Anna M. Scaife - Southampton

Anna M. Scaife
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Anna M. Scaife
United Kingdom

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Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (22)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (22)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (11)
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (8)
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (2)
Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (1)

Publications Authored By Anna M. Scaife

Authors: Derek Ward-Thompson, Kate Pattle, Pierre Bastien, Ray S. Furuya, Woojin Kwon, Shih-Ping Lai, Keping Qiu, David Berry, Minho Choi, Simon Coudé, James Di Francesco, Thiem Hoang, Erica Franzmann, Per Friberg, Sarah F. Graves, Jane S. Greaves, Martin Houde, Doug Johnstone, Jason M. Kirk, Patrick M. Koch, Jungmi Kwon, Chang Won Lee, Di Li, Brenda C. Matthews, Joseph C. Mottram, Harriet Parsons, Andy Pon, Ramprasad Rao, Mark Rawlings, Hiroko Shinnaga, Sarah Sadavoy, Sven van Loo, Yusuke Aso, Do-Young Byun, Eswariah Chakali, Huei-Ru Chen, Mike C. -Y. Chen, Wen Ping Chen, Tao-Chung Ching, Jungyeon Cho, Antonio Chrysostomou, Eun Jung Chung, Yasuo Doi, Emily Drabek-Maunder, Stewart P. S. Eyres, Jason Fiege, Rachel K. Friesen, Gary Fuller, Tim Gledhill, Matt J. Griffin, Qilao Gu, Tetsuo Hasegawa, Jennifer Hatchell, Saeko S. Hayashi, Wayne Holland, Tsuyoshi Inoue, Shu-ichiro Inutsuka, Kazunari Iwasaki, Il-Gyo Jeong, Ji-hyun Kang, Miju Kang, Sung-ju Kang, Koji S. Kawabata, Francisca Kemper, Gwanjeong Kim, Jongsoo Kim, Kee-Tae Kim, Kyoung Hee Kim, Mi-Ryang Kim, Shinyoung Kim, Kevin M. Lacaille, Jeong-Eun Lee, Sang-Sung Lee, Dalei Li, Hua-bai Li, Hong-Li Liu, Junhao Liu, Sheng-Yuan Liu, Tie Liu, A-Ran Lyo, Steve Mairs, Masafumi Matsumura, Gerald H. Moriarty-Schieven, Fumitaka Nakamura, Hiroyuki Nakanishi, Nagayoshi Ohashi, Takashi Onaka, Nicolas Peretto, Tae-Soo Pyo, Lei Qian, Brendan Retter, John Richer, Andrew Rigby, Jean-François Robitaille, Giorgio Savini, Anna M. M. Scaife, Archana Soam, Motohide Tamura, Ya-Wen Tang, Kohji Tomisaka, Hongchi Wang, Jia-Wei Wang, Anthony P. Whitworth, Hsi-Wei Yen, Hyunju Yoo, Jinghua Yuan, Chuan-Peng Zhang, Guoyin Zhang, Jianjun Zhou, Lei Zhu, Philippe André, C. Darren Dowell, Sam Falle, Yusuke Tsukamoto

We present the first results from the B-fields In STar-forming Region Observations (BISTRO) survey, using the Sub-millimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2 (SCUBA-2) camera, with its associated polarimeter (POL-2), on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) in Hawaii. We discuss the survey's aims and objectives. We describe the rationale behind the survey, and the questions which the survey will aim to answer. Read More

Radio observations of young stellar objects (YSOs) enable the study of ionised plasma outflows from young protostars via their free-free radiation. Previous studies of the low-mass young system T Tau have used radio observations to model the spectrum and estimate important physical properties of the associated ionised plasma (local electron density, ionised gas content and emission measure). However, without an indication of the low-frequency turnover in the free-free spectrum, these properties remain difficult to constrain. Read More

We present observations of three active sites of star formation in the Taurus Molecular Cloud complex taken at 323 and 608 MHz (90 and 50 cm, respectively) with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). Three pointings were observed as part of a pathfinder project, targeted at the young stellar objects (YSOs) L1551 IRS 5, T Tau and DG Tau (the results for these target sources were presented in a previous paper). In this paper, we search for other YSOs and present a survey comprising of all three fields; a by-product of the large instantaneous field of view of the GMRT. Read More

