Andrzej A. Zdziarski - Centrum Astronomiczne im. M. Kopernika, Warszawa, Poland

Andrzej A. Zdziarski
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Andrzej A. Zdziarski
Centrum Astronomiczne im. M. Kopernika, Warszawa, Poland

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High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (35)
Astrophysics (15)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (2)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (2)
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (2)
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (1)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (1)

Publications Authored By Andrzej A. Zdziarski

V1387 Aql (the donor in the microquasar GRS 1915+105) is a low-mass giant. Such a star consists of a degenerate helium core and a hydrogen-rich envelope. Both components are separated by an hydrogen burning shell. Read More

We use published data on the power and production efficiency of jets in blazars with double radio lobes in order to compare results obtained using different methods. In order to eliminate selection effects, we use cross-matched sub-samples containing only luminous blazars. We compare the three main existing methods, namely those based on the emission of radio lobes, on spectral fitting, and on radio core shift. Read More

We have obtained a firm detection of Cyg X-1 during its hard and intermediate spectral states in the energy range of 40~MeV--60 GeV based on observations by the Fermi Large Area Telescope, confirming the independent results at $\geq$60MeV of Zanin et al. The detection significance is $\simeq\!8\sigma$ in the 0.1--10~GeV range. Read More

The active galactic nucleus (AGN) NGC 7213 shows a complex correlation between the monochromatic radio luminosity $L_R$ and the 2--10 keV X-ray luminosity $L_X$, i.e. the correlation is unusually weak with $p\sim 0$ (in the form $L_R\propto L_X^p$) when $L_X$ is below a critical luminosity, and steep with $p>1$ when $L_X$ is above that luminosity. Read More

We study the angular dependence of the flux from partially synchrotron self-absorbed conical jets (proposed by Blandford \& K{\"o}nigl). We consider the jet viewed from either a side or close to on axis, and in the latter case, either from the jet top or bottom. We derive analytical formulae for the flux in each of these cases, and find the exact solution for an arbitrary angle numerically. Read More

We constrain the binary parameters of the eclipsing accreting X-ray binary IGR J17451--3022 and the nature of its donor star. The donor mass, its radius, and the system inclination angle are computed based on the system orbital period and eclipse duration recently reported by Bozzo et al.\ (2016). Read More

We study the lamppost model, in which the X-ray source in accreting black-hole systems is located on the rotation axis close to the horizon. We point out a number of inconsistencies in the widely used lamppost model relxilllp, e.g. Read More

We discuss the idea of maximal jets introduced by Falcke & Biermann in 1995. According to it, the maximum possible jet power in its internal energy equals the kinetic power in its rest mass. We show this result is incorrect because of an unfortunate algebraic mistake. Read More

We analyse all available observations of GX 339--4 by XMM-Newton in the hard spectral state. We jointly fit the spectral data by Comptonization and the currently best reflection code, relxill. We consider in detail a contribution from a standard blackbody accretion disc, testing whether its inner radius can be set equal to that of the reflector. Read More

We study conditions for formation of recollimation shocks in jets interacting with stellar winds in high-mass X-ray binaries. We show the existence of a critical jet power, dependent on the wind rate and velocity and the jet velocity, above which a recollimation shock is not formed. For jet powers below critical, we derive the location of the shock. Read More

We study the radio/X-ray correlation in Cyg X-3. It has been known that the soft and hard X-ray fluxes in the hard spectral state are correlated positively and negatively, respectively, with the radio flux. We show that this implies that the observed $\sim$1--100 keV flux (which is a fair approximation to the bolometric flux) is completely uncorrelated with the radio flux. Read More

We present the results of a study of the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636-536. We have performed temporal analysis of all available RXTE/ASM, Swift/BAT and MAXI data. We have confirmed the previously discovered quasi-periodicity of ~45 d present during ~2004, however we found it continued to 2006. Read More

We study hadronic models of broad-band emission of jets in radio-loud active galactic nuclei, and their implications for the accretion in those sources. We show that the models that account for broad-band spectra of blazars emitting in the GeV range in the sample of Boettcher et al. have highly super-Eddington jet powers. Read More

We investigate the observed correlation between the 2--10 keV X-ray luminosity (in unit of the Eddington luminosity; $l_X \equiv L_X/L_{Edd}$) and the photon index ($\Gamma$) of the X-ray spectrum for both black hole X-ray binaries (BHBs) and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We construct a large sample, with $10^{-9} < l_X < 10^{-1}$. We find that $\Gamma$ is positively and negatively correlated with $l_X$ when $l_X > 10^{-3}$ and $10^{-6. Read More

