}^n$ is
a linear operator. It is shown here that if $k,r\in \mathbb{N}$ satisfy $k

It is shown here that if $(Y,\|\cdot\|_Y)$ is a Banach space in which martingale differences are unconditional (a UMD Banach space) then there exists $c=c(Y)\in (0,\infty)$ with the following property. For every $n\in \mathbb{N}$ and $\varepsilon\in (0,1/2]$, if $(X,\|\cdot\|_X)$ is an $n$-dimensional normed space with unit ball $B_X$ and $f:B_X\to Y$ is a $1$-Lipschitz function then there exists an affine mapping $\Lambda:X\to Y$ and a sub-ball $B^*=y+\rho B_X\subseteq B_X$ of radius $\rho\ge \exp(-(1/\varepsilon)^{cn})$ such that $\|f(x)-\Lambda(x)\|_Y\le \varepsilon \rho$ for all $x\in B^*$. This estimate on the macroscopic scale of affine approximability of vector-valued Lipschitz functions is an asymptotic improvement (as $n\to \infty$) over the best previously known bound even when $X$ is $\mathbb{R}^n$ equipped with the Euclidean norm and $Y$ is a Hilbert space. Read More

For $p\in (1,\infty)$ let $\mathscr{P}_p(\mathbb{R}^3)$ denote the metric space of all $p$-integrable Borel probability measures on $\mathbb{R}^3$, equipped with the Wasserstein $p$ metric $\mathsf{W}_p$. We prove that for every $\varepsilon>0$, every $\theta\in (0,1/p]$ and every finite metric space $(X,d_X)$, the metric space $(X,d_{X}^{\theta})$ embeds into $\mathscr{P}_p(\mathbb{R}^3)$ with distortion at most $1+\varepsilon$. We show that this is sharp when $p\in (1,2]$ in the sense that the exponent $1/p$ cannot be replaced by any larger number. Read More

It is shown that there exist Banach spaces $X,Y$, a $1$-net $\mathscr{N}$ of $X$ and a Lipschitz function $f:\mathscr{N}\to Y$ such that every $F:X\to Y$ that extends $f$ is not uniformly continuous. Read More

We prove that for every $n\in \mathbb{N}$ there exists a metric space $(X,d_X)$, an $n$-point subset $S\subseteq X$, a Banach space $(Z,\|\cdot\|_Z)$ and a $1$-Lipschitz function $f:S\to Z$ such that the Lipschitz constant of every function $F:X\to Z$ that extends $f$ is at least a constant multiple of $\sqrt{\log n}$. This improves a bound of Johnson and Lindenstrauss. We also obtain the following quantitative counterpart to a classical extension theorem of Minty. Read More

For $n\in \mathbb{N}$ consider the $n$-dimensional hypercube as equal to the vector space $\mathbb{F}_2^n$, where $\mathbb{F}_2$ is the field of size two. Endow $\mathbb{F}_2^n$ with the Hamming metric, i.e. Read More

For every $p\in (0,\infty)$ we associate to every metric space $(X,d_X)$ a numerical invariant $\mathfrak{X}_p(X)\in [0,\infty]$ such that if $\mathfrak{X}_p(X)<\infty$ and a metric space $(Y,d_Y)$ admits a bi-Lipschitz embedding into $X$ then also $\mathfrak{X}_p(Y)<\infty$. We prove that if $p,q\in (2,\infty)$ satisfy $q

Read More

It is shown that for every $p\in (2,\infty)$ there exists a doubling subset of $L_p$ that does not admit a bi-Lipschitz embedding into $\R^k$ for any $k\in \N$. Read More

Let $A=(a_{ij})\in M_n(\R)$ be an $n$ by $n$ symmetric stochastic matrix. For $p\in [1,\infty)$ and a metric space $(X,d_X)$, let $\gamma(A,d_X^p)$ be the infimum over those $\gamma\in (0,\infty]$ for which every $x_1,.. Read More

It is shown that there exists a sequence of 3-regular graphs $\{G_n\}_{n=1}^\infty$ and a Hadamard space $X$ such that $\{G_n\}_{n=1}^\infty$ forms an expander sequence with respect to $X$, yet random regular graphs are not expanders with respect to $X$. This answers a question of \cite{NS11}. $\{G_n\}_{n=1}^\infty$ are also shown to be expanders with respect to random regular graphs, yielding a deterministic sublinear time constant factor approximation algorithm for computing the average squared distance in subsets of a random graph. Read More

