# Anzhong Wang

## Contact Details

NameAnzhong Wang |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesGeneral Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (49) High Energy Physics - Theory (43) High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (29) Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (27) High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (4) Astrophysics of Galaxies (2) Physics - Superconductivity (2) Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (1) Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (1) |

## Publications Authored By Anzhong Wang

In this paper, we revisit the issue of static hairs of black holes in gravitational theories with broken Lorentz invariance in the case that the speed $c_{\phi}$ of the khronon field becomes infinitely large, $c_{\phi} = \infty$, for which the sound horizon of the khronon field coincides with the universal horizon, and the boundary conditions at the sound horizon reduce to those given normally at the universal horizons. As a result, less boundary conditions are present in this extreme case in comparison with the case $c_{\phi} = $ finite. Then, it would be expected that static hairs might exist. Read More

Gravitational radiation is an excellent field for testing theories of gravity in strong gravitational fields. The current observations on the gravitational-wave (GW) bursts by LIGO have already placed various constraints on the alternative theories of gravity. In this paper, we investigate the possible bounds which could be placed on the Brans-Dicke gravity using GW detection from inspiralling compact binaries with the proposed Einstein Telescope, a third-generation GW detector. Read More

In this paper, we study the non-projectable 2d Ho\v{r}ava gravity coupled with a non-relativistic scalar field, where the coupling is in general non-minimal and of the form $f(\phi)R$, where $f(\phi)$ is an arbitrary function of the scalar field $\phi$, and $R$ denotes the 2d Ricci scalar. In particular, we first investigate the Hamiltonian structure, and show that there are two-first and two-second class constraints, similar to the pure gravity case, but now the local degree of freedom is one, due to the presence of the scalar field. Then, we present various exact stationary solutions of this coupled system, and find that some of them represent black holes but now with universal horizons as their boundaries. Read More

In this paper, we apply the dynamical analysis to a coupled phantom field with scaling potential taking particular forms of the coupling (linear and combination of linear), and present phase space analysis. We investigate if there exist late time accelerated scaling attractor that has the ratio of dark energy and dark matter densities of the order one. We observe that the scrutinized couplings cannot alleviate the coincidence problem, however acquire stable late time accelerated solutions. Read More

Ho\v{r}ava gravity at a Lifshitz point is a theory intended to quantize gravity by using techniques of traditional quantum field theories. To avoid Ostrogradsky's ghosts, a problem that has been plaguing quantization of general relativity since the middle of 1970's, Ho\v{r}ava chose to break the Lorentz invariance by a Lifshitz-type of anisotropic scaling between space and time at the ultra-high energy, while recovering (approximately) the invariance at low energies. With the stringent observational constraints and self-consistency, it turns out that this is not an easy task, and various modifications have been proposed, since the first incarnation of the theory in 2009. Read More

We study the generalized $\alpha$ attractor model in context of late time cosmic acceleration; the model interpolates between freezing and thawing dark energy models. In the slow roll regime, the originally potential is modified whereas the modification ceases in the asymptotic regime and the effective potential behaves as quadratic. In our setting, field rolls slowly around the present epoch and mimics dark matter in future. Read More

In the framework of a model based on the gravitational field of the Kerr black hole, we turn to investigate the kinematic behavior of extragalactic jets. We analytically calculate the observable velocities and accelerations along any geodesic. Then, by numerical calculations, we apply our results to a geodesic, typical of the M87 jet, and probe our results by confrontation to recent observations. Read More

We investigate the three-dimensional behavior of gravity coupled to a dynamical unit timelike vector: the aether, and present two new classes of exact charged solutions. When c_{13}=0,\Lambda'=0$, we find the solutions is the usual BTZ black hole but now with an universal horizon. In the frame of black hole chemistry, we then calculate the temperature of the universal horizons and, construct the Smarr formulas and first law in the three cases: quasi-asymptotically flat, aether asymptotically flat and quasi-BTZ black hole spacetime. Read More