For a ground-based radio interferometer observing at low frequencies, the ionosphere causes propagation delays and refraction of cosmic radio waves which result in phase errors in the received signal. These phase errors can be corrected using a calibration method that assumes a two-dimensional phase screen at a fixed altitude above the surface of the Earth, known as the thin-layer model. Here we investigate the validity of the thin-layer model and provide a simple equation with which users can check when this approximation can be applied to observations for varying time of day, zenith angle, interferometer latitude, baseline length, ionospheric electron content and observing frequency. Read More

We present the results of a pathfinder project conducted with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) to investigate protostellar systems at low radio frequencies. The goal of these investigations is to locate the break in the free-free spectrum where the optical depth equals unity in order to constrain physical parameters of these systems, such as the mass of the ionised gas surrounding these young stars. We detect all three target sources, L1551 IRS 5 (Class I), T Tau and DG Tau (Class II), at frequencies 323 and 608 MHz (wavelengths 90 and 50 cm, respectively). Read More

The Arcminute Microkelvin Imager Galactic Plane Survey (AMIGPS) provides mJy-sensitivity, arcminute-resolution interferometric images of the northern Galactic plane at $\approx$ 16 GHz. The first data release covered $76^{\circ} \lessapprox \ell \lessapprox 170^{\circ}$ between latitudes of $|b| \lessapprox 5^{\circ}$; here we present a second data release, extending the coverage to $53^{\circ} \lessapprox \ell \lessapprox 193^{\circ}$ and including high-latitude extensions to cover the Taurus and California giant molecular cloud regions, and the recently discovered large supernova remnant G159.6+7. Read More

We know that magnetic fields are pervasive across all scales in the Universe and over all of cosmic time and yet our understanding of many of the properties of magnetic fields is still limited. We do not yet know when, where or how the first magnetic fields in the Universe were formed, nor do we fully understand their role in fundamental processes such as galaxy formation or cosmic ray acceleration or how they influence the evolution of astrophysical objects. The greatest challenge to addressing these issues has been a lack of deep, broad bandwidth polarimetric data over large areas of the sky. Read More

We report the presence of high significance diffuse radio emission from the Triangulum Australis cluster using observations made with the KAT-7 telescope and propose that this emission is a giant radio halo. We compare the radio power from this proposed halo with X-ray and SZ measurements and demonstrate that it is consistent with the established scaling relations for cluster haloes. By combining the X-ray and SZ data we calculate the ratio of non-thermal to thermal electron pressure within Triangulum Australis to be $X=0. Read More

Deep surveys with the SKA1-MID array offer for the first time the opportunity to systematically explore the polarization properties of the microJy source population. Our knowledge of the polarized sky approaching these levels is still very limited. In total intensity the population will be dominated by star-forming and normal galaxies to intermediate redshifts ($z \sim1-2$), and low-luminosity AGN to high redshift. Read More

Magnetic fields play an important role in shaping the structure and evolution of the interstellar medium (ISM) of galaxies, but the details of this relationship remain unclear. With SKA1, the 3D structure of galactic magnetic fields and its connection to star formation will be revealed. A highly sensitive probe of the internal structure of the magnetoionized ISM is the partial depolarization of synchrotron radiation from inside the volume. Read More

Magnetic fields in the Milky Way are present on a wide variety of sizes and strengths, influencing many processes in the Galactic ecosystem such as star formation, gas dynamics, jets, and evolution of supernova remnants or pulsar wind nebulae. Observation methods are complex and indirect; the most used of these are a grid of rotation measures of unresolved polarized extragalactic sources, and broadband polarimetry of diffuse emission. Current studies of magnetic fields in the Milky Way reveal a global spiral magnetic field with a significant turbulent component; the limited sample of magnetic field measurements in discrete objects such as supernova remnants and HII regions shows a wide variety in field configurations; a few detections of magnetic fields in Young Stellar Object jets have been published; and the magnetic field structure in the Galactic Center is still under debate. Read More

Studying galaxy clusters through their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) imprint on the Cosmic Microwave Background has many important advantages. The total SZ signal is an accurate and precise tracer of the total pressure in the intra-cluster medium and of cluster mass, the key observable for using clusters as cosmological probes. Band 5 observations with SKA-MID towards cluster surveys from the next generation of X-ray telescopes such as e-ROSITA and from Euclid will provide the robust mass estimates required to exploit these samples. Read More

In this chapter, we will outline the scientific motivation for studying Anomalous Microwave Emission (AME) with the SKA. AME is thought to be due to electric dipole radiation from small spinning dust grains, although thermal fluctuations of magnetic dust grains may also contribute. Studies of this mysterious component would shed light on the emission mechanism, which then opens up a new window onto the interstellar medium (ISM). Read More