The metric Markov cotype of barycentric metric spaces is computed, yielding the first class of metric spaces that are not Banach spaces for which this bi-Lipschitz invariant is understood. It is shown that this leads to new nonlinear spectral calculus inequalities, as well as a unified framework for Lipschitz extension, including new Lipschitz extension results for CAT(0) targets. An example that elucidates the relation between metric Markov cotype and Rademacher cotype is analyzed, showing that a classical Lipschitz extension theorem of Johnson, Lindenstrauss and Benyamini is asymptotically sharp. Read More

Let $\H= < a,b | a[a,b]=[a,b]a \wedge b[a,b]=[a,b]b>$ be the discrete Heisenberg group, equipped with the left-invariant word metric $d_W(\cdot,\cdot)$ associated to the generating set ${a,b,a^{-1},b^{-1}}$. Letting $B_n= {x\in \H: d_W(x,e_\H)\le n}$ denote the corresponding closed ball of radius $n\in \N$, and writing $c=[a,b]=aba^{-1}b^{-1}$, we prove that if $(X,|\cdot|_X)$ is a Banach space whose modulus of uniform convexity has power type $q\in [2,\infty)$ then there exists $K\in (0,\infty)$ such that every $f:\H\to X$ satisfies {multline*} \sum_{k=1}^{n^2}\sum_{x\in B_n}\frac{|f(xc^k)-f(x)|_X^q}{k^{1+q/2}}\le K\sum_{x\in B_{21n}} \Big(|f(xa)-f(x)|^q_X+\|f(xb)-f(x)\|^q_X\Big). {multline*} It follows that for every $n\in \N$ the bi-Lipschitz distortion of every $f:B_n\to X$ is at least a constant multiple of $(\log n)^{1/q}$, an asymptotically optimal estimate as $n\to\infty$. Read More

The classical Grothendieck inequality has applications to the design of approximation algorithms for NP-hard optimization problems. We show that an algorithmic interpretation may also be given for a noncommutative generalization of the Grothendieck inequality due to Pisier and Haagerup. Our main result, an efficient rounding procedure for this inequality, leads to a constant-factor polynomial time approximation algorithm for an optimization problem which generalizes the Cut Norm problem of Frieze and Kannan, and is shown here to have additional applications to robust principle component analysis and the orthogonal Procrustes problem. Read More

It is shown that for every $p\in (1,\infty)$ there exists a Banach space $X$ of finite cotype such that the projective tensor product $\ell_p\tp X$ fails to have finite cotype. More generally, if $p_1,p_2,p_3\in (1,\infty)$ satisfy $\frac{1}{p_1}+\frac{1}{p_2}+\frac{1}{p_3}\le 1$ then $\ell_{p_1}\tp\ell_{p_2}\tp\ell_{p_3}$ does not have finite cotype. This is a proved via a connection to the theory of locally decodable codes. Read More

Given a Banach space $X$, for $n\in \mathbb N$ and $p\in (1,\infty)$ we investigate the smallest constant $\mathfrak P\in (0,\infty)$ for which every $f_1,... Read More

Nonlinear spectral gaps with respect to uniformly convex normed spaces are shown to satisfy a spectral calculus inequality that establishes their decay along Cesaro averages. Nonlinear spectral gaps of graphs are also shown to behave sub-multiplicatively under zigzag products. These results yield a combinatorial construction of super-expanders, i. Read More

**Category:**Mathematics - Functional Analysis

It is shown that for every $k\in \N$ there exists a Borel probability measure $\mu$ on $\{-1,1\}^{\R^{k}}\times \{-1,1\}^{\R^{k}}$ such that for every $m,n\in \N$ and $x_1,... Read More

This article accompanies the 10th Takagi Lectures, delivered by the author at RIMS, Kyoto, on May 26 2012. It contains an exposition of results, applications, and challenges of the Ribe program. Read More

Lower estimates are obtained for the macroscopic scale of affine approximability of vector-valued Lipschitz functions on finite dimensional normed spaces, completing the work of Bates, Johnson, Lindenstrass, Preiss and Schechtman. This yields a new approach to Bourgain's discretization theorem for superreflexive targets. Read More

