Anton Koekemoer - STScI

Anton Koekemoer
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Anton Koekemoer

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Astrophysics of Galaxies (42)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (13)
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (2)
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (2)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (2)

Publications Authored By Anton Koekemoer

An interesting transient has been detected in one of our three Dark Energy Camera deep fields. Observations of these deep fields take advantage of the high red sensitivity of DECam on the Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory Blanco telescope. The survey includes the Y band with rest wavelength 1430{\AA} at z = 6. Read More

The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) has measured the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for several stars of types O, B, A, F, and G. These absolute fluxes from the CALSPEC database are fit with a new spectral grid computed from the ATLAS-APOGEE ATLAS9 model atmosphere database using a chi-square minimization technique in four parameters. The quality of the fits are compared for complete LTE grids by Castelli & Kurucz (CK04) and our new comprehensive LTE grid (BOSZ). Read More

We present a detailed spectral analysis of the brightest Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) identified in the 7Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey over a time span of 16 years. Using a model of an intrinsically absorbed power-law plus reflection, with a possible soft excess and narrow Fe K\alpha line, we perform a systematic X-ray spectral analysis, both on the total 7Ms exposure and in four different periods with lengths of 2-21 months. With this approach, we not only present the power-law slopes, column densities N_H, observed fluxes, and intrinsic (absorption-corrected) rest-frame 2-10 keV luminosities L_X for our sample of AGNs, but also identify significant spectral variabilities among them on time scales of a few years. Read More

Since galaxy clusters sit at the high-end of the mass function, the number of galaxy clusters both massive and concentrated enough to yield particularly large Einstein radii poses useful constraints on cosmological and structure formation models. To date, less than a handful of clusters are known to have Einstein radii exceeding $\sim40$" (for a source at $z_{s}\simeq2$, nominally). Here, we report an addition to that list of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) selected cluster, PLCK G287. Read More

Affiliations: 1The Catholic University of America, 2The Catholic University of America, 3NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 4NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 5IPAC/Caltech, 6Space Telescope Science Institute, 7Space Telescope Science Institute, 8Space Telescope Science Institute, 9University of Minnesota, 10Rutgers University, 11Rutgers University

We present an investigation of clumpy galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field at 0.5 $\leq z \leq$ 1.5 in the rest-frame far-ultraviolet (FUV) using HST WFC3 broadband imaging in F225W, F275W, and F336W. Read More

Superluminous supernovae are beginning to be discovered at redshifts as early as the epoch of reionization. A number of candidate mechanisms is reviewed, together with the discovery programs. Read More

We derive relations between the effective radii $R_{\rm{eff}}$ of galaxies and the virial radii $R_{200c}$ of their dark matter halos over the redshift range $0 < z < 3$. For galaxies, we use the measured sizes from deep images taken with \emph{Hubble Space Telescope} for the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey; for halos, we use the inferred sizes from abundance matching to cosmological dark matter simulations via a stellar mass--halo mass (SMHM) relation. For this purpose, we derive a new SMHM relation based on the same selection criteria and other assumptions as for our sample of galaxies with size measurements. Read More

We explore constraints on the statistical relationship between the radial size of galaxies and the radius of their host dark matter halos from $z\sim 0.1-3$ using the GAMA and CANDELS surveys. We map dark matter halo mass to galaxy stellar mass using empirical relationships from abundance matching, applied to the Bolshoi-Planck dissipationless N-body simulation. Read More

We present a joint analysis of Chandra X-ray observations, Bolocam thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect observations, Hubble Space Telescope (HST) strong lensing data, and HST and Subaru Suprime-Cam weak lensing data. The multiwavelength dataset is used to constrain parametric models for the distribution of dark and baryonic matter in a sample of six massive galaxy clusters selected from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). For five of the six clusters, the multiwavelength dataset is well described by a relatively simple model that assumes spherical symmetry, hydrostatic equilibrium, and entirely thermal pressure support. Read More

It is common practice to speak of a "green valley" that hosts galaxies whose colors are intermediate relative to those in the "blue cloud" and the "red sequence." In this study, we raise several questions about how galaxies might transition between the star-forming main sequence (SFMS) and varying "degrees of quiescence" from $z=3$ to $z\sim0$. We develop a physically and statistically motivated definition of "transition galaxies" based on their uniquely intermediate specific star formation rates, which relieves ambiguities associated with color-based selections and allows us to more cleanly compare observations to theoretical models. Read More

Affiliations: 1UT Austin, 2UT Austin, 3NASA, Goddard, 4NOAO, 5Hebrew Univ., 6STSci, 7INAF, 8STSci, 9Carnegie Observatories, 10UC Riverside, 11Texas A and M Univ., 12STSci, 13STSci, 14NASA, Goddard