In this Letter, we study analytically the evolutions of the flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe and its linear perturbations in the framework of {\em the dressed metric approach} in loop quantum cosmology (LQC). Assuming that the evolution of the background is dominated by the kinetic energy of the inflaton at the quantum bounce, we find that both evolutions of the background and its perturbations are independent of the inflationary potentials during the pre-inflationary phase. During this period the effective potentials of the perturbations can be well approximated by a P\"oschl-Teller (PT) potential, from which we find analytically the mode functions and then calculate the corresponding Bogoliubov coefficients at the onset of the slow-roll inflation, valid for any inflationary model with a single scalar field. Read More

In this paper, we provide a systematic investigation of high-order primordial perturbations with nonlinear dispersion relations due to quantum gravitational effects in the framework of {\em uniform asymptotic approximations}. Because of these effects, the equation of motion of the mode function in general has multiple-turning points. After obtaining analytically approximated solutions to any order in different regions, associated with different types of turning points, we match them to the third one. Read More

In this paper, we show the existence of static and rotating universal horizons and black holes in gravitational theories with the broken Lorentz invariance. We pay particular attention on the ultraviolet regime, and show that universal horizons and black holes exist not only in low energy scales but also in the UV scales. This is realized by presenting various static and stationary exact solutions of the full theory of the projectable Ho\v{r}ava gravity with an extra U(1) symmetry in (2+1)-dimensions, which, by construction, is power-counting renormalizable. Read More

We study analytically quantum tunneling of relativistic and non-relativistic particles at both Killing and universal horizons of Einstein-Maxwell-aether black holes, after high-order curvature corrections are taken into account, for which the dispersion relation of the particles becomes nonlinear. Our results at the Killing horizons confirm the previous ones, i.e. Read More

The quantization of two-dimensional Ho\v{r}ava theory of gravity without the projectability condition is considered. Our study of the Hamiltonian structure of the theory shows that there are two first-class and two second-class constraints. Then, following Dirac we quantize the theory by first requiring that the two second-class constraints be strongly equal to zero. Read More

We present here the general expressions for the acceleration of massive test particles along the symmetry axis of the Kerr metric, and then study the main properties of this acceleration in different regions of the spacetime. In particular, we show that there exists a region near the black hole in which the gravitational field is repulsive. We provide possible physical interpretations about the role of this effect in terms of the different conserved parameters. Read More

We first derive the primordial power spectra, spectral indices and runnings of both scalar and tensor perturbations of a flat inflationary universe to the second-order approximations of the slow-roll parameters, in the framework of loop quantum cosmology with the inverse-volume quantum corrections. This represents an extension of our previous work in which the parameter $\sigma$ was assumed to be an integer, where $\sigma$ characterizes the quantum corrections and in general can take any of values from the range $\sigma \in (0, 6]$. Restricting to the first-order approximations of the slow-roll parameters, we find corrections to the results obtained previously in the literature, and point out the causes for such errors. Read More

Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) provides promising resolutions to the trans-Planckian issue and initial singularity arising in the inflationary models of general relativity. In general, due to different quantization approaches, LQC involves two types of quantum corrections, the holonomy and inverse-volume, to both of the cosmological background evolution and perturbations. In this paper, using {\em the third-order uniform asymptotic approximations}, we derive explicitly the observational quantities of the slow-roll inflation in the framework of LQC with these quantum corrections. Read More

In the framework of the Einstein-Maxwell-aether theory, we present two new classes of exact charged black hole solutions, which are asymptotically flat and possess the universal as well as Killing horizons. We also construct the Smarr formulas, and calculate the temperatures of the horizons, using the Smarr mass-area relation. We find that, in contrast to the neutral case, such obtained temperature is not proportional to its surface gravity at any of the two kinds of the horizons. Read More