We study the effect of radio-jet core shift, which is a dependence of the position of the jet radio core on the observational frequency. We derive a new method of measuring the jet magnetic field based on both the value of the shift and the observed radio flux, which complements the standard method that assumes equipartition. Using both methods, we re-analyse the blazar sample of Zamaninasab et al. Read More

We apply a recently developed technique of calculating the minimum jet kinetic power to the major mass ejections of the black-hole binary GRS 1915+105 observed in radio wavelengths in 1994 and 1997. We derive for them the distance-dependent minimum power, and the corresponding mass flow rate and the total energy and mass content. We find that a fast increase of the jet power with the increasing distance combined with the jet power estimates based on the bolometric luminosity imply the source distance is <10 kpc. Read More

High-energy phenomena in the cosmos, and in particular processes leading to the emission of gamma- rays in the energy range 10 MeV - 100 GeV, play a very special role in the understanding of our Universe. This energy range is indeed associated with non-thermal phenomena and challenging particle acceleration processes. The technology involved in detecting gamma-rays is challenging and drives our ability to develop improved instruments for a large variety of applications. Read More

We derive the minimum power of jets and their magnetic field strength based on their observed non-thermal synchrotron emission. The correct form of this method takes into account both the internal energy in the jet and the ion rest-mass energy associated with the bulk motion. The latter was neglected in a number of papers, which instead adopted the well-known energy-content minimization method. Read More

We apply the jet model developed in the preceding paper of Zdziarski et al. to the hard-state emission spectra of Cyg X-1. We augment the model for the analytical treatment of the particle evolution beyond the energy dissipation region, and allow for various forms of the acceleration rate. Read More

We present simple and accurate analytical formulae for the rates of Compton scattering by relativistic electrons integrated over the energy distribution of blackbody seed photons. Both anisotropic scattering, in which blackbody photons arriving from one direction are scattered by an anisotropic electron distribution into another direction, and scattering of isotropic seed photons are considered. Compton scattering by relativistic electrons off blackbody photons from either stars or CMB takes place, in particular, in microquasars, colliding-wind binaries, supernova remnants, interstellar medium, and the vicinity of the Sun. Read More

This is part one of our study of models of jets with distributed electron acceleration. We present here our assumptions, basic equations, and their solutions for the steady-state electron distribution. We assume the shape of the rate of electron acceleration and the dependencies of its normalization and the magnetic field strength on the height along the jet. Read More

We have obtained measurements and upper limits on the emission of Cyg X-1 in the photon energy range of 0.03--300 GeV based on observations by Fermi. We present the results separately for the hard and soft spectral states, as well for all of the analysed data. Read More

There are no known double black hole (BH-BH) or black hole-neutron star (BH-NS) systems. We argue that Cyg X-3 is a very likely BH-BH or BH-NS progenitor. This Galactic X-ray binary consists of a compact object, wind-fed by a Wolf-Rayet (WR) type companion. Read More

Cyg X-3 is a highly interesting accreting X-ray binary, emitting from the radio to high-energy gamma-rays. It consists of a compact object wind-fed by a Wolf-Rayet (WR) star, but the masses of the components and the mass-loss rate have been a subject of controversies. Here, we determine its masses, inclination, and the mass-loss rate using our derived relationship between the mass-loss rate and the mass for WR stars of the WN type, published infrared and X-ray data, and a relation between the mass-loss rate and the binary period derivative (observed to be >0 in Cyg X-3). Read More

The Arcminute Microkelvin Imager (AMI) is a telescope specifically designed for high sensitivity measurements of low-surface-brightness features at cm-wavelength and has unique, important capabilities. It consists of two interferometer arrays operating over 13.5-18 GHz that image structures on scales of 0. Read More

We study orbital modulation of X-rays from Cyg X-3, using data from Swift, INTEGRAL and RXTE. Using the wealth of the presently available data and an improved averaging method, we obtain energy-dependent folded and averaged light curves with unprecedented accuracy. We find that above ~5 keV, the modulation depth decreases with the increasing energy, which is consistent with the modulation being caused by both bound-free absorption and Compton scattering in the stellar wind of the donor, with minima corresponding to the highest optical depth, which occurs around the superior conjunction. Read More

We study the average X-ray and soft gamma-ray spectrum of Cyg X-1 in the hard spectral state, using data from INTEGRAL. We compare these results with those from CGRO, and find a good agreement. Confirming previous studies, we find the presence of a high-energy MeV tail beyond a thermal-Comptonization spectrum; however, the tail is much softer and weaker than that recently published by Laurent et al. Read More