We perform the first spatially-resolved stellar population study of galaxies in the early universe (z = 3.5 - 6.5), utilizing the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) imaging dataset over the GOODS-S field. Read More

We present quantified visual morphologies of approximately 48,000 galaxies observed in three Hubble Space Telescope legacy fields by the Cosmic And Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and classified by participants in the Galaxy Zoo project. 90% of galaxies have z < 3 and are observed in rest-frame optical wavelengths by CANDELS. Each galaxy received an average of 40 independent classifications, which we combine into detailed morphological information on galaxy features such as clumpiness, bar instabilities, spiral structure, and merger and tidal signatures. Read More

Angular power spectra of optical and infrared background anisotropies at wavelengths between 0.5 to 5 $\mu$m are a useful probe of faint sources present during reionization, in addition to faint galaxies and diffuse signals at low redshift. The cross-correlation of these fluctuations with backgrounds at other wavelengths can be used to separate some of these signals. Read More

Although there has been much progress in understanding how galaxies evolve, we still do not understand how and when they stop forming stars and become quiescent. We address this by applying our galaxy spectral energy distribution models, which incorporate physically motivated star formation histories (SFHs) from cosmological simulations, to a sample of quiescent galaxies at $0.2Read More

We present $\mathrm{^{12}CO}$ and $\mathrm{^{13}CO}$ molecular gas data observed by ALMA, massive early stage young stellar objects identified by applying color-magnitude cuts to \textit{Spitzer} and \textit{Herschel} photometry, and low-mass late stage young stellar objects identified via H$\mathrm{\alpha}$ excess. Using dendrograms, we derive properties for the molecular cloud structures. This is the first time a dendrogram analysis has been applied to extragalactic clouds. Read More

We exploit the 7 Ms \textit{Chandra} observations in the \chandra\,Deep Field-South (\mbox{CDF-S}), the deepest X-ray survey to date, coupled with CANDELS/GOODS-S data, to measure the total X-ray emission arising from 2076 galaxies at $3.5\leq z < 6.5$. Read More

We study the correlation of galaxy structural properties with their location relative to the SFR-M* correlation, also known as the star formation "main sequence" (SFMS), in the CANDELS and GAMA surveys and in a semi-analytic model (SAM) of galaxy formation. We first study the distribution of median Sersic index, effective radius, star formation rate (SFR) density and stellar mass density in the SFR-M* plane. We then define a redshift dependent main sequence and examine the medians of these quantities as a function of distance from this main sequence, both above (higher SFRs) and below (lower SFRs). Read More

We examine a sample of 1495 galaxies in the CANDELS fields to determine the evolution of two component galaxies, including bulges and discs, within massive galaxies at the epoch 1 < z < 3 when the Hubble sequence forms. We fit all of our galaxies' light profiles with a single S\'ersic fit, as well as with a combination of exponential and S\'ersic profiles. The latter is done in order to describe a galaxy with an inner and an outer component, or bulge and disc component. Read More

We present results from a survey of the internal kinematics of 49 star-forming galaxies at z$\,\sim\,$2 in the CANDELS fields with the Keck/MOSFIRE spectrograph (SIGMA, Survey in the near-Infrared of Galaxies with Multiple position Angles). Kinematics (rotation velocity $V_{rot}$ and integrated gas velocity dispersion $\sigma_g$) are measured from nebular emission lines which trace the hot ionized gas surrounding star-forming regions. We find that by z$\,\sim\,$2, massive star-forming galaxies ($\log\,M_*/M_{\odot}\gtrsim10. Read More

Current observational evidence suggests that the star formation rate (SFR) efficiency of neutral atomic hydrogen gas measured in Damped Ly-alpha Systems (DLAs) at z~3 is more than 10 times lower than predicted by the Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) relation. To understand the origin of this deficit, and to investigate possible evolution with redshift and galaxy properties, we measure the SFR efficiency of atomic gas at z~1, z~2, and z~3 around star-forming galaxies. We use new robust photometric redshifts in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field to create galaxy stacks in these three redshift bins, and measure the SFR efficiency by combining DLA absorber statistics with the observed rest-frame UV emission in the galaxies' outskirts. Read More


We present observations of escaping Lyman Continuum (LyC) radiation from 50 massive star-forming galaxies and 14 weak AGN with reliable spectroscopic redshifts at z~2.3--5.8. Read More

We investigate morphological properties of 61 Lyman-alpha emitters (LAEs) at z = 4.86 identified in the COSMOS field, based on Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) imaging data in the F814W-band. Out of the 61 LAEs, we find the ACS counterparts for the 54 LAEs. Read More