Synchrotron emission has recently been detected in the jet of a massive protostar, providing further evidence that certain jet formation characteristics for young stars are similar to those found for highly relativistic jets from AGN. We present data at 325 and 610 MHz taken with the GMRT of the young, low-mass star DG Tau, an analog of the Sun soon after its birth. This is the first investigation of a low-mass YSO at at such low frequencies. Read More


We outline the science case for extended radio emission and polarization in galaxy clusters which would be a scientifically important area of research for an upcoming Jansky Very Large Array Sky Survey. The survey would provide a major contribution in three key areas of the physics of clusters: 1) the active galactic nucleus population and the impact of feedback on the evolution of the intra-cluster medium, 2) the origin and evolution of diffuse cluster radio sources to probe the physics of mergers with implications for cosmology, and 3) the origin and role of magnetic fields in the ICM and in large scale structures. Considering all three areas, a survey must have sufficient spatial resolution to study the tailed galaxies which trace the cluster weather as well as the radio lobes driving energy into the cluster from the central AGN. Read More

Affiliations: 1Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 2Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 3University of Southampton, 4University of St. Andrews, 5Jodrell Bank Observatory

We present very high spatial resolution deep radio continuum observations at 5 GHz (6 cm) made with e-MERLIN of the young stars DG Tau A and B. Assuming it is launched very close (~=1 au) from the star, our results suggest that the DG Tau A outflow initially starts as a poorly focused wind and undergoes significant collimation further along the jet (~=50 au). We derive jet parameters for DG Tau A and find an initial jet opening angle of 86 degrees within 2 au of the source, a mass-loss rate of 1. Read More

We present the first detection of GG Tau A at centimeter-wavelengths, made with the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager Large Array (AMI-LA) at a frequency of 16 GHz ({\lambda} = 1.8 cm). The source is detected at > 6 {\sigma}_{rms} with an integrated flux density of S = 249+/-45 {\mu}Jy. Read More

We consider continuum free-free radio emission from the upper atmosphere of protoplanetary discs as a probe of the ionized luminosity impinging upon the disc. Making use of previously computed hydrodynamic models of disc photoevaporation within the framework of EUV and X-ray irradiation, we use radiative transfer post-processing techniques to predict the expected free-free emission from protoplanetary discs. In general, the free-free luminosity scales roughly linearly with ionizing luminosity in both EUV and X-ray driven scenarios, where the emission dominates over the dust tail of the disc and is partial optically thin at cm wavelengths. Read More

We have obtained deep SZ observations towards 15 of the apparently hottest XMM Cluster Survey (XCS) clusters that can be observed with the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager (AMI). We use a Bayesian analysis to quantify the significance of our SZ detections. We detect the SZ effect at high significance towards three of the clusters and at lower significance for a further two clusters. Read More

The origin of magnetic fields in the Universe is an open problem in astrophysics and fundamental physics. Polarization observations with the forthcoming large radio telescopes will open a new era in the observation of magnetic fields and should help to understand their origin. At low frequencies, LOFAR (10-240 MHz) will allow us to map the structure of weak magnetic fields in the outer regions and halos of galaxies, in galaxy clusters and in the Milky Way via their synchrotron emission. Read More

A subset of ultraluminous X-ray sources (those with luminosities < 10^40 erg/s) are thought to be powered by the accretion of gas onto black holes with masses of ~5-20 M_solar, probably via an accretion disc. The X-ray and radio emission are coupled in such Galactic sources, with the radio emission originating in a relativistic jet thought to be launched from the innermost regions near the black hole, with the most powerful emission occurring when the rate of infalling matter approaches a theoretical maximum (the Eddington limit). Only four such maximal sources are known in the Milky Way, and the absorption of soft X-rays in the interstellar medium precludes determining the causal sequence of events that leads to the ejection of the jet. Read More

In the lead-up to the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) project, several next-generation radio telescopes and upgrades are already being built around the world. These include APERTIF (The Netherlands), ASKAP (Australia), eMERLIN (UK), VLA (USA), e-EVN (based in Europe), LOFAR (The Netherlands), Meerkat (South Africa), and the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). Each of these new instruments has different strengths, and coordination of surveys between them can help maximise the science from each of them. Read More