We study models of the gamma-ray emission of Cyg X-3 observed by Fermi. We calculate the average X-ray spectrum during the gamma-ray active periods. Then, we calculate spectra from Compton scattering of a photon beam into a given direction by isotropic relativistic electrons with a power-law distribution, both based on the Klein-Nishina cross section and in the Thomson limit. Read More

We study free-free absorption of radio emission by winds of massive stars. We derive formulae for the optical depth through the wind measured from a point of emission along a jet, taking into account Compton and photoionization heating and Compton, recombination, line and advection cooling. We apply the developed formalism to radio monitoring data for Cyg X-1, which allows us to obtain strong constraints on the structure of its inner jet. Read More

The microquasar Cygnus X-3 was detected at high energies by the gamma-ray space telescopes AGILE and Fermi. The gamma-ray emission is transient, modulated with the orbital period and seems related to major radio flares, i.e. Read More

We have studied the X-ray variability patterns and correlations of the radio and X-ray fluxes in all spectral states of Cyg X-1 using X-ray data from RXTE/ASM, CGRO/BATSE, and Swift/BAT. In the hard state, the dominant spectral variability is a changing of normalisation with fixed spectral shape, while in the intermediate state the slope changes, with a pivot point around 10 keV. In the soft state, the low energy X-ray emission dominates the bolometric flux which is only loosely correlated with the high energy emission. Read More

We study a large sample of RXTE PCA/HEXTE observations of Cyg X-1. We characterize the spectra by soft and hard X-ray colours (which define the spectral states), and fit them with a physical model of hybrid, thermal/non-thermal Comptonization. We then fit the power spectra by a sum of Lorentzians. Read More

We study properties of the superorbital modulation of the X-ray emission of Cyg X-1. We find that it has had a stable period of about 300 d in soft and hard X-rays and in radio since 2005 until at least 2010, which is about double the previously seen period. This new period, seen in the hard spectral state only, is detected not only in the light curves but also in soft X-ray hardness ratios and in the amplitude of the orbital modulation. Read More

Hot accretion flows such as advection-dominated accretion flows are generally optically thin in the radial direction. Thus photons generated at some radii can cool or heat electrons at other radii via Compton scattering. Such global Compton scattering has previously been shown to be important for the dynamics of accretion flows. Read More

We review X-ray flux modulation from X-ray binaries on time scales corresponding to the orbital period and those at longer time scales (so called superorbital). Those modulations provide a powerful tool to constrain geometry of the accretion flow. The most common cause of the superorbital variability appears to be precession. Read More

We discover a pronounced dependence of the strength of the X-ray orbital modulation and the hardness in Cyg X-1 in the hard state on its superorbital phase. Our results can be well modelled as a combination of two effects: the precession of the accretion disc (which causes the superorbital flux modulation) and the orbital-phase dependent X-ray absorption in an accretion bulge, located at the accretion disc edge close to the supergiant companion but displaced from the line connecting the stars by about 25^o. Our findings are supported by the distribution of the X-ray dips showing concentration towards zero superorbital phase, which corresponds to the bulge passing through the line of sight. Read More

We present data from INTEGRAL and BeppoSAX satellites showing spectral state transitions of the neutron-star, atoll-type, low-mass X-ray binary 1705-44. Its energy spectrum can be described as the sum of one or two blackbody components, a 6.4-keV Fe line, and a component due to thermal Comptonization. Read More

Affiliations: 1IASF/INAF-Roma, Italy, 2IASF/INAF-Roma, Italy, 3IASF/INAF-Roma, Italy, 4Centrum Astronomiczne im. M. Kopernika, Warszawa, Poland
Category: Astrophysics

We study the 4-200 keV spectral and temporal behaviour of the low mass X-ray binary 4U 1820-30 with INTEGRAL during 2003-2005. This source as been observed in both the soft (banana) and hard (island) spectral states. A high energy tail, above 50 keV, in the hard state has been observed for the first time. Read More

We study hard states of the black-hole binary XTE J1550--564 during its 2000 outburst. In order to explain those states at their highest luminosities, $L\sim 10%$ of the Eddington luminosity, $L_{\rm E}$, we propose a specific hot accretion flow model. We point out that the highest values of the hard-state $L$ are substantially above the $L$ an advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) can produce, $\sim 0. Read More