Morphology is often used to infer the state of relaxation of galaxy clusters. The regularity, symmetry, and degree to which a cluster is centrally concentrated inform quantitative measures of cluster morphology. The Cluster Lensing and Supernova survey with Hubble Space Telescope (CLASH) used weak and strong lensing to measure the distribution of matter within a sample of 25 clusters, 20 of which were deemed to be relaxed based on their X-ray morphology and alignment of the X-ray emission with the BCG. Read More

In this paper we study the causes of the reported mass-dependence of the slope of SFR-M* relation, the so-called "Main Sequence" of star-forming galaxies, and discuss its implication on the physical processes that shaped the star formation history of massive galaxies over cosmic time. We use the CANDELS near-IR imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope to perform the bulge-to-disk decomposition of distant galaxies and measure for the first time the slope of the SFR-Mdisk relation at z=1. We find that this relation follows very closely the shape of the SFR-M* correlation, still with a pronounced flattening at the high-mass end. Read More

Dust attenuation affects nearly all observational aspects of galaxy evolution, yet very little is known about the form of the dust-attenuation law in the distant Universe. Here, we model the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies at z = 1.5--3 from CANDELS with rest-frame UV to near-IR imaging under different assumptions about the dust law, and compare the amount of inferred attenuated light with the observed infrared (IR) luminosities. Read More

We developed an algorithm to find and characterize gravitationally lensed galaxies (arcs) to perform a comparison of the observed and simulated arc abundance. Observations are from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). Simulated CLASH images are created using the MOKA package and also clusters selected from the high resolution, hydrodynamical simulations, MUSIC, over the same mass and redshift range as the CLASH sample. Read More

We examine the host morphologies of heavily obscured active galactic nuclei (AGN) at $z\sim1$ to test whether obscured supermassive black hole growth at this epoch is preferentially linked to galaxy mergers. Our sample consists of 154 obscured AGN with $N_{\rm H}>10^{23.5}$ cm$^{-2}$ and $z<1. Read More

The spatial fluctuations of the extragalactic background light trace the total emission from all stars and galaxies in the Universe. A multi-wavelength study can be used to measure the integrated emission from first galaxies during reionization when the Universe was about 500 million years old. Here we report arcminute-scale spatial fluctuations in one of the deepest sky surveys with the Hubble Space Telescope in five wavebands between 0. Read More

Using a stellar mass limited sample of $\sim 46,600$ galaxies ($M_* > 10^{9.1}\,M_{\odot}$) at $0.5 < z < 2$, we show that the tellar mass, rather than the environment, is the main parameter controlling quenching of star formation in galaxies with $M_* > 10^{10}\,M_{\odot}$ out to $z=2$. Read More

We present Star Formation Histories (SFHs) for a sample of 104 massive (stellar mass M > 10$^{10}$ M$_{\odot}$) quiescent galaxies (MQGs) at $z$=1.0-1.5 from the analysis of spectro-photometric data from the SHARDS and HST/WFC3 G102 and G141 surveys of the GOODS-N field, jointly with broad-band observations from ultraviolet (UV) to far-infrared (Far-IR). Read More

In this paper, we present a comprehensive analysis of star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at intermediate redshifts (z~1). We combine the ultra-deep optical spectro-photometric data from the Survey for High-z Absorption Red and Dead Sources (SHARDS) with deep UV-to-FIR observations in the GOODS-N field. Exploiting two of the 25 SHARDS medium-band filters, F687W17 and F823W17, we select [OII] emission line galaxies at z~0. Read More

We reconstruct the radial profile of the projected gravitational potential of the galaxy cluster MACS-J1206 from 592 spectroscopic measurements of velocities of cluster members. For doing so, we use a method we have developed recently based on the Richardson-Lucy deprojection algorithm and an inversion of the spherically-symmetric Jeans equation. We find that, within the uncertainties, our reconstruction agrees very well with a potential reconstruction from weak and strong gravitational lensing as well as with a potential obtained from X-ray measurements. Read More

We report a discovery of 6 massive galaxies with both extremely large Lya equivalent width and evolved stellar population at z ~ 3. These MAssive Extremely STrong Lya emitting Objects (MAESTLOs) have been discovered in our large-volume systematic survey for strong Lya emitters (LAEs) with twelve optical intermediate-band data taken with Subaru/Suprime-Cam in the COSMOS field. Based on the SED fitting analysis for these LAEs, it is found that these MAESTLOs have (1) large rest-frame equivalent width of EW_0(Lya) ~ 100--300 A, (2) M_star ~ 10^10. Read More

In this paper we perform a comprehensive study of the main sources of random and systematic errors in stellar mass measurement for galaxies using their Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs). We use mock galaxy catalogs with simulated multi-waveband photometry (from U-band to mid-infrared) and known redshift, stellar mass, age and extinction for individual galaxies. Given different parameters affecting stellar mass measurement (photometric S/N ratios, SED fitting errors, systematic effects, the inherent degeneracies and correlated errors), we formulated different simulated galaxy catalogs to quantify these effects individually. Read More