We derive the primordial power spectra and spectral indexes of the density fluctuations and gravitational waves in the framework of loop quantum cosmology (LQC) with holonomy and inverse-volume corrections, by using the uniform asymptotic approximation method to its third-order, at which the upper error bounds are $\lesssim 0.15\%$, and accurate enough for the current and forthcoming cosmological observations. Then, using the Planck, BAO and SN data we obtain the tightest constraints on quantum gravitational effects from LQC corrections, and find that such effects could be well within the detection of the current and forthcoming cosmological observations. Read More

In this paper, we first generalize the definition of stationary universal horizons to dynamical ones, and then show that (dynamical) universal horizons can be formed from realistic gravitational collapse. This is done by constructing analytical models of a collapsing spherically symmetric star with finite thickness in Einstein-aether theory. Read More

In this paper, we study the existence of universal horizons in a given static spacetime, and find that the test khronon field can be solved explicitly when its velocity becomes infinitely large, at which point the universal horizon coincides with the sound horizon of the khronon. Choosing the timelike coordinate aligned with the khronon, the static metric takes a simple form, from which it can be seen clearly that the metric is free of singularity at the Killing horizon, but becomes singular at the universal horizon. Applying such developed formulas to three well-known black hole solutions, the Schwarzschild, Schwarzschild anti-de Sitter, and Reissner-Nordstr\"om, we find that in all these solutions universal horizons exist and are always inside the Killing horizons. Read More

In this paper, we first show that the definition of the universal horizons studied recently in the khrononmetric theory of gravity can be straightforwardly generalized to other theories that violate the Lorentz symmetry, by simply considering the khronon as a probe field and playing the same role as a Killing vector field. As an application, we study static charged ($D+1$)-dimensional spacetimes in the framework of the healthy (non-projectable) Horava-Lifshitz (HL) gravity in the infrared limit, and find various solutions. Some of them represent Lifshitz space-times with hyperscaling violations, and some have black hole structures. Read More

In this paper, we study the quantization of the (1+1)-dimensional projectable Ho\v{r}ava-Lifshitz (HL) gravity, and find that, when only gravity is present, the system can be quantized by following the canonical Dirac quantization, and the corresponding wavefunction is normalizable for some orderings of the operators. The corresponding Hamilton can also be written in terms of a simple harmonic oscillator, whereby the quantization can be carried out quantum mechanically in the standard way. When the HL gravity minimally couples to a scalar field, the momentum constraint is solved explicitly in the case where the fundamental variables are functions of time only. Read More

$k$-inflation represents the most general single-field inflation, in which the perturbations usually obey an equation of motion with a time-dependent sound speed. In this paper, we study the observational predictions of the $k$-inflation by using the high-order uniform asymptotic approximation method. We calculate explicitly the slow-roll expressions of the power spectra, spectral indices, and running of the spectral indices for both the scalar and tensor perturbations. Read More

In this paper, we study the effects of high-order operators on the non-relativistic Lifshitz holography in the framework of the Ho\v{r}ava-Lifshitz (HL) theory of gravity, which naturally contains high-order operators in order for the theory to be power-counting renormalizble, and provides an ideal place for such studies. In particular, we show that the Lifshitz space-time is still a solution of the full theory of the HL gravity. The effects of the high-oder operators on the space-time itself is simply to shift the Lifshitz dynamical exponent. Read More

We consider holographic superconductors related to the Schwarzschild black hole in the low energy limit of Ho\v{r}ava-Lifshitz spacetime. The non-relativistic electromagnetic and scalar fields are introduced to construct a holographic superconductor model in Ho\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity and the results show that the $\alpha_2$ term plays an important role, modifying the conductivity curve line by means of an attenuation the conductivity. Read More

The uniform asymptotic approximation method provides a powerful, systematically-improved, and error-controlled approach to construct accurate analytical approximate solutions of mode functions of perturbations of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe, designed especially for the cases where the relativistic linear dispersion relation is modified after gravitational quantum effects are taken into account. These include models from string/M-Theory, loop quantum cosmology and Ho\v{r}ava-Lifshitz quantum gravity. In this paper, we extend our previous studies of the first-order approximations to high orders for the cases where the modified dispersion relation (linear or nonlinear) has only one-turning point (or zero). Read More