Compact radio emission provides a reliable method for the detection of low luminosity young stellar objects (YSOs), and is particularly useful for detecting the earliest stages of protostellar evolution where the source itself may still be heavily embedded in its natal dust envelope. For such Class 0 and Class I objects the dominant radio emission mechanism is expected to be free-free, however unlike massive YSOs the way in which this radio emission is produced remains a subject of debate. As larger samples of radio YSOs become available the relationship between the radio luminosity of the Class 0/I population and their wider global properties is now being clarified. Read More

The AMI Galactic Plane Survey (AMIGPS) is a large area survey of the outer Galactic plane to provide arcminute resolution images at milli-Jansky sensitivity in the centimetre-wave band. Here we present the first data release of the survey, consisting of 868 deg^2 of the Galactic plane, covering the area 76 deg \lessapprox l \lessapprox 170 deg between latitudes of |b| \lessapprox 5 deg, at a central frequency of 15.75 GHz (1. Read More

The Planck 28.5 GHz maps were searched for potential Anomalous Microwave Emission (AME) regions on the scale of $\sim3^{\circ}$ or smaller, and several new regions of interest were selected. Ancillary data at both lower and higher frequencies were used to construct spectral energy distributions (SEDs), which seem to confirm an excess consistent with spinning dust models. Read More

The Arcminute Microkelvin Imager (AMI) is a telescope specifically designed for high sensitivity measurements of low-surface-brightness features at cm-wavelength and has unique, important capabilities. It consists of two interferometer arrays operating over 13.5-18 GHz that image structures on scales of 0. Read More

We present 16 GHz (1.9 cm) deep radio continuum observations made with the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager (AMI) of a sample of low-mass young stars driving jets. We combine these new data with archival information from an extensive literature search to examine spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for each source and calculate both the radio and sub-mm spectral indices in two different scenarios: (1) fixing the dust temperature (Td) according to evolutionary class; (2) allowing Td to vary. Read More

Measuring radio waves at low frequencies offers a new window to study cosmic magnetism, and LOFAR is the ideal radio telescope to open this window widely. The LOFAR Magnetism Key Science Project (MKSP) draws together expertise from multiple fields of magnetism science and intends to use LOFAR to tackle fundamental questions on cosmic magnetism by exploiting a variety of observational techniques. Surveys will provide diffuse emission from the Milky Way and from nearby galaxies, tracking the propagation of long-lived cosmic-ray electrons through magnetic field structures, to search for radio halos around spiral and dwarf galaxies and for magnetic fields in intergalactic space. Read More

We present parameterized broadband spectral models valid at frequencies between 30-300 MHz for six bright radio sources selected from the 3C survey, spread in Right Ascension from 0-24 hours. For each source, data from the literature are compiled and tied to a common flux density scale. These data are then used to parameterize an analytic polynomial spectral calibration model. Read More

The Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue includes 26 sources with no obvious matches in other radio catalogues (of primarily extragalactic sources). Here we present observations made with the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager Small Array (AMI SA) at 15.75 GHz of the eight of the unmatched sources at declination > +10 degrees. Read More

We present deep radio continuum observations of the cores identified as deeply embedded young stellar objects in the Serpens molecular cloud by the Spitzer c2d programme at a wavelength of 1.8cm with the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager Large Array (AMI-LA). These observations have a resolution of ~30arcsec and an average sensitivity of 19microJy/beam. Read More

The Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) is under construction in the Netherlands and in several surrounding European countries. In this contribution, we describe the layout and design of the telescope, with a particular emphasis on the imaging characteristics of the array when used in its "standard imaging" mode. After briefly reviewing the calibration and imaging software used for LOFAR image processing, we show some recent results from the ongoing imaging commissioning efforts. Read More

We present follow-up observations of two galaxy clusters detected blindly via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect and released in the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue. We use the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager, a dual-array 14-18 GHz radio interferometer. After radio source subtraction, we find a SZ decrement of integrated flux density -1. Read More

Affiliations: 1AMI Consortium, 2AMI Consortium, 3AMI Consortium, 4AMI Consortium, 5AMI Consortium, 6AMI Consortium, 7AMI Consortium, 8AMI Consortium, 9AMI Consortium, 10AMI Consortium, 11AMI Consortium, 12AMI Consortium, 13AMI Consortium, 14AMI Consortium, 15AMI Consortium, 16AMI Consortium, 17AMI Consortium, 18AMI Consortium, 19AMI Consortium, 20AMI Consortium, 21AMI Consortium, 22AMI Consortium