We present photometry and derived redshifts from up to eleven bandpasses for 9927 galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep field (UDF), covering an observed wavelength range from the near-ultraviolet (NUV) to the near-infrared (NIR) with Hubble Space Telescope observations. Our Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3)/UV F225W, F275W, and F336W image mosaics from the ultra-violet UDF (UVUDF) imaging campaign are newly calibrated to correct for charge transfer inefficiency, and use new dark calibrations to minimize background gradients and pattern noise. Our NIR WFC3/IR image mosaics combine the imaging from the UDF09 and UDF12 campaigns with CANDELS data to provide NIR coverage for the entire UDF field of view. Read More

Important but rare and subtle processes driving galaxy morphology and star-formation may be missed by traditional spiral, elliptical, irregular or S\'ersic bulge/disk classifications. To overcome this limitation, we use a principal component analysis of non-parametric morphological indicators (concentration, asymmetry, Gini coefficient, $M_{20}$, multi-mode, intensity and deviation) measured at rest-frame $B$-band (corresponding to HST/WFC3 F125W at 1.4 $< z <$ 2) to trace the natural distribution of massive ($>10^{10} M_{\odot}$) galaxy morphologies. Read More

Brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) are usually quiescent, but many exhibit star formation. Here we exploit the opportunity provided by rest-frame UV imaging of galaxy clusters in the CLASH (Cluster Lensing and Supernovae with Hubble) Multi-Cycle Treasury Project to reveal the diversity of UV morphologies in BCGs and to compare them with recent simulations of the cool, star-forming gas structures produced by precipitation-driven feedback. All of the CLASH BCGs are detected in the rest-frame UV (280 nm), regardless of their star-formation activity, because evolved stellar populations produce a modest amount of UV light that traces the relatively smooth, symmetric, and centrally peaked stellar distribution seen in the near infrared. Read More

Recent observations have shown that the characteristic luminosity of the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function does not significantly evolve at 4 < z < 7 and is approximately M*_UV ~ -21. We investigate this apparent non-evolution by examining a sample of 178 bright, M_UV < -21 galaxies at z=4 to 7, analyzing their stellar populations and host halo masses. Including deep Spitzer/IRAC imaging to constrain the rest-frame optical light, we find that M*_UV galaxies at z=4-7 have similar stellar masses of log(M/Msol)=9. Read More

We have conducted a detailed object-by-object study of a mass-complete (M*>10^11 M_sun) sample of 56 galaxies at 1.4 < z < 2 in the GOODS-South field, showing that an accurate de-blending in MIPS/24um images is essential to properly assign to each galaxy its own star formation rate (SFR), whereas an automatic procedure often fails. This applies especially to galaxies with SFRs below the Main Sequence (MS) value, which may be in their quenching phase. Read More

We combine HST/WFC3 imaging and G141 grism observations from the CANDELS and 3D-HST surveys to produce a catalog of grism spectroscopic redshifts for galaxies in the CANDELS/GOODS-South field. The WFC3/G141 grism spectra cover a wavelength range of 1.1Read More

We utilize the CLASH (Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble) observations of 25 clusters to search for extreme emission-line galaxies (EELGs). The selections are carried out in two central bands: F105W (Y105) and F125W (J125), as the flux of the central bands could be enhanced by the presence of [O III] 4959, 5007 at redshift of about 0.93-1. Read More

We present results from a comprehensive lensing analysis in HST data, of the complete CLASH cluster sample. We identify new multiple-images previously undiscovered allowing improved or first constraints on the cluster inner mass distributions and profiles. We combine these strong-lensing constraints with weak-lensing shape measurements within the HST FOV to jointly constrain the mass distributions. Read More

Although giant clumps of stars are crucial to galaxy formation and evolution, the most basic demographics of clumps are still uncertain, mainly because the definition of clumps has not been thoroughly discussed. In this paper, we study the basic demographics of clumps in star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at 0.5Read More

Affiliations: 1UT Austin, 2STScI, 3Texas A&M, 4NOAO, 5UT Austin, 6Rutgers, 7STScI, 8Texas A&M, 9UMass, 10STScI, 11CfA, 12STScI, 13INAF, 14Edinburgh, 15UCSC, 16CfA, 17INAF, 18STScI, 19Marseille, 20UT Austin, 21Colby, 22UT Austin, 23Edinburgh, 24INAF, 25UCR, 26Pitt, 27Goddard, 28Texas A&M, 29CfA

We present a robust measurement and analysis of the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function at z=4-8. We use deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging over the CANDELS/GOODS fields, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and the Year 1 Hubble Frontier Field deep parallel observations. These surveys provides an effective volume of 0. Read More