In this paper, we present all $[(d+1)+1]$-dimensional static diagonal vacuum solutions of the non-projectable Ho\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity in the IR limit, and show that they give rise to very rich Lifshitz-type structures, depending on the choice of the free parameters of the solutions. These include the Lifshitz spacetimes with or without hyperscaling violation, Lifshitz solitons, and black holes. Remarkably, even the theory breaks explicitly the Lorentz symmetry and allows generically instantaneous propagations, universal horizons still exist, which serve as one-way membranes for signals with any large velocities. Read More

Recently BICEP2 found that the vanishing of the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ is excluded at $7\sigma$ level, and its most likely value is $r=0.2^{+0.07}_{-0. Read More

In this paper, we study static vacuum solutions of quantum gravity at a fixed Lifshitz point in (2+1) dimensions, and present all the diagonal solutions in closed forms in the infrared limit. The exact solutions represent spacetimes with very rich structures: they can represent generalized BTZ black holes, Lifshitz space-times or Lifshitz solitons, in which the spacetimes are free of any kind of space-time singularities, depending on the choices of the free parameters of the solutions. We also find several classes of exact static non-diagonal solutions, which represent similar space-time structures as those given in the diagonal case. Read More

In this paper, we first propose a universal coupling between the gravity and matter in the framework of the Ho\v{r}ava-Lifshitz theory of gravity with an extra U(1) symmetry for both the projectable and non-projectable cases. Then, using this universal coupling we study the post-Newtonian approximations and obtain the parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) parameters in terms of the coupling constants of the theory. Contrary to the previous works in which only two PPN parameters were calculated, we obtain {\it all} PPN parameters. Read More

We present a technique, {\em the uniform asymptotic approximation}, to construct accurate analytical solutions of the linear perturbations of inflation after quantum effects of the early universe are taken into account, for which the dispersion relations generically become nonlinear. We construct explicitly the error bounds associated with the approximations and then study them in detail. With the understanding of the errors and the proper choice of the Liouville transformations of the differential equations of the perturbations, we show that the analytical solutions describe the exact evolution of the linear perturbations extremely well even only in the first-order approximations. Read More

We develop a technique to construct analytical solutions of the linear perturbations of inflation with a nonlinear dispersion relation, due to quantum effects of the early universe. Error bounds are given and studied in detail. The analytical solutions describe the exact evolution of the perturbations extremely well even when only the first-order approximations is used. Read More

In this paper, we study the effects of parity violation on non-gaussianities of primordial gravitational waves in the framework of Ho\v{r}ava-Lifshitz theory of gravity, in which high-order spatial derivative operators, including the ones violating parity, generically appear. By calculating the three point function, we find that the leading-order contributions to the non-gaussianities come from the usual second-order derivative terms, which produce the same bispectrum as that found in general relativity. The contributions from high-order spatial n-th derivative terms are always suppressed by a factor $(H/M_*)^{n-2} \; (n \ge 3)$, where $H$ denotes the inflationary energy and $M_*$ the suppression mass scale of the high-order spatial derivative operators of the theory. Read More

In this paper, we study 3-point correlation function of primordial gravitational waves generated in the de Sitter background in the framework of the general covariant Ho\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity with an arbitrary coupling constant $\lambda$. We find that, at cubic order, the interaction Hamiltonian receives contributions from four terms built of the 3-dimensional Ricci tensor $R_{ij}$ of the leaves $t = $ constant. In particular, the 3D Ricci scalar $R$ yields the same $k$-dependence as that in general relativity, but with different magnitude due to coupling with the $U(1)$ field $A$ and a UV history. Read More