We present an analysis of observations made with the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager (AMI) and the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) of six galaxy clusters in a redshift range of 0.16--0.41. Read More

We present deep radio continuum observations of the cores identified as deeply embedded young stellar objects in the Perseus molecular cloud by the Spitzer c2d programme at a wavelength of 1.8 cm with the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager Large Array (AMI-LA). We detect 72% of Class 0 objects from this sample and 31% of Class I objects. Read More

We present 16-GHz observations using the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager (AMI) of 11 clusters with 7 x 10^{37}W < L_X < 11 x 10^{37}W (h_{50}=1.0) selected from the Local Cluster Substructure Survey (LoCuSS) and compare them to X-ray data. We use a fast, Bayesian cluster analysis to explore the high-dimensional parameter space of the cluster-plus-sources model and obtain robust cluster parameter estimates in the presence of radio point sources, receiver noise and primordial CMB anisotropy. Read More

We present observations from the Small Array of the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager (AMI) of eight high X-ray luminosity galaxy cluster systems selected from the Local Cluster Substructure Survey (LoCuSS) sample.We detect the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in seven of these clusters. With the assumptions that galaxy clusters are isothermal, have a density profile described by a spherical b -model and obey the theoretical M-T relation, we are able to derive cluster parameters at r200 from our SZ data. Read More

Most Sunyaev--Zel'dovich (SZ) and X-ray analyses of galaxy clusters try to constrain the cluster total mass and/or gas mass using parameterised models and assumptions of spherical symmetry and hydrostatic equilibrium. By numerically exploring the probability distributions of the cluster parameters given the simulated interferometric SZ data in the context of Bayesian methods, and assuming a beta-model for the electron number density we investigate the capability of this model and analysis to return the simulated cluster input quantities via three rameterisations. In parameterisation I we assume that the T is an input parameter. Read More

We perform deep 1.8 cm radio continuum imaging towards thirteen protostellar regions selected from the Spitzer c2d small clouds and cores programme at high resolution (25") in order to detect and quantify the cm-wave emission from deeply embedded young protostars. Within these regions we detect fifteen compact radio sources which we identify as radio protostars including two probable new detections. Read More

We report new cm-wave measurements at five frequencies between 15 and 18GHz of the continuum emission from the reportedly anomalous "region 4" of the nearby galaxy NGC6946. We find that the emission in this frequency range is significantly in excess of that measured at 8.5GHz, but has a spectrum from 15-18GHz consistent with optically thin free-free emission from a compact HII region. Read More

We present the first full interferometric simulations of galaxy clusters containing radio plasma bubbles as observed by the proposed band 1 receiver system for the ALMA telescope. We discuss the observational requirements for detecting intracluster substructure directly from the SZ signal, including integration time estimates, and the advantages of these observations over those made with the current generation of SZ survey instruments. Read More

We present 25 arcsecond resolution radio images of five Lynds Dark Nebulae (L675, L944, L1103, L1111 & L1246) at 16 GHz made with the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager (AMI) Large Array. These objects were previously observed with the AMI Small Array to have an excess of emission at microwave frequencies relative to lower frequency radio data. In L675 we find a flat spectrum compact radio counterpart to the 850 micron emission seen with SCUBA and suggest that it is cm-wave emission from a previously unknown deeply embedded young protostar. Read More

Affiliations: 1Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, 2Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, 3Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, 4Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, 5Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, 6Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, 7Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, 8Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, 9Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, 10Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, 11Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, 12Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, 13Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, 14Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, 15Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, 16Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge

The dust feature G159.6--18.5 in the Perseus region has previously been observed with the COSMOSOMAS experiment \citep{Watson:05} on angular scales of $\approx$ 1$^{\circ}$, and was found to exhibit anomalous microwave emission. Read More

Affiliations: 1The AMI Consortium, 2The AMI Consortium, 3The AMI Consortium, 4The AMI Consortium, 5The AMI Consortium, 6The AMI Consortium, 7The AMI Consortium, 8The AMI Consortium, 9The AMI Consortium, 10The AMI Consortium, 11The AMI Consortium, 12The AMI Consortium, 13The AMI Consortium, 14The AMI Consortium, 15The AMI Consortium, 16The AMI Consortium

Observations at 14.2 to 17.9 GHz made with the AMI Small Array towards fourteen Lynds Dark Nebulae with a resolution of 2' are reported. Read More