We prove that for every $\epsilon\in (0,1)$ there exists $C_\epsilon\in (0,\infty)$ with the following property. If $(X,d)$ is a compact metric space and $\mu$ is a Borel probability measure on $X$ then there exists a compact subset $S\subseteq X$ that embeds into an ultrametric space with distortion $O(1/\epsilon)$, and a probability measure $\nu$ supported on $S$ satisfying $\nu(B_d(x,r))\le (\mu(B_d(x,C_\epsilon r))^{1-\epsilon}$ for all $x\in X$ and $r\in (0,\infty)$. The dependence of the distortion on $\epsilon$ is sharp. Read More

It is shown that every measurable partition ${A_1,... Read More

Bourgain's discretization theorem asserts that there exists a universal constant $C\in (0,\infty)$ with the following property. Let $X,Y$ be Banach spaces with $\dim X=n$. Fix $D\in (1,\infty)$ and set $\delta= e^{-n^{Cn}}$. Read More

We survey connections of the Grothendieck inequality and its variants to combinatorial optimization and computational complexity. Read More

It is shown that for every $\e\in (0,1)$, every compact metric space $(X,d)$ has a compact subset $S\subseteq X$ that embeds into an ultrametric space with distortion $O(1/\e)$, and $$\dim_H(S)\ge (1-\e)\dim_H(X),$$ where $\dim_H(\cdot)$ denotes Hausdorff dimension. The above $O(1/\e)$ distortion estimate is shown to be sharp via a construction based on sequences of expander graphs. Read More

We prove that $K_G<\frac{\pi}{2\log(1+\sqrt{2})}$, where $K_G$ is the Grothendieck constant. Read More

We show that for every nondecreasing concave function w:R+ --> R+ with w(0)=0, either every finite metric space embeds with distortion arbitrarily close to 1 into a metric space of the form (X,w o d) for some metric d on X, or there exists a=a(w)>0 and n_0=n_0(w)\in N such that for all n>n_0, any embedding of {0,... Read More

We survey the work of Batson, Spielman and Srivastava on graph sparsification, and we describe some of its recently discovered geometric applications. Read More

It is shown that for every $K>0$ and $\e\in (0,1/2)$ there exist $N=N(K)\in \N$ and $D=D(K,\e)\in (1,\infty)$ with the following properties. For every separable metric space $(X,d)$ with doubling constant at most $K$, the metric space $(X,d^{1-\e})$ admits a bi-Lipschitz embedding into $\R^N$ with distortion at most $D$. The classical Assouad embedding theorem makes the same assertion, but with $N\to \infty$ as $\e\to 0$. Read More

We discuss the connection between the expansion of small sets in graphs, and the Schatten norms of their adjacency matrix. In conjunction with a variant of the Azuma inequality for uniformly smooth normed spaces, we deduce improved bounds on the small set isoperimetry of Abelian Alon-Roichman random Cayley graphs. Read More

Let $\H$ denote the discrete Heisenberg group, equipped with a word metric $d_W$ associated to some finite symmetric generating set. We show that if $(X,\|\cdot\|)$ is a $p$-convex Banach space then for any Lipschitz function $f:\H\to X$ there exist $x,y\in \H$ with $d_W(x,y)$ arbitrarily large and \begin{equation}\label{eq:comp abs} \frac{\|f(x)-f(y)\|}{d_W(x,y)}\lesssim \left(\frac{\log\log d_W(x,y)}{\log d_W(x,y)}\right)^{1/p}. \end{equation} We also show that any embedding into $X$ of a ball of radius $R\ge 4$ in $\H$ incurs bi-Lipschitz distortion that grows at least as a constant multiple of \begin{equation}\label{eq:dist abs} \left(\frac{\log R}{\log\log R}\right)^{1/p}. Read More

We present geometric conditions on a metric space $(Y,d_Y)$ ensuring that almost surely, any isometric action on $Y$ by Gromov's expander-based random group has a common fixed point. These geometric conditions involve uniform convexity and the validity of nonlinear Poincar\'e inequalities, and they are stable under natural operations such as scaling, Gromov-Hausdorff limits, and Cartesian products. We use methods from metric embedding theory to establish the validity of these conditions for a variety of classes of metric spaces, thus establishing new fixed point results for actions of Gromov's "wild groups". Read More

We prove that every Lipschitz function from a subset of a locally compact length space to a metric tree has a unique absolutely minimal Lipschitz extension (AMLE). We relate these extensions to a stochastic game called {\bf Politics} - a generalization of a game called {\bf Tug of War} that has been used in \cite{PSSW09} to study real-valued AMLEs. Read More