We study gravitational collapse of a spherical fluid in nonrelativistic general covariant theory of the Ho\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity with the projectability condition and an arbitrary coupling constant $\lambda$, where $|\lambda - 1|$ characterizes the deviation of the theory from general relativity in the infrared limit. The junction conditions across the surface of a collapsing star are derived under the (minimal) assumption that the junctions be mathematically meaningful in terms of distribution theory. When the collapsing star is made of a homogeneous and isotropic perfect fluid, and the external region is described by a stationary spacetime, the problem reduces to the matching of six independent conditions. Read More

In this paper, we study static post-Newtonian limits in non-projectable Ho\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity with an extra U(1) symmetry. After obtaining all static spherical solutions in the infrared, we apply them to the solar system tests, and obtain the Eddington-Robertson-Schiff parameters in terms of the coupling constants of the theory. These parameters are well consistent with observations for the physically viable coupling constants. Read More

Stationary, axisymmetric and slowly rotating vacuum spacetimes in the Ho\v{r}ava-Lifshitz (HL) gravity are studied, and shown that, for any given spherical static vacuum solution of the HL theory (of any model, including the ones with an additional U(1) symmetry), there always exists a corresponding slowly rotating, stationary and axisymmetric vacuum solution, which reduces to the former, when the rotation is switched off. The rotation is universal and only implicitly depends on the models of the HL theory and their coupling constants through the spherical seed solution. As a result, all asymptotically flat slowly rotating vacuum solutions are asymptotically identical to the slowly rotating Kerr solution. Read More

Slowly rotating black holes in the non-projectable Ho\v{r}ava-Lifshitz (HL) theory were studied recently in Phys. Rev. Lett. Read More

In this paper, we study non-Gaussianity generated by a single scalar field in slow-roll inflation in the framework of the non-relativistic general covariant Ho\v{r}ava-Lifshitz theory of gravity with the projectability condition and an arbitrary coupling constant $\lambda$, where $\lambda$ characterizes the deviation of the theory from general relativity (GR) in the infrared. We find that the leading effect of self-interaction, in contrary to the case of minimal scenario of GR, is in general of the order $\hat{\alpha}_{n} \epsilon^{3/2}$, where $\epsilon$ is a slow-roll parameter, and $\hat{\alpha}_{n} (n = 3, 5)$ are the dimensionless coupling coefficients of the six-order operators of the Lifshitz scalar, and have no contributions to power spectra and indices of both scalar and tensor. The bispectrum, comparing with the standard one given in GR, is enhanced, and gives rise to a large value of the nonlinearity parameter $f_{\text{NL}}$. Read More

We study primordial gravitational waves (PGWs) in the Horava-Lifshitz (HL) theory of quantum gravity, in which high-order spatial derivative operators, including the ones violating parity, generically appear in order for the theory to be power-counting renormalizable and ultraviolet (UV) complete. Because of both parity violation and non-adiabatic evolution of the modes due to a modified dispersion relationship, a large polarization of PGWs becomes possible, and it could be well within the range of detection of the BB, TB and EB power spectra of the forthcoming cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations. Read More

In this paper, we study inflation in the general covariant Ho\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity without the projectability condition. We write down explicitly the equations of the linear scalar perturbations of the FRW universe for a single scalar field without specifying to any gauge. Applying these equations to a particular gauge, we are able to obtain a master equation of the perturbations, in contrast to all the other versions of the theory without the projectability condition. Read More

We study spherically symmetric, stationary vacuum configurations in general covariant theory (U(1) extension) of Ho\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity with the projectability condition and an arbitrary coupling constant $\lambda$, and obtain all the solutions in closed forms. If the gauge field $A$ and the Newtonian prepotential $\varphi$ do not directly couple to matter fields, the theory is inconsistent with solar system tests for $\lambda\not=1$, no matter how small $|\lambda-1|$ is. This is shown to be true also with the most general ansatz of spherical (but not necessarily stationary) configurations. Read More