We present a comprehensive analysis of long-term periodic variability of Cyg X-1 using the method of multiharmonic analysis of variance (mhAoV) applied to available monitoring data since 1969, in X-rays from Vela 5B, Ariel 5, Ginga, CGRO and RXTE satellites and in radio from the Ryle and Green Bank telescopes. We confirm a number of previously obtained results, and, for the first time, find an orbital modulation at 15 GHz in the soft state and show the detailed non-sinusoidal shape of that modulation in the hard state of both the 15-GHz emission and the X-rays from the RXTE/ASM. We find the CGRO/BATSE data are consistent with the presence of a weak orbital modulation, in agreement with its theoretical modelling as due to Compton scattering in the companion wind. Read More

We study spectra generated by Comptonization of soft photons by cold electrons radially free-falling onto a black hole. We use a Monte Carlo method involving a fully relativistic description of Comptonization in the Kerr space-time. In agreement with previous studies, we find that Comptonization on the bulk motion of free fall gives rise to power-law spectra with the photon index of Gamma >~ 3. Read More

We study fractional variability as a function of energy from black-hole X-ray binaries on timescales from milliseconds to hundreds of seconds. We build a theoretical model of energy-dependent variability in which the X-ray energy spectrum varies in response to a changing physical parameter. We compare these models to rms spectra obtained from RXTE PCA observations of black-hole binaries XTE J1550-564 and XTE J1650-500. Read More

We develop a formalism to calculate energy-dependent fractional variability (rms) in accretion flows. We consider rms spectra resulting from radial dependencies of the level of local variability (as expected from propagation of disturbances in accretion flows) assuming the constant shape of the spectrum emitted at a given radius. We consider the cases when the variability of the flow is either coherent or incoherent between different radial zones. Read More

We present an exhaustive analysis of five broad-band observations of GRS 1915+105 in two variability states, chi and omega, observed simultaneously by the PCA, HEXTE and OSSE. We find all the spectra well fitted by Comptonization of disc blackbody photons, with very strong evidence for the presence of a nonthermal electron component in the Comptonizing plasma. Both the energy and the power spectra in the chi state are typical to the very high/intermediate state of black-hole binaries. Read More

Affiliations: 1Astronomy Division, University of Oulu, Finland, 2Astronomy Division, University of Oulu, Finland, 3Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Garching, Germany, 4Centrum Astronomiczne im. M. Kopernika, Warszawa, Poland, 5Laboratory for High-Energy Astrophysics, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, USA
Category: Astrophysics

We present the results of spectral analysis of 42 simultaneous broad-band Ginga--OSSE and RXTE--OSSE observations of Cyg X-1 carried out in 1991 and 1996--1999. The hardest spectra in our sample in the energy range from 3 to \~1000 keV can be well described by thermal Comptonization model with reflection from the cold disc, while the rest of the spectra are more complex and require an additional component below 10 keV. We consider a number of physically realistic models to describe the shape of the E<10 keV excess. Read More

Affiliations: 1N. Copernicus Center, Warsaw, Poland, 2University of Durham, UK
Category: Astrophysics

We review radiative processes responsible for X-ray emission in hard (low) and soft (high) spectral states of black-hole binaries. The main process in the hard state appears to be scattering of blackbody photons from a cold disk by thermal electrons in a hot inner flow, and any contribution from nonthermal synchrotron emission is at most small. In the soft states, blackbody disk emission dominates energetically, and its high-energy tail is due to scattering by hybrid, thermal/nonthermal electrons, probably in active regions above the disk surface. Read More

We study X-ray and variability and distance of GX 339-4. We derive d>7 kpc, based on recent determination of the binary parameters. We study data from the Ginga/ASM, the CGRO/BATSE, and the RXTE/ASM, PCA and HEXTE. Read More

We investigate accretion disc models for the X-ray emission of Seyfert-1 galaxies and the hard state of black-hole X-ray binaries. We concentrate on two hot accretion disc models: advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) and recently found luminous hot accretion flow (LHAF). We solve for the global solution of both ADAF and LHAF to obtain the electron temperature, $T_{\rm e}$, and Thompson optical depth, $\tau$, at the radius where most of the radiation comes from. Read More

We have found a large number of very strong flares in the available XTE PCA data of Cyg X-1 (also seen in available HEXTE and BATSE data) with 13 flares satisfying our chosen threshold criterion, occuring both in the hard and the soft states. We analyze here in detail two of them. The strongest one took place in the soft state, with the 3-30 keV energy flux increasing 30 times with respect to the preceding 16-s average. Read More