The {\em overlap number} of a finite $(d+1)$-uniform hypergraph $H$ is defined as the largest constant $c(H)\in (0,1]$ such that no matter how we map the vertices of $H$ into $\R^d$, there is a point covered by at least a $c(H)$-fraction of the simplices induced by the images of its hyperedges. In~\cite{Gro2}, motivated by the search for an analogue of the notion of graph expansion for higher dimensional simplicial complexes, it was asked whether or not there exists a sequence $\{H_n\}_{n=1}^\infty$ of arbitrarily large $(d+1)$-uniform hypergraphs with bounded degree, for which $\inf_{n\ge 1} c(H_n)>0$. Using both random methods and explicit constructions, we answer this question positively by constructing infinite families of $(d+1)$-uniform hypergraphs with bounded degree such that their overlap numbers are bounded from below by a positive constant $c=c(d)$. Read More

It is shown that if (X,||.||_X) is a Banach space with Rademacher type p \ge 1, then for every integer n there exists an even integer m < Cn^{2-1/p}log n (C is an absolute constant), such that for every f:Z_m^n --> X, \Avg_{x,\e}[||f(x+ m\e/2)-f(x)}||_X^p] < C(p,X) m^p\sum_{j=1}^n\Avg_x[||f(x+e_j)-f(x)||_X^p], where the expectation is with respect to uniformly chosen x \in Z_m^n and \e \in \{-1,1\}^n, and C(p,X) is a constant that depends on p and the Rademacher type constant of X. This improves a bound of m < Cn^{3-2/p} that was obtained in [Mendel, Naor 2007]. Read More

We survey connections between the theory of bi-Lipschitz embeddings and the Sparsest Cut Problem in combinatorial optimization. The story of the Sparsest Cut Problem is a striking example of the deep interplay between analysis, geometry, and probability on the one hand, and computational issues in discrete mathematics on the other. We explain how the key ideas evolved over the past 20 years, emphasizing the interactions with Banach space theory, geometric measure theory, and geometric group theory. Read More

We introduce a randomized iterative fragmentation procedure for finite metric spaces, which is guaranteed to result in a polynomially large subset that is $D$-equivalent to an ultrametric, where $D\in (2,\infty)$ is a prescribed target distortion. Since this procedure works for $D$ arbitrarily close to the nonlinear Dvoretzky phase transition at distortion 2, we thus obtain a much simpler probabilistic proof of the main result of Bartel, Linial, Mendel, and Naor, answering a question from Mendel and Naor, and yielding the best known bounds in the nonlinear Dvoretzky theorem. Our method utilizes a sequence of random scales at which a given metric space is fragmented. Read More

It is shown that if (X, ||.||_X) is a Banach space with Rademacher cotype q then for every integer n there exists an even integer m< n^{1+1/q}$ such that for every f:Z_m^n --> X we have $\sum_{j=1}^n \Avg_x [ ||f(x+ (m/2) e_j)-f(x) ||_X^q ] < C m^q \Avg_{\e,x} [ ||f(x+\e)-f(x) ||_X^q ]$, where the expectations are with respect to uniformly chosen x\in Z_m^n and \e\in \{-1,0,1\}^n, and all the implied constants may depend only on q and the Rademacher cotype q constant of X. This improves the bound of m< n^{2+\frac{1}{q}} from [Mendel, Naor 2008]. Read More

Let $(X,d,\mu)$ be a metric measure space. For $\emptyset\neq R\subseteq (0,\infty)$ consider the Hardy-Littlewood maximal operator $$ M_R f(x) \stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=} \sup_{r \in R} \frac{1}{\mu(B(x,r))} \int_{B(x,r)} |f| d\mu.$$ We show that if there is an $n>1$ such that one has the "microdoubling condition" $ \mu(B(x,(1+\frac{1}{n})r))\lesssim \mu(B(x,r)) $ for all $x\in X$ and $r>0$, then the weak $(1,1)$ norm of $M_R$ has the following localization property: $$ \|M_R\|_{L_1(X) \to L_{1,\infty}(X)}\asymp \sup_{r>0} \|M_{R\cap [r,nr]}\|_{L_1(X) \to L_{1,\infty}(X)}. Read More