In this paper, we study inflation in the framework of the nonrelativistic general covariant theory of the Ho\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity with the projectability condition and an arbitrary coupling constant $\lambda$. We find that the Friedmann-Robterson-Walker (FRW) universe is necessarily flat in such a setup. We work out explicitly the linear perturbations of the flat FRW universe without specifying to a particular gauge, and find that the perturbations are different from those obtained in general relativity, because of the presence of the high-order spatial derivative terms. Read More

We consider an extended theory of Horava-Lifshitz gravity with the detailed balance condition softly breaking, but without the projectability condition. With the former, the number of independent coupling constants is significantly reduced. With the latter and by extending the original foliation-preserving diffeomorphism symmetry $ {{Diff}}(M, {\cal{F}})$ to include a local U(1) symmetry, the spin-0 gravitons are eliminated. Read More

In this paper, we study electromeganetic static spacetimes in the nonrelativisitc general covariant theory of the Horava-Lifshitz (HL) gravity, proposed recently by Horava and Melby-Thompson, and present all the electric static solutions, which represent the generalization of the Reissner-Nordstrom solution found in Einstein's general relativity (GR). The global/local structures of spacetimes in the HL theory in general are different from those given in GR, because the dispersion relations of test particles now contain high-order momentum terms, so the speeds of these particles are unbounded in the ultraviolet (UV). As a result, the conception of light-cones defined in GR becomes invalid and test particles do not follow geodesics. Read More

We present a fully nonlinear study of long wavelength cosmological perturbations within the framework of the projectable Horava-Lifshitz gravity, coupled to a single scalar field. Adopting the gradient expansion technique, we explicitly integrate the dynamical equations up to any order of the expansion, then restrict the integration constants by imposing the momentum constraint. While the gradient expansion relies on the long wavelength approximation, amplitudes of perturbations do not have to be small. Read More

Considering a Vaidya exterior spacetime, we study dynamical models of prototype gravastars, made of an infinitely thin spherical shell of a perfect fluid with the equation of state $p = \sigma$, enclosing an interior de Sitter spacetime. We show explicitly that the final output can be a black hole, an unstable gravastar, a stable gravastar or a "bounded excursion" gravastar, depending on how the mass of the shell evolves in time, the cosmological constant and the initial position of the dynamical shell. This work presents, for the first time in the literature, a gravastar that emits radiation. Read More

In this paper, we show that the spin-0 gravitons appearing in Horava-Lifshitz gravity without the projectability condition can be eliminated by extending the gauge symmetries of the foliation-preserving diffeomorphisms to include a local U(1) symmetry. As a result, the problems of stability, ghost, strong coupling, and different speeds in the gravitational sector are automatically resolved. In addition, with the detailed balance condition softly breaking, the number of independent coupling constants can be significantly reduced (from more than 70 down to 15), while the theory is still UV complete and possesses a healthy IR limit, whereby the prediction powers of the theory are considerably improved. Read More

We study the strong coupling problem in the Horava-Melby-Thompson setup of the Horava-Lifshitz gravity with an arbitrary coupling constant $\lambda$, generalized recently by da Silva, where $\lambda$ describes the deviation of the theory in the infrared from general relativity that has $\lambda_{GR} = 1$. We find that a scalar field in the Minkowski background becomes strong coupling for processes with energy higher than $\Lambda_{\omega} [\equiv (M_{pl}/c_1)^{3/2} M_{pl}|\lambda - 1|^{5/4}]$, where generically $c_1 \ll M_{pl}$. However, this problem can be cured by introducing a new energy scale $M_{*}$, so that $M_{*} < \Lambda_{\omega}$, where $M_{*}$ denotes the suppression energy of high order derivative terms of the theory. Read More

We systematically study black holes in the Horava-Lifshitz (HL) theory by following the kinematic approach, in which a horizon is defined as the surface at which massless test particles are infinitely redshifted. Because of the nonrelativistic dispersion relations, the speed of light is unlimited, and test particles do not follow geodesics. As a result, there are significant differences in causal structures and black holes between general relativity (GR) and the HL theory. Read More