We show that the Goemans-Linial semidefinite relaxation of the Sparsest Cut problem with general demands has integrality gap $(\log n)^{\Omega(1)}$. This is achieved by exhibiting $n$-point metric spaces of negative type whose $L_1$ distortion is $(\log n)^{\Omega(1)}$. Our result is based on quantitative bounds on the rate of degeneration of Lipschitz maps from the Heisenberg group to $L_1$ when restricted to cosets of the center. Read More

We prove a quantitative bi-Lipschitz nonembedding theorem for the Heisenberg group with its Carnot-Carath\'eodory metric and apply it to give a lower bound on the integrality gap of the Goemans-Linial semidefinite relaxation of the Sparsest Cut problem. Read More

Given a finite regular graph G=(V,E) and a metric space (X,d_X), let $gamma_+(G,X) denote the smallest constant $\gamma_+>0$ such that for all f,g:V\to X we have: \frac{1}{|V|^2}\sum_{x,y\in V} d_X(f(x),g(y))^2\le \frac{\gamma_+}{|E|} \sum_{xy\in E} d_X(f(x),g(y))^2. In the special case X=R this quantity coincides with the reciprocal of the absolute spectral gap of $G$, but for other geometries the parameter \gamma_+(G,X), which we still think of as measuring the non-linear spectral gap of G with respect to X (even though there is no actual spectrum present here), can behave very differently. Non-linear spectral gaps arise often in the theory of metric embeddings, and in the present paper we systematically study the theory of non-linear spectral gaps, partially in order to obtain a combinatorial construction of super-expander -- a family of bounded-degree graphs G_i=(V_i,E_i), with \lim_{i\to \infty} |V_i|=\infty, which do not admit a coarse embedding into any uniformly convex normed space. Read More

In the kernel clustering problem we are given a (large) $n\times n$ symmetric positive semidefinite matrix $A=(a_{ij})$ with $\sum_{i=1}^n\sum_{j=1}^n a_{ij}=0$ and a (small) $k\times k$ symmetric positive semidefinite matrix $B=(b_{ij})$. The goal is to find a partition $\{S_1,.. Read More

We show that if $H$ is a group of polynomial growth whose growth rate is at least quadratic then the $L_p$ compression of the wreath product $\Z\bwr H$ equals $\max{\frac{1}{p},{1/2}}$. We also show that the $L_p$ compression of $\Z\bwr \Z$ equals $\max{\frac{p}{2p-1},\frac23}$ and the $L_p$ compression of $(\Z\bwr\Z)_0$ (the zero section of $\Z\bwr \Z$, equipped with the metric induced from $\Z\bwr \Z$) equals $\max{\frac{p+1}{2p},\frac34}$. The fact that the Hilbert compression exponent of $\Z\bwr\Z$ equals $\frac23$ while the Hilbert compression exponent of $(\Z\bwr\Z)_0$ equals $\frac34$ is used to show that there exists a Lipschitz function $f:(\Z\bwr\Z)_0\to L_2$ which cannot be extended to a Lipschitz function defined on all of $\Z\bwr \Z$. Read More

In the kernel clustering problem we are given a large $n\times n$ positive semi-definite matrix $A=(a_{ij})$ with $\sum_{i,j=1}^na_{ij}=0$ and a small $k\times k$ positive semi-definite matrix $B=(b_{ij})$. The goal is to find a partition $S_1,.. Read More

Let $X$ be a normed space that satisfies the Johnson-Lindenstrauss lemma (J-L lemma, in short) in the sense that for any integer $n$ and any $x_1,\ldots,x_n\in X$ there exists a linear mapping $L:X\to F$, where $F\subseteq X$ is a linear subspace of dimension $O(\log n)$, such that $\|x_i-x_j\|\le\|L(x_i)-L(x_j)\|\le O(1)\cdot\|x_i-x_j\|$ for all $i,j\in \{1,\ldots, n\}$. We show that this implies that $X$ is almost Euclidean in the following sense: Every $n$-dimensional subspace of $X$ embeds into Hilbert space with distortion $2^{2^{O(\log^*n)}}$. On the other hand, we show that there exists a normed space $Y$ which satisfies the J-L lemma, but for every $n$ there exists an $n$-dimensional subspace $E_n\subseteq Y$ whose Euclidean distortion is at least $2^{\Omega(\alpha(n))}$, where $\alpha$ is the inverse Ackermann function